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FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
 
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Relays messages </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information </li><...
 
 
CNS FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Central nervous system is organized in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical orga...
 
<ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Building a CNS from the bottom up to understand hierarchical control f...
<ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>b.  Add Hindbrain and Cerebellum  </li></ul><ul><li>  inactive </li></...
<ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>c.  Add Midbrain     spontaneous locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>sleep an...
<ul><li>  HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>d.  Hypothalamus & Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>  drives </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>e.  Basal Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>slight decrease in hyperactivity <...
  HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION   f.  Limbic System normalization of activity  & emotions   ability to remember
  HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION   g.  Cerebral Cortex   “normal functioning”    individual differences
 
LATERALIZED ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Lateralized organization  (more later) </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere functions </li><...
 
LOCALIZED ORGANIZATION <ul><li>brain “centers” for behavior intricately connected with other brain areas involved in the s...
 
CNS NEUROANATOMICAL OGRANIZATION - SPINAL CORD <ul><li>1. SPINAL CORD </li></ul><ul><li>white matter - </li></ul><ul><li>m...
GRAY MATTER VS. WHITE MATTER <ul><li>Gray matter – absence of myelin in masses of neurons accounts for the gray matter of ...
SPINAL CORD <ul><li>Link between brain and rest of body (PNS) </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs of spinal nerves </li></ul><ul><l...
 
BRAINSTEM <ul><li>BRAINSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.  Medulla  (Myelencephalon) - center for vital functions decussation of ...
BRAINSTEM <ul><li>BRAINSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2.3.  Midbrain  (Mesencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Colliculus </li><...
CEREBELLUM <ul><li>3.   CEREBELLUM  (Metencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>balance and muscle coordination </li></ul><ul><li>sm...
HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>4.   HYPOTHALAMUS   (Diencephalon) -  </li></ul><ul><li>22 sets of nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>homeostas...
THALAMUS <ul><li>THALAMUS   (Diencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>relay station - receives messages from sensory receptors and ...
BASAL GANGLIA <ul><li>BASAL GANGLIA  (Telencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>Striatum (Caudate & Putamen) </li></ul><ul><li>Gl...
LIMBIC SYSTEM <ul><li>LIMBIC SYSTEM   (Telencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul...
CEREBRAL CORTEX <ul><li>CEREBRAL CORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>(Telencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>- 6 layered structure </li></u...
 
 
REFLEX <ul><li>An involuntary  effector response to a sensory  stimulus  is called a reflex. </li></ul><ul><li>It is defin...
REFLEX ARC <ul><li>The path through which a reflex action takes place is called a reflex arc. It is composed of the follow...
REFLEX ARC <ul><li>Efferent path  : It is formed by the motor nerve. It carries the efferent impulse from the centre to th...
SIGNIFICANCE OF A NORMAL REFLEX RESPONSE <ul><li>A normal reflex response indicates that this reflex arc is intact. A defe...
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Central nervous-system-09-10

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  • Transcript of "Central nervous-system-09-10"

    1. 1. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    2. 3. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Relays messages </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzes information </li></ul>
    3. 6. CNS FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Central nervous system is organized in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical organization </li></ul><ul><li>Lateralized organization </li></ul><ul><li>Localized organization </li></ul>
    4. 8. <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Building a CNS from the bottom up to understand hierarchical control from the top down </li></ul><ul><li>a. Spinal cord: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes (monosynaptic reflex arc and pain) </li></ul>
    5. 9. <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>b. Add Hindbrain and Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li> inactive </li></ul><ul><li>decerebrate rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>rudimentary location </li></ul><ul><li>vital functions </li></ul>
    6. 10. <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>c. Add Midbrain spontaneous locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>sleep and wake cycles </li></ul><ul><li>slight decrease in rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>¨seeing¨ and ¨hearing¨ </li></ul>
    7. 11. <ul><li> HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>d. Hypothalamus & Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li> drives </li></ul><ul><li> homeostatic mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li> emotions (unchecked) </li></ul><ul><li> hyperactivity </li></ul>
    8. 12. <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>e. Basal Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>slight decrease in hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li> perseveration appears </li></ul><ul><li>inability to shift set </li></ul>
    9. 13. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION f. Limbic System normalization of activity & emotions ability to remember
    10. 14. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION g. Cerebral Cortex “normal functioning” individual differences
    11. 16. LATERALIZED ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Lateralized organization (more later) </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere functions </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., language, analytical reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere functions </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., spatial skills, processing music </li></ul>
    12. 18. LOCALIZED ORGANIZATION <ul><li>brain “centers” for behavior intricately connected with other brain areas involved in the same or related behavior </li></ul><ul><li>localization of sensation (primary & secondary areas), motor (primary & secondary), general areas of language (reading, talking, verbal reasoning), and spatial reasoning </li></ul>
    13. 20. CNS NEUROANATOMICAL OGRANIZATION - SPINAL CORD <ul><li>1. SPINAL CORD </li></ul><ul><li>white matter - </li></ul><ul><li>myelination of axons and dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>gray matter – </li></ul><ul><li>cell bodies and terminals are not myelinated </li></ul><ul><li>dorsal horn & ventral horn </li></ul>
    14. 21. GRAY MATTER VS. WHITE MATTER <ul><li>Gray matter – absence of myelin in masses of neurons accounts for the gray matter of the brain (cerebral cortex) </li></ul><ul><li>White matter - myelinated neurons gives neurons a white appearance (inner layer of cerebrum) </li></ul>Gray matter White matter
    15. 22. SPINAL CORD <ul><li>Link between brain and rest of body (PNS) </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs of spinal nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes processed directly by spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex – quick, automatic, unconscious responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result of reflex arcs – shortest nerve pathways </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 24. BRAINSTEM <ul><li>BRAINSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2.1. Medulla (Myelencephalon) - center for vital functions decussation of the pyramids crossing over for most nerve fibers </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Pons (Metencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>numerous cranial nerves, reticular formation, raphe nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>relays signals between the cerebrum and the cerebellum </li></ul>
    17. 25. BRAINSTEM <ul><li>BRAINSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. Midbrain (Mesencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Colliculus </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Colliculus </li></ul><ul><li>Central Gray </li></ul><ul><li>(periaqueductal gray) </li></ul><ul><li>Substantia Nigra </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral Tegmentum </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease </li></ul>
    18. 26. CEREBELLUM <ul><li>3. CEREBELLUM (Metencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>balance and muscle coordination </li></ul><ul><li>smooth coordination of practiced movements </li></ul><ul><li>integrates sensory & motor cognitive functions (with frontal lobe) </li></ul>
    19. 27. HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>4. HYPOTHALAMUS (Diencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>22 sets of nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>homeostasis - regulates hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>biological rhythms drives </li></ul><ul><li>control of pituitary for endocrine function </li></ul>Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland
    20. 28. THALAMUS <ul><li>THALAMUS (Diencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>relay station - receives messages from sensory receptors and relays information to proper regions of cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>topographic arrangement with cortex </li></ul>
    21. 29. BASAL GANGLIA <ul><li>BASAL GANGLIA (Telencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>Striatum (Caudate & Putamen) </li></ul><ul><li>Globus Pallidus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Substantia Nigra” </li></ul>
    22. 30. LIMBIC SYSTEM <ul><li>LIMBIC SYSTEM (Telencephalon) - </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus Accumbens </li></ul>
    23. 31. CEREBRAL CORTEX <ul><li>CEREBRAL CORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>(Telencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>- 6 layered structure </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 hemispheres- Right and Left connected by the Corpus Callosum </li></ul><ul><li>Right side controls- left side </li></ul><ul><li>Left side – right side of body </li></ul><ul><li>- Four sections – lobes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning and Senses </li></ul></ul>
    24. 34. REFLEX <ul><li>An involuntary effector response to a sensory stimulus is called a reflex. </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined as «automatic and reproducible effector response to a sensory stimulus with the involvement of the central nervous system». </li></ul>
    25. 35. REFLEX ARC <ul><li>The path through which a reflex action takes place is called a reflex arc. It is composed of the following parts in order: </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor : It receives the sensory stimulus for the reflex and then through production of generator potential produces nerve impulse in the sensory nerve connected to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Afferent path : It is formed by the sensory nerve. It carries the nerve impulse in the form of AP to the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Centre : It has the synapse through which the impulse in the afferent path is transmitted to the motor neuron through EPSP formation. </li></ul>
    26. 36. REFLEX ARC <ul><li>Efferent path : It is formed by the motor nerve. It carries the efferent impulse from the centre to the effector organ in the form of AP. </li></ul><ul><li>Junction with the target organ : The efferent impulse is transferred here to the target organ. In case of myoneural junction it is through EPP and in other situations also by graded response. </li></ul><ul><li>The effector : It shows the effects of the reflex action. It may be a muscle or a gland which shows the reflex action by contraction and secretion respectively. </li></ul>
    27. 37. SIGNIFICANCE OF A NORMAL REFLEX RESPONSE <ul><li>A normal reflex response indicates that this reflex arc is intact. A defect anywhere in the path starting from the receptor to the effector, will lead to abnormality in the reflex response. </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of the above principle, reflex action is utilised to diagnose defects not only in the reflex arc but also in the associated parts of the CNS, which affect the activity of this path. </li></ul>
    28. 38. I thank all of you for your patience!
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