There has been a significant increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) generation in India
in the last few decades largely because of rapid population growth and economic
development in the country. It has become a major environmental issue in India. The per
capita of MSW generated daily, in India ranges from about 100 g in small towns to 500g
in large towns. For example, the population of Mumbai grew from around 8.2 million in
1981 to 12.3 million in 1991, registering a growth of around 49%. On the other hand,
MSW generated in the city increased from 3 200 tonnes per day to 5 355 tonnes per day
in the same period registering a growth of around 67%. This clearly indicates that the
growth in MSW in our urban centres has outpaced the population growth in recent years.
This trend can be ascribed to our changing lifestyles, food habits, and change in living
standards. MSW in cities is collected by respective municipalities and transported to
designated disposal sites, which are normally low lying areas on the outskirts of the city.
The limited revenues earmarked for the municipalities make them Ill-equipped to provide
for high costs involved in the collection, storage, treatment, and proper disposal of MSW.
As a result, a substantial part of the MSW generated remains unattended and grows in the
heaps at poorly maintained collection centre. The choice of a disposal site also is more a
matter of what is available than what is suitable. The average collection efficiency for
MSW in Indian cities is about 72.5% and around 70% of the cities lack adequate waste
transport capacities (TERI 1998). Such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other
pests. The municipalities in India therefore face the challenge of reinforcing their available
infrastructure for efficient MSW management and ensuring the scientific disposal of
MSW by generating enough revenues either from the generators or by identifying
activities that generate resources from waste management. The key issues involved in the
solid waste management are growth in population and increasing garbage generation,
waste collection system, segregation of waste at source in as many categories as practical,
scientific processing of waste material depending on nature, developing infrastructure for
solid waste and disposal and processing, decentralize means to process waste to avoid
multiple transfer and facilitate disposal etc.
There are many sources from which the solid waste comes. All living thing creates
waste. In natural systems, trees animals and other organisms contribute to waste.
Human creates waste as they alter natural system through extraction, processing and
use of natural resources. From the study of various corporations it is clear that each
person creates 44 tons of waste per year. Each person generates 90,000 pounds of
waste in a lifetime.
The sources are as follow1) Municipal:- Street sweeping, sewage treatment plant waste, waste
from school and other institutions.
2) Domestic:- Garbage, rubbish and occasional large waste from house.
3) Commercial:- From different stores and offices.
4) Industrial:- From manufacturing plants.
5) Mining:- From coal mining, strip mining etc.
6) Agricultural:- From farms grasslands and gardens.
Refuse- Refuse contains garbage rubbish, ashes, dead animals, industrial waste etc.
Hazardous waste- Industrial, hospital waste certain types of household waste
are also hazardous.
Radio-active waste- Waste from nuclear power plant, nuclear reactor, atomic
research centre etc.
Besides the above mentioned classification based on type of waste the refuse may be
classified depending upon source.
KEY ISSUES INVOLVED
Growth in population and increasing garbage generation.
Waste collection system.
Scientific processing of the waste material depending on their nature.
Developing infrastructure for solid waste disposal and processing developing
information collection and processing system
Large quantities of solid waste are subjected to uncontrolled, unscientific and
incomplete combustion which in turns results in release of no. of pollutants in
atmosphere which cause air pollution.
Large quantities of chemicals are quickly pushed into drains rivers causing
immense damage to man health and ecology.
Dumping of agricultural solid waste may pollute streams and waterways.
Pollution of ground water which takes place when leachate from refuse dump
enters in to surface or ground water.
Municipal workers are found to be infected due to intentional parasites.
Mining solid waste is most dangerous particularly for the mine workers. They
suffer from toxic reactions in the physiological process of human body.
Bronchitis, throat blocking, lung cancer, headache diseases etc.
Solid waste produces foul smell, breeds, insects and organism besides aesthetic
value of the land.
Solid waste changes the properties of air, soil and water.
Solid waste creates the water pollution problems.
Exhibit ES-3 shows how GHG sources and sinks are affected by each waste
management strategy. For example, the top row of the exhibit shows that source
(1) Reduces GHG or emissions from raw materials acquisition and
(2) Results in an increase in forest carbon sequestration; and
(3) Does not result in GHG emissions from waste management. The sum of
emissions (and sinks) across all steps in the life cycle represents net
WASTE MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Identifying the waste management needs, identifying recycling opportunities and ways
to minimize waste output, and reviewing how waste minimization is progressing.
Involves the logistical organization to guarantee that bin containers will not overfill and
waste sit time does not become too long.
Is the organizing of waste transport vehicles with the authorization and ability to
transport the specified wastes from a customer’s work residence to landfill or
processing plant. A waste must be transported by the vehicle designed for it.
Involves the separation of recyclables for treatment, and then after treatment are
packaged as raw materials.
Disposal / Recycling
Is the disposal of non recyclables into landfill. Landfill sites must be approved by
REPORT VIA GRAPHS
1. Method of household Closed
Plastic bags Other (pile
container (%) (%)
2. Method of household Bur Bu Du
Du Du EH Ga Re Reu Co
ry mp mp mp O
rba cy se
(%) (% In
in on Du
ge cle (%) st
river yar roa mps tru (%
(% (% (%) (%
16. 3.3 10.0 3.3 3.3 40.0 6.7 0.0 6.7 10.0 0.0
53. 3.3 3.3 0.0 3.3 23.4 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.0 0.0
73. 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.4 3.3 0.0 3.3 0.0 3.3
40. 6.7 3.3 0.0 0.0 26.7 0.0 6.7 13.3 0.0 3.3
13. 3.3 3.3 3.3 0.0 26.7 3.3 30. 0.0 0.0 16.7
6.7 6.7 10.0 6.7 0.0 43.3 3.3 16. 0.0 0.0 6.7
33. 4.4 5.0 2.2 1.1 28.9 2.8 8.9 6.1 1.7 5.0
Majority of the respondent (43.3%), reported that most of their household garbage
are stored in a closed container, while some (26.7%) store theirs in an open
container, few (10%) in plastic bags and others (20%) pile garbage in the yard.
Burning constituted the major method of household garbage disposal by
respondents (33.9). Many others (28.9%) make use of the environmental health
office (EHO) dumpsite and very few of the respondents made use of other methods
such as: composting, recycling, reuse, use of garbage truck, etc.
Issue for concern
Not concerned No
Health risk related to burning garbage
Illegal dumps polluting water bodies
Diseases related to improper storage and
Flooding due to garbage blocking drains
Reduction of natural resources we buy and
Services provided by garbage truck
Presence of rats
Garbage in Otukpo local government
Generally the majority of respondents showed concern about issues of solid waste
management. All respondents (100%) were concerned about the diseases related to
improper waste storage and disposal and only a few (3.3%) were not concerned
about the health-risk related to burning garbage.
Willingness to separate material for collection
Willingness to pay for pickup for recycling 66.7
Don’t know (%)
Willingness to participate in composting programs
Willingness to return plastic bottles to stores
Willingness to purchase less throwaway products
More information on the reduction of garbage
Willingness to carry garbage to skiff
Willingness to build skiff for the community
Willingness to maintain skiff
It is obvious that generally a greater percentage of respondents are willing to
participate in efforts aimed at reducing waste, recycling and composting of
household garbage and were willing to get more information on how to reduce
Why There is a Need Of Solid Waste Management?
For more details mail me at firstname.lastname@example.org
From the above discussion we can conclude
that the present methods of collection and
disposal of solid waste are not sufficient to
handle the solid waste problems. The
methods of collection or the house to house
collection of solid waste is necessary to
change the ugly sight of overflowing dust on
the roads. The present practices of
transporting the solid waste are very
unhygienic and unscientific. It should be
changed. Present method of solid waste
disposal has some limitations so we should
use the new techniques or methods
vermicomposting and vermiculture etc. This
method should be adopted for avoiding
environmental pollution. i.e. pollution of
water, air, land and also to earn some
money. Energy recovery can be done from
solid waste. We should adopt the methods,
which can recover energy from solid waste.
Lastly the main thing is that every person
should decide to produce least waste to keep