Solid waste management
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Solid waste management Solid waste management Document Transcript

  • A Project on:- SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Submitted By: Raj Deep Kumar B.Tech CSE 1st Year F1-Group
  • INTRODUCTION There has been a significant increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) generation in India in the last few decades largely because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country. It has become a major environmental issue in India. The per capita of MSW generated daily, in India ranges from about 100 g in small towns to 500g in large towns. For example, the population of Mumbai grew from around 8.2 million in 1981 to 12.3 million in 1991, registering a growth of around 49%. On the other hand, MSW generated in the city increased from 3 200 tonnes per day to 5 355 tonnes per day in the same period registering a growth of around 67%. This clearly indicates that the growth in MSW in our urban centres has outpaced the population growth in recent years. This trend can be ascribed to our changing lifestyles, food habits, and change in living standards. MSW in cities is collected by respective municipalities and transported to designated disposal sites, which are normally low lying areas on the outskirts of the city. The limited revenues earmarked for the municipalities make them Ill-equipped to provide for high costs involved in the collection, storage, treatment, and proper disposal of MSW. As a result, a substantial part of the MSW generated remains unattended and grows in the heaps at poorly maintained collection centre. The choice of a disposal site also is more a matter of what is available than what is suitable. The average collection efficiency for MSW in Indian cities is about 72.5% and around 70% of the cities lack adequate waste transport capacities (TERI 1998). Such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other pests. The municipalities in India therefore face the challenge of reinforcing their available infrastructure for efficient MSW management and ensuring the scientific disposal of MSW by generating enough revenues either from the generators or by identifying activities that generate resources from waste management. The key issues involved in the solid waste management are growth in population and increasing garbage generation, waste collection system, segregation of waste at source in as many categories as practical, scientific processing of waste material depending on nature, developing infrastructure for solid waste and disposal and processing, decentralize means to process waste to avoid multiple transfer and facilitate disposal etc.
  • SOURCES There are many sources from which the solid waste comes. All living thing creates waste. In natural systems, trees animals and other organisms contribute to waste. Human creates waste as they alter natural system through extraction, processing and use of natural resources. From the study of various corporations it is clear that each person creates 44 tons of waste per year. Each person generates 90,000 pounds of waste in a lifetime. The sources are as follow1) Municipal:- Street sweeping, sewage treatment plant waste, waste from school and other institutions. 2) Domestic:- Garbage, rubbish and occasional large waste from house. 3) Commercial:- From different stores and offices. 4) Industrial:- From manufacturing plants. 5) Mining:- From coal mining, strip mining etc. 6) Agricultural:- From farms grasslands and gardens.
  • CLASSIFICATION    Refuse. Hazardous waste. Radio-active waste. Refuse- Refuse contains garbage rubbish, ashes, dead animals, industrial waste etc. Hazardous waste- Industrial, hospital waste certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Radio-active waste- Waste from nuclear power plant, nuclear reactor, atomic research centre etc. Besides the above mentioned classification based on type of waste the refuse may be classified depending upon source.  Household waste  Street waste  Trade waste
  • KEY ISSUES INVOLVED     Growth in population and increasing garbage generation. Waste collection system. Scientific processing of the waste material depending on their nature. Developing infrastructure for solid waste disposal and processing developing information collection and processing system
  • EFFECTS          Large quantities of solid waste are subjected to uncontrolled, unscientific and incomplete combustion which in turns results in release of no. of pollutants in atmosphere which cause air pollution. Large quantities of chemicals are quickly pushed into drains rivers causing immense damage to man health and ecology. Dumping of agricultural solid waste may pollute streams and waterways. Pollution of ground water which takes place when leachate from refuse dump enters in to surface or ground water. Municipal workers are found to be infected due to intentional parasites. Mining solid waste is most dangerous particularly for the mine workers. They suffer from toxic reactions in the physiological process of human body. Bronchitis, throat blocking, lung cancer, headache diseases etc. Solid waste produces foul smell, breeds, insects and organism besides aesthetic value of the land. Solid waste changes the properties of air, soil and water. Solid waste creates the water pollution problems.
  • EPA REPORT Exhibit ES-3 shows how GHG sources and sinks are affected by each waste management strategy. For example, the top row of the exhibit shows that source reduction. (1) Reduces GHG or emissions from raw materials acquisition and manufacturing; (2) Results in an increase in forest carbon sequestration; and (3) Does not result in GHG emissions from waste management. The sum of emissions (and sinks) across all steps in the life cycle represents net emissions.
  • WASTE MANAGEMENT CYCLE COLLECTING MONITORING TRANSPORTING PROCESSING RECYCLING/ DISPOSAL  Monitoring Identifying the waste management needs, identifying recycling opportunities and ways to minimize waste output, and reviewing how waste minimization is progressing. business.  Collection Involves the logistical organization to guarantee that bin containers will not overfill and waste sit time does not become too long.  Transportation Is the organizing of waste transport vehicles with the authorization and ability to transport the specified wastes from a customer’s work residence to landfill or processing plant. A waste must be transported by the vehicle designed for it.  Processing Involves the separation of recyclables for treatment, and then after treatment are packaged as raw materials.  Disposal / Recycling Is the disposal of non recyclables into landfill. Landfill sites must be approved by legal authorities.
  • SURVEY REPORT 1. Method of household Closed garbage storage container (%) Open Plastic bags Other (pile container (%) (%) in the yard) (%) 43.3 26.7 10.0 20.0 2. Method of household Bur Bu Du Du Du EH Ga Re Reu Co Oth garbage disposal n ry mp mp mp O rba cy se mpo er (%) (% In in on Du ge cle (%) st (%) ) river yar roa mps tru (% (%) /gull d d ite ck ) y (% (% (%) (% (%) ) ) ) Food waste 16. 3.3 10.0 3.3 3.3 40.0 6.7 0.0 6.7 10.0 0.0 7 Yard trimmings 53. 3.3 3.3 0.0 3.3 23.4 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.0 0.0 4 Paper/cardboard 73. 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.4 3.3 0.0 3.3 0.0 3.3 4 Plastic 40. 6.7 3.3 0.0 0.0 26.7 0.0 6.7 13.3 0.0 3.3 0 Metals 13. 3.3 3.3 3.3 0.0 26.7 3.3 30. 0.0 0.0 16.7 4 0 Glass 6.7 6.7 10.0 6.7 0.0 43.3 3.3 16. 0.0 0.0 6.7 6 % AVERAGE 33. 4.4 5.0 2.2 1.1 28.9 2.8 8.9 6.1 1.7 5.0 9 Majority of the respondent (43.3%), reported that most of their household garbage are stored in a closed container, while some (26.7%) store theirs in an open container, few (10%) in plastic bags and others (20%) pile garbage in the yard. Burning constituted the major method of household garbage disposal by respondents (33.9). Many others (28.9%) make use of the environmental health office (EHO) dumpsite and very few of the respondents made use of other methods such as: composting, recycling, reuse, use of garbage truck, etc.
  • SURVEY REPORT S / N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Issue for concern Concerned (%) Not concerned No (%) (%) Health risk related to burning garbage Illegal dumps polluting water bodies Diseases related to improper storage and disposal Flooding due to garbage blocking drains and gullies Reduction of natural resources we buy and use Services provided by garbage truck Litters Illegal dumping Presence of rats Garbage in Otukpo local government 96.7 80.0 100.0 3.3 6.7 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.0 93.4 3.3 3.3 90.0 6.7 3.3 60.0 83.4 90.0 86.7 80.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 0.0 6.7 opinion 36.7 13.3 6.7 13.3 13.3 Generally the majority of respondents showed concern about issues of solid waste management. All respondents (100%) were concerned about the diseases related to improper waste storage and disposal and only a few (3.3%) were not concerned about the health-risk related to burning garbage. S/N Yes (%) Composting 70.0 Recycling 73.3 Willingness to separate material for collection 86.7 Willingness to pay for pickup for recycling 66.7 materials No (%) Don’t know (%) 16.7 20.0 13.3 26.6 13.3 6.7 0.0 6.7 5 Willingness to participate in composting programs 83.3 16.7 0.0 6 7 Willingness to return plastic bottles to stores Willingness to purchase less throwaway products 76.7 83.3 23.3 16.7 0.0 0.0 8 9 10 11 More information on the reduction of garbage Willingness to carry garbage to skiff Willingness to build skiff for the community Willingness to maintain skiff 90.0 90.0 86.7 80.0 6.7 3.3 0.0 6.7 3.3 6.7 13.3 13.3 1 2 3 4 Willingness It is obvious that generally a greater percentage of respondents are willing to participate in efforts aimed at reducing waste, recycling and composting of household garbage and were willing to get more information on how to reduce garbage.
  • Why There is a Need Of Solid Waste Management? CONCLUSION For more details mail me at From the above discussion we can conclude that the present methods of collection and disposal of solid waste are not sufficient to handle the solid waste problems. The methods of collection or the house to house collection of solid waste is necessary to change the ugly sight of overflowing dust on the roads. The present practices of transporting the solid waste are very unhygienic and unscientific. It should be changed. Present method of solid waste disposal has some limitations so we should use the new techniques or methods vermicomposting and vermiculture etc. This method should be adopted for avoiding environmental pollution. i.e. pollution of water, air, land and also to earn some money. Energy recovery can be done from solid waste. We should adopt the methods, which can recover energy from solid waste. Lastly the main thing is that every person should decide to produce least waste to keep environment clean.