Four Principles, Four Cultures, One Mirror
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Four Principles, Four Cultures, One Mirror

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Israel Gat's presentation in Agile Roots

Israel Gat's presentation in Agile Roots

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Four Principles, Four Cultures, One Mirror Four Principles, Four Cultures, One Mirror Presentation Transcript

  • Four Principles, Four Cultures, One Mirror
    • Israel Gat
    • Agile Roots
    • Salt Lake City, UT
    • June 16, 2009
  • Timeless Principles Intrinsic Obstacles
  • Obstacles Experienced in my Agile Journey
    • Individuals and interactions
    • over processes and tools
      • Re-crossing the chasm between customer and vendor
      • The “Sausage Syndrome”
  • Obstacles Experienced in my Agile Journey
    • Working software
    • over comprehensive documentation
      • License revenues versus service revenues: up to a 1:4 ratio
      • The economics of replacing enterprise software in mature markets
  • Obstacles Experienced in my Agile Journey
    • Customer collaboration
    • over contract negotiation
      • How do you “codify” Agile principles in contracts based on mutual worst case assumptions?
      • Technical debt
  • Obstacles Experienced in my Agile Journey
    • Responding to change
    • over following a plan
      • The market development myth
      • The primary vehicle by which things happen
  • A Worrisome Perspective
    • “ I estimate that 75% of those organizations using Scrum will not succeed in getting the benefits that they hope for from it… The intention of Scrum is to make [their dysfunctions] transparent so the organization can fix them. Unfortunately, many organizations change Scrum to accommodate the inadequacies or dysfunctions instead of solving them.”
      • [AgileCollab Interview with Ken Schwaber, February 19, 2009]
    Remember This Figure
    • By rolling out Agile, you create a systemic duality and possibly a conflict
      • Culture = “how we do things around here in order to succeed” [Schneider, 1994]
      • The Agile Manifesto=“how we do software in order to succeed”
    Hypothesis: Cultural Duality
  • Cultural Considerations
  • Taxonomy of Core Cultures 8 Actuality Impersonal Possibility Personal
    • Collaboration
    • Affiliation
    • Family/Athletic team
    • Nurse
    • Control
    • Power
    • Military
    • Surgeon
    • Competence
    • Achievement
    • University
    • Research scientist
    • Cultivation
    • Self-actualization
    • Religious institutions
    • Minister, priest, rