Strutture linguistiche u1


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Strutture linguistiche u1

  1. 1. DIPLOMA IN ITALIAN Strutture linguistiche Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  2. 2. Strutture linguisticheStructures encountered in Unità 1:• Subject Pronouns• Indefinite article• Present tense of essere• Present tense of –are verbs• Chiamarsi• Negative sentence• Adjectives Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  3. 3. PRONOMI PERSONALISOGGETTOSubject pronouns Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  4. 4. Subject Pronouns Singolare Plurale In Italian the verb 1 io noi ending always identifies the subject. For that reason, 2 tu voi subject pronouns are usually not expressed. 3 lui/lei/Lei loro Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  5. 5. Written Style Singolare Plurale In formal writing egli is used instead of lui and 3 egli (person) essi essi/esse instead of (maschile) loro. esse (femminile) In everyday conversation, however, these forms are rarely used. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  6. 6. Subject pronouns areexpressed when:o the subject is not clear: Sono a Roma → Io sono a Roma. Loro sono a Roma.o we wish to put more emphasis on the subject: Io sono italiano, ma lui è spagnolo. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  7. 7. Formal To address somebody formally, we use Lei and the third person singular of the verb: Lei è irlandese? Scusi, Lei è il dottor Rossi?o Lei should always be written with capital L, even inside a sentence. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  8. 8. ARTICOLOINDETERMINATIVOIndefinite article Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  9. 9. Forms and use The Italian indefinite article corresponds to the English a/an. It is used only with singular nouns. It has four forms: Masculine: un / uno Feminine: una / un’ Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  10. 10. Which form? MASCULINE before nouns starting with un ragazzo, un alberoUN consonant, vowel uno stereo, uno zaino,UNO s + consonant, z, ps, gn. uno psicologo, uno gnomo FEMININE before nouns starting withUNA consonant una ragazzaUN’ vowel un’isola Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  11. 11. ESSERETo be Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  12. 12. ESSERE io sono Essere is an irregular verb. tu sei This is the present lui/lei/Lei è tense. noi siamo voi siete loro sono Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  13. 13. Some expressions with essere: Essere di + name of a city - to be from (sono di Roma) Di dove sei? -where are you from? (informal) Di dove è Lei? - where are you from (formal)? Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  14. 14. VERBI (1)Verbs ending in -are Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  15. 15. Italian verb endings The infinitive of all Italian regular verbs ends in – are, -ere or –ire. When you look up a verb in the dictionary you will find the infinitive (corresponding to to work, to study, etc.). The present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending (-are, -ere or –ire) and adding the appropriate endings to the remaining stem. The ending is different for each person. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  16. 16. Verbs in –are: ABITARE (to live) abitare is a regular io abit-o verb. tu abit-i To form the present tense of abitare and lui/lei/Lei abit-a all regular verbs in –are, just drop ARE noi abit-iamo and add the endings shown in the table: voi abit-ate loro abit-ano Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  17. 17. CHIAMARSI chiamarsi is a regular mi chiam-o reflexive verb. The reflexive pronoun ti chiam-i must always precede the verb. si chiam-a To form the present tense of chiamarsi (and all ci chiam-iamo regular reflexive verbs in –arsi), just drop ARSI and vi chiam-ate add the endings shown in the table: si chiam-ano Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  18. 18. LA FRASE NEGATIVANegative sentence Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  19. 19. Non Italian negative sentences are formed by simply adding non before the verb: Non siamo italiani. Non abito a Milano. In negative answers we use No: - Sei spagnolo? - No. / No, non sono spagnolo Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  20. 20. AGGETTIVIAdjectives Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  21. 21. Endings Adjectives can end in –o (i.e., if you look up the adjective SLOW in the dictionary, you will find the Italian LENTO . This adjective ends in –o) or in –e (i.e., if you look up the adjective FAST in the dictionary, you will find the Italian VELOCE. This adjective ends in –e). Italian adjectives agree in gender (masculine/feminine) and number (singular/plural) with the noun they refer to. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  22. 22. Adjectives in -oAdjectives ending in –o have four possible forms: Masculine singular: -o Masculine plural: -i Feminine singular: -a Feminine plural: -e Esempio: NUOVO (new) M: libro nuovo – libri nuovi cellulare nuovo – cellulari nuovi F: casa nuova – case nuove canzone nuova – canzoni nuove Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  23. 23. Adjectives in -eAdjectives ending in –e have only two forms: Singular (masculine/feminine): -e Plural (masculine/feminine): -i Esempio: INTERESSANTE M: libro interessante – ibri interessanti F: rivista interessante – riviste interessanti Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  24. 24. Position Unlike English, in Italian adjectives usually come after the noun they refer to. Colours and nationalities ALWAYS come after the noun they refer to. Esempio: vino rosso, mela verde, ragazzo irlandese, donna italiana. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  25. 25. Nationalities (1)The following nationalities end in –o and therefore have four possible forms: americano arabo australiano austriaco europeo italiano polacco spagnolo tedesco (masc. plur: tedeschi – fem plur: tedesche) ecc . Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  26. 26. Nationalities (2)The following nationalities end in –e and therefore have only two possible forms (-e for the singular and –i for the plural): canadese danese francese inglese, irlandese portoghese svedese ecc. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin