Soil Densification is a Strategic Need for the Palm Island Development Sustainability.
Soil Densification A Necessity for the Palm IslandDevelopment Sustainability I Al JANABI Nakheel Marine Group Nakheel Corporation A Dubai World Company American Society of Civil Engineers 5th International Engineering and Construction Conference Irvine, CA, USA August 27–29, 2008
NAKHEEL PUTS DUBAI ON THE MAP Nakheel Puts Dubai on the Map
Nakheel: Where Vision Inspires Humanity The Vision The roots of the vision can be traced to a period at the end of the last century when the leaders of Dubai took hold of a belief that THE CITY could become one of the leading tourist destination in the World. The development, stylized in the shape of a Palm Tree, pays homage to Dubai’s two most important symbols – The Palm Tree, also known as ‘ ‘The Bride of the Orchard’ and water, the regions primary source of nourishment, pleasure and trade. Nakheel is a key player in realizing the vision to develop the Palm as a city by itself, hence the process will create a world-class destination for business and tourism.• Enhancing the Prosperity, Enjoyment and Safety of People• Maximizing Beachfront Areas Leading to New Leisure Resorts by 78 Km• Creation of a Peculiar Maritime Transportation Plan• Generating Exclusive Underwater Coral Reefs and Marinas• Boost Tourism Industry• Generate Alternative Revenues to Oil• Recognize Dubai as One of the World’s Leaders in Business and Leisure Hubs.
Nakheel: Where Vision Inspires Humanity • Such ambition is embodied by Nakheel’s signature development by bringing plans into realization through involving into the creation of the World’s largest 3 man made islands • After several years of feasibility studies, the Palm was launched in 2001 and the reclamation program began in earnest• The first two Palm Islands in “Jumeirah and Jebel Ali” consumed approximately 100 million cubic meters of rock and sand,• The Palm Island in Deira will take in 1.2 billion cubic meters of rock and sand – all of which will be quarried in the UAE.• Between the three Islands’ there will be over 100 luxury hotels including the Trump , 10,000 exclusive residential beachside villas, 5,000 shoreline apartments, marinas that will house more than 50,000 yachts, water theme parks such as Sea World by Bush Enterprise, restaurants, malls, sports facilities, health spas, cinemas and extensive dive sites• AWARDS• ARDAS (American Resort Development Association) Global Award for Resort Design – 2005• International Samoter Award , The International Exhibition of Earth Moving, Site and Building Industry Machinery - 2005• The Visual Identity of The Palm has Already Won the Prestigious “American Corporate Identity Award”
A VISION COME TO LIFE • The Palm Island in Jumeirah•• The finished Palm includes 500,000 sq.m. ATLANTIS water park and hotel at the head of the Crescent• 1,500 luxurious beach side smart developed villas• 2200 shoreline apartments offering the beauty of waterfront• The Trump Hotel and Tower provides over 800 condominium units for the fast paced jet setter• Exclusive mega yachts marinas with more than 2000 berths• Cirque de Soleil will be permanently stationed at the tip of the Trunk• Exquisite underwater facilities for diving and snorkeling enjoying one of the World’s beautiful coral reef• Waterways transportation facilities• Cruising dhows restaurants and malls• 5 Km monorail taking directly from the shore to the Atlantis resort• Underwater tunnels•
A DREAM COME TRUE• The Palm Island Development in Jebel Ali
Nakheel: Where Vision Inspires Humanity• The Palm Island Development in Deira
The Palm Island - JumeirahMainly soil is Carbonate type made up of Calcareous shelly materials. Although neither the actual shellnor carbonate content appear to have been measured in samples of the actual hydraulic fill. It is highlyrecommended to assume that we are dealing with Carbonate sand. Soil in deemed amenable for thedumping of the Island if content of the grains after sieve analysis is less than 10% fines (grain size 0.063mm) and less than 2% clay (American Standard). Standard soil particle size distribution curve used to refer to soil particles grain-sizes after performing The Dry Soil Mechanical Sieve Analysis (ASTM D – 422). The adjoining table shows ranges of soil sizes. Soil type based on particle size Soil Type Particle-Size Range Boulder > 0.3 m Cobble 0.15 – 0.3 m Gravel 2.0 mm – 0.15 m Sand 0.075 – 2.0 mm Silt 0.002 – 0.0075 mm Clay < 0.002 mm
Water Table Recognition - – The Palm Jumeirah1.25 meters
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahZone Load Test’s Concrete Base on Top of Water Table
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahPreliminary Level Survey Before Loading
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahWeights Loading Process
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahWeights Loading Process
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahLocation :CrescentStatic loadingreached up to650 tons.185 kN/sq.m.Test duration 14days.Settlementsgraduallyincreased from0.00 to 11.00 mm(approximately).
