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discrimination about women

discrimination about women






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    discrimination about women discrimination about women Document Transcript

    • Education Dowry Violence Sexism Submitted By:Raj Deep Kumar & Gautam Priya Maurya B.Tech CSE 1st Year F-Group
    • Gender Inequality Discrimination Against Girls Violence Against Women Sexual Harassment Contents Discrimination Against Women Selective Abortion and Female Infanticide Personalities Dowry How You Can Help? Education Conclusion Military Service
    • Gender Inequality The devaluation of women and social domination of men still continues to prevail in India. Women are usually viewed as dowry burdens, the weaker gender, and worthy of a lower social status compared to men. This has led to social and economic problems. One of the main concerns is that the declining sex ratio, which was brought to attention in 2001, as the sex ratio hit as low as 927 to 1000 men. Other issues can include abuse of women's human rights and unequal opportunities given in education, employments or the rights to be born. The key factor driving gender inequality is the preference for boys. This is because boys are deemed to be more useful than girls. Boys are given the exclusive rights to inherit the family name and properties and they are viewed as additional status for their family. Not only that, they are also believed to have a higher economic utility as they can provide additional labour in agriculture. Another factor is that of religious practices, which can only be performed by males for their parents' afterlife. All these factors make sons more attractive. Moreover, expensive dowry of daughters further discourages parents from having daughters. Thus, a combination of factors has shaped the imbalanced view of sexes.
    • Gender Inequality
    • Discrimination Against Girls Discrimination against female children has been a topic of debate. It has been a subject of concern and sociological significance. This subject raises the cultural aspects about the role of a female child in society, what her human rights are as a human being and a number of sensitive issues. This issue is important because there is nearly universal consensus on the need for gender equality. Gender based discrimination against female children is pervasive across the world. It is seen in all the strata of society and manifests in various forms. As per the literature, the female child has been treated inferior to male child, and this is deeply engraved in her mind. Some argue that due to this inferior treatment, the females fail to understand their rights. This is more predominant in India as well as other lesser developed countries. Sex selection before birth and neglect of the female child after birth, in childhood and, during the [teenage] years, has resulted in males outnumbering females in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and South Korea. In North America and Europe the sex ratio of the population is 105 women per 100 men; in India, China and South Korea, the ratio is 94 women per 100 men. Women have a biological advantage over men for longevity and survival; however, in spite of this there are more men than women.
    • Violence The Thomas Reuters Foundation survey says that India is the fourth most dangerous place in the world for women to live in. women belonging to any class, caste or creed and religion can be victims of acid throwing, a cruel form of violence and disfigurement, a premeditated crime intended to kill or maim the woman permanently and act as a lesson to 'put her in her place'. Domestic violence against women in India is a big problem. For example, a paper published in the International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory shows that in 2007, there were 20,737 reported case of rape, 8,093 cases of death due to dowry, and 10,950 cases of sexual harassment with total crime of 185,312 A U.N. Population Fund report claimed that up to 70 percent of married women aged 15–49 in India are victims of beatings or coerced sex.
    • Violence
    • sExual Harrashment "Eve teasing" is a euphemism in India and Pakistan for sexual harassment or molestation of women by men. This phenomenon has resulted in various assaults against women. Half of the total number of crimes against women reported in 1990 related to molestation and harassment at the workplace. Many activists blame the rising incidents of sexual harassment against women on the influence of "Western culture". In 1987, The 'Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act' was passed to prohibit indecent representation of women through advertisements or in publications, writings, paintings, figures or in any other manner. In 1997, in a landmark judgement, the Supreme Court of India took a strong stand against sexual harassment of women in the workplace. The Court also laid down detailed guidelines for prevention and redressing of grievances. The National Commission for Women subsequently elaborated these guidelines into a Code of Conduct for employers. The Indian Parliament is considering The Protection of Women against Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill, 2010, which would add protections for female workers in most workplaces. It was passed by the Lok Sabha(the lower house of the Indian Parliament on 3 September 2012. As of September 2012, it has not been passed by the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Indian Parliament).
    • sExual Harrashment
    • Abortion & Infanticide The number of girls born and surviving in India is significantly less compared with the number of boys, due to the disproportionate numbers of female fetuses being aborted and baby girls deliberately neglected and left to die. Compared to the normal ratio of births, 950 girls for every 1000 boys, most states of India, especially Harayana, Mumbai and even overseas Indians, have much lower sex ratios. It can be as low as 830 girls to 1000 boys. With increasing misuse and affordability of fetus sex-determining devices, such as ultrasound scan, the rate of female foeticide is rising sharply in India. Female infanticide (killing of girl infants) is still prevalent in some rural areas. The government and activist groups seek to raise the status of girls and combat female infanticide. According to the United Nations, it is estimated that as many as 2000 girls are illegally aborted every day and approximately as many as an expected 15 million girls were not born over the last decade. India has a low sex ratio, the chief reason being that many women die before reaching adulthood. Tribal societies in India have a better sex ratio than all other caste groups. This is in spite of the fact that tribal communities have far lower levels of income, literacy and health facilities. Experts suggest that the low sex ratio in India can be attributed to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions among more urban populations.
    • Abortion $ Infanticide Gender selection and selective abortion were banned in India under Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostics Technique Act, in 1994, but the use of ultrasound scanning for gender selection continues. Other institutional efforts, such as advertisements calling female feticides a sin by the Health Ministry of India and annual Girl Child Day can be observed to raise status of girls and to combat female infanticide. But, it did not appear to have much effect in the rate of female foeticide. Female foeticide will decrease the population of female and further skew the sex ratio of India. This will lead to problems like marriage squeeze and lower replacement rate. In addition, it can also cause greater abuse against women and higher crime rate. It will have negative effects on the economy, such as lower female participation rate and inefficient allocation of labour due to gender discrimination.
    • Abortion $ Infanticide
    • Dowry In 1961, the Government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act, making the dowry demands in wedding arrangements illegal. However, many cases of dowry-related domestic violence, suicides and murders have still been reported. In 1985, the Dowry Prohibition (maintenance of lists of presents to the bride and bridegroom) rules were framed. According to these rules, a signed list of presents given at the time of the marriage to the bride and the bridegroom should be maintained. The list should contain a brief description of each present, its approximate value, the name of whoever has given the present and his/her relationship to the person. However, such rules are hardly enforced. A 1997 report claimed that at least 5,000 women die each year because of dowry deaths, and at least a dozen die each day in 'kitchen fires' thought to be intentional. The term for this is "bride burning" and is criticised within India itself. The most recent NCRB report said that 8,233 dowry death reports were filed in the country in 2012.
    • Education Though it is gradually rising, the female literacy rate in India is lower than the male literacy rate. According to Census of India 2011, literacy rate of females is 65.46% compared to males which is 82.14%. Compared to boys, far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out. According to the National Sample Survey Data of 1997, only the states of Kerala and Mizoram have approached universal female literacy rates. According to majority of the scholars, the major factor behind the improved social and economic status of women in Kerala is literacy. Under Non-Formal Education programme, about 40% of the centres in states and 10% of the centres in UTs are exclusively reserved for females. As of 2000, about 0.3 million NFE centres were catering to about 7.42 million children, out of which about 0.12 million were exclusively for girls. Certain state level engineering, medical and other colleges like in Orissa have reserved 30% of their seats for females. In rural India girls continue to be less educated than the boys. According to a 1998 report by U.S. Department of Commerce, the chief barrier to female education in India are inadequate school facilities (such as sanitary facilities), shortage of female teachers and gender bias in curriculum (majority of the female characters being depicted as weak and helpless vs. strong, adventurous, and intelligent men with high prestige jobs)
    • Education The Prime Minister of India and the Planning Commission also vetoed a proposal to set up an Indian Institute of Technology exclusively for females. Although India had witnessed substantial improvements in female literacy and enrolment rate since the 1990s, the quality of education for female remains to be heavily compromised as the country continues to hold greater value for male than female. According to the Gender Gap Index 2011 released by the World Economic forum (WEF), India was ranked 113 out of 135 countries polled. This trend is very noticeable in states like Rajastan, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. This represents a poor distribution of resources and opportunities amongst the male and female. Other measures such as attendance rate and Gender Equality in Education Index (GEEI) are also developed to further capture the quality of education. In order for India to reach GEEI score of 95% by 2015 under the Millennium Development Goals, it has to triple its rate of improvement.
    • Education
    • Military service Women are not allowed to have combat roles in the armed forces. According to a study carried out on this issue, a recommendation was made that female officers be excluded from induction in close combat arms, where chances of physical contact with the enemy are high. The study also held that a permanent commission could not be granted to female officers since they have neither been trained for command nor have they been given the responsibility so far.
    • Personalities Political 1.Sarojini Naidu - the Nightingale of India: Sarojini Naidu is a renowned Indian poet who is popularly known as the Nightingale of India. Besides her wonderful poetry works in English, she also became an active women freedom fighter in the struggle for Indian Independence by the directions of Mahatma Gandhi. She is the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress. After independence, Sarojini Naidu became the governor of Uttar Pradesh and thus became the first woman governor of India. She is a great patriot, an efficient politician, a good orator and a wonderful administrator. She is one of the top world famous personalities of the 20th century. 2. Indira Gandhi - the Woman of the Millennium: Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi - the only daughter of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru - was born in 1917. She entered politics at a very young age and become the first women Prime Minister of India. She is the second longest serving Prime Minister of India who served the country for a long period. She was the strongest Prime Minister of India with great administrative power and political foresight.
    • Personalities Political 3.Sonia Gandhi: Sonia Gandhi is an Italian-born Indian and she is the daughter of Indira Gandhi - the ex-Prime Minister of India and wife of ex Prime Minister Late Rajiv Gandhi. She is the highly influential person of the present United Progressive Alliance and was the Chairperson of the ruling UPA government in India. She became the longest serving President of the Congress Party.
    • Personalities sports 1.Sprint Queen P.T.Usha: Payyoli Tevaraparampil Usha popularly known as P.T.Usha was one of the best women athletes of India. She remained as the queen of track events for nearly two decades. She has a number of national and international awards to her credit. She has 33 international awards to her credit which include 13 gold medals in the Asian Games. She is the recipient of the prestigious Arjuna Award in the year 1984 which is given by the Govt of India. She is also the recipient of Padma Sree award and was named as the 'Sportsperson of the Century' by the Indian Olympic Association. 2.Ashwini Nachappa: She is yet another famous sportsperson who brought international fame to India. She represented the country in the South Asian Federation Games held in 1984, 1986 and 1988 in which she received 2 silver in Nepal, 2 silver medals in Bangladesh and 3 gold medals in Pakistan respectively. She also participated in the Asian Games held at South Korea (1986) and Beijing (1990)and has silver medals to her credit. She also represented India in World Athletics Championships in Rome (1987) and Tokyo (1991). She is the recipient of Arjuna Award which is the most prestigious award given to the best sportsperson.
    • Personalities sports 3.Sania Mirza- the glamour girl of Indian sports: She is a professional tennis player from India who brought much name and fame to the country through her powerful forehand ground strokes. Presently she is ranked as No.1 tennis player in singles as well as doubles. Her greatest achievement in her tennis career was winning the mixed doubles crown in the 2009 Australian Open tennis tournament. She made India proud by her wonderful achievement in the field of her choice. 4.Saina Nehawal: She is the country's greatest women badminton player who created a history by being ranked No.2 in the world level in 2010. She made the country proud by becoming the first Indian to win a medal in the Badminton at Olympics when she received the bronze medal at London Olympics in 2012. She is having a good number of awards to her credit and she was awarded with the prestigious Arjuna Award in 2009. She is also the recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award for badminton for the year 2009-10.
    • Personalities Arts 1.M.S.Subbulaxmi: M.S.Subbulaxmi is a world renowned vocalist and she is responsible for spreading the Indian Carnatic music to the Western world and got much applause from the the world around. She is a versatile singer and is the first musician to receive Bharat Ratna - the highest Civilian award of India. She has a divine tone in her voice most of her musical works include devotional recitals only. 2.Dr.Sonal Mansingh: She is one of the most famous dancers from India who is proficient not only in the Odissi dance - the traditional classical dance of Odisha but also she is well versed in Bharatanatyam (Classical dance form of Tamilnadu), Kuchipudi(Classical dance of Andhra Pradesh), Manipuri (Classical dance of Manipur) and Chau (tribal / folk dance of West Bengal) dances. She has the credit of giving dance performances in nearly 87 countries and thus spread the classical dance forms of India to the foreign countries. She is the recipient of prestigious Padma Vibhushan award besides many other awards to her credit.
    • Personalities Other Fields 1.Mother Teresa: Though Mother Teresa is an Albanian by birth, she became an Indian citizen and is the founder of Missionaries of Charity. She dedicated her life in charity and free service to the destitute. She received a number of awards which include Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, Ramon Magsaysay Award, Order of Merit from United Kingdom and United States of America besides being conferred with Bharat Ratna - the highest civilian award of India. Mother Teresa got international fame as a humanitarian and for her advocacy for the poor and helpless.
    • Anti-Discrimination Acts At Country Level     Sex Discrimination Act 1984-Austrailia. Sex Discrimination Ordinance-Hong Kong. Human Rights Act 1993-New Zealand. Sex Discrimination Act 1975, amended by the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002-  Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978-United States.  Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostics Technique Act, in 1994-India.  Dowry Prohibition Act,1961-India. United Kingdom. At International Level  Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979
    • HOW YOU CAN HELP? If you are interested in helping to stop female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, female genital cutting, or honor killing, you can start by embracing an attitude of sensitivity to the specific issues girls face and disseminating ideas of gender equality to people you interact with – colleagues, students, children, lawmakers, and friends. You can support organizations, like Youth Advocate Program International, whose work addresses discrimination against the girl child, write letters to government officials to raise their concerns and encourage them to act aggressively against a specific practice, and get involved in grassroots organizing which can lead to local, national, and international improvement.
    • Why There is a Need To Control Women Discrimination? CONCLUSION Women are usually viewed as dowry burdens, the weaker gender, and worthy of a lower social status compared to men. This has led to social and economic problems. This subject raises the cultural aspects about the role of a female child in society, what her human rights are as a human being? This is more predominant in India as well as other lesser developed countries. This will lead to problems like marriage squeeze and lower replacement rate. In addition, it can also cause greater abuse against women and higher crime rate. It will have negative effects on the economy, such as lower female participation rate and inefficient allocation of labour due to gender discrimination. For more details mail me at raj.matrix.deep@gmail.com