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah Location: Crescent Location: Crescent Weight loaded: 650 Tons Weight Used: 650 Tons Location : Frond E Periodic Measurements of Settlements
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah Penetration resistance, qc, (MPa) Penetration resistance, qc, (MPa) 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 0 0 4 4 Depth (m)Depth (m) 8 8 12 12 16 16 Penetration Resistance Versus Penetration Resistance Versus Depth on the Fronds Depth on the Trunk
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahDilatometer as a Vibrocompaction Control Test Criteria
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahCone Penetration Test (CPT) as a Vibro Compaction Test Criteria Before and After Trial Tests
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah C stress yclicRelativedensity, Dr ratio, C R S Liquefaction H com igh pressibility shelly sands N liquefaction o Lowcom pressibility silicasands S sands ilica S sands helly CorrectedC Tresistance, qc1N P Log(qc/(σ’vo)0.5) Assessment of liquefaction potential
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah 25 25 Trial - Trunk Production - Frond E 20 20Cone penetration resistance, qc, (MPa) Cone penetration resistance, qc, (MPa) 15 15 Zone of improvement Zone of improvement in trial 10 10 5 5 Range of qc pre-treatment Range of qc pre-treatment 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Distance from vibroflot (m) Distance from vibroflot (m)Results of Bauer Vibro Compaction Results of Keller Vibro Compaction TrialTrial at the Trunk 2004 at the Trunk 2004
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah• Dubai is in the Seismic Zone 2A (UBC) that could be subjected to an earthquake for the magnitude of 5.5 – 6.0 Richter. This will affect the medium and lower layers creating large damage to the Island’s stability, hence leading to huge cracks in soil strata, thus endangering civil safety and structural failure.• Crescent’s slopes are unstable due to erosion effect, thus needs to be stabilized to achieve a sustainable slope rate of 1:7.• For the villas on the Fronds, design Bearing Capacity was found to be in the range of 50 kN/m2 for G+1 type and 80 kN/m2 for G+2 type, swimming pool of size 3x6 and 5x8 meters yields a pressure of 190 kN/m2 and an underground concrete water tank (2x2x3 meters) yields a pressure of 190 kN/m2 acting as a concentrated load. Both the swimming pools and the water tanks would settle during construction yielding large differential settlements after a period of 30 – 60 days leading to failure effect in lots utility connections and hence effecting the development’s stability.
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm Jumeirah Advantages of Soil densification will Achieve a Geotechnical Profile that Would Meet the Following Technical Requirements:•Abolishing the hazards of liquefactions and its consequences including lateral spreading of the fill and earthquake induced settlements.•Acceptable long-term self weight settlement of the fill, including creep.•Minimize differential settlement, hence eliminate structural and utilities failures.• Reduce long term upper-flow of sea water table under structures foundation. Thereby eliminating material corrosion and high acidic water attack on sweet soil level.•Upkeep Nakheel quality reputed products and gain Client’s satisfaction.•Minimize long term maintenance costs.
Geotechnical Investigation – The Palm JumeirahTo achieve Island’s stability anoptimized system has been analyzed,studied, and recommended to obtainoptimum results preventing imminentstructural damage due to immediate anddifferential settlement and mitigatingliquefaction due to seismic effects. • Utility Lots minimum 200 kN/sq.m. • Roads minimum 150 kN/sq.m. • ROW for Utility Services minimum 150 kN/sq.m. • Maximum Long Term Settlement Inferior or Equal to 25 mm • The Differential Settlement for any Individual Structure shall not Exceed L/750 (length of any dimension of the structure divided by the Newton factor of 750.) • ZERO RISK OPTION ONLY
Vibro Compaction– The Palm JumeirahVibro Compaction on Frond E in One Line
Vibro Compaction– The Palm Jumeirah Accurate Placing of Vibration Probe
Vibro Compaction– The Palm JumeirahGround Cracking and Subsidence
Vibro Compaction– The Palm Jumeirah3-5 meters Ground Cracking
Vibro Compaction– The Palm JumeirahSubsidence Level After Vibro Compaction 1.4 – 1.5 meters
Vibro Compaction– The Palm JumeirahCone Penetration Test (CPT) Testing
Vibro Compaction– The Palm Jumeirah Compaction Points by Triangle Method of 3.0 meters Distance to Achieve the Densification Weigh CriteriaAs the spacing decreases, the better the densification of soil and the higher thebearing capacity reaching up to 200 kN/sq.m. and Post CPT test results haveincreased to 15 MPa; moreover, the relative density has increased from 25 % toapproximately 75 %. These tests results had shown that the existing dredged soil issusceptible to improvement using imported selected sand to densify it alleviating itscharacteristics values, hence would decrease the risk of differential settlements andeffect of liquefaction.
CPT PLOTS The Palm Island – Jumeirah 2004 Vibro Compaction Frond E Post CPT Results 0 1 2 3 4 5 6D e p th (m ) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Cone Resistance (Mpa) 1m aw ay from the probe Mid point of the probes Weighted Average curve Design curve
The Palm Island – Jumeirah 2005 Soil Densification Works PlanningCost Comparison between 2000 and 900 sq.m. Post-CPT testing Zones 4,250 9,444 18 Unit rate per 15 zone (AED) 1/1000 scale 12 Number of 9 Cost Comparison (AED) between (2000 sq.m. and 900 sq.m.) Zones Post-CPT testing Zones Thousands 9 Total 4,250,000 cost 6 4 5,194,444 over all area 3 1 1 2000 m2 zone 0 900 m2 zone 2000 m2 zone 900 m2 zone Variance Unit rate per zone 1000 1000 (AED) Number of Zones 4250 9444 Total cost over all 4,250,000 9,444,444 area Zones 9,444,444
The Palm Island – Jumeirah 2004Construction Development of Villasand Infrastructure at Frond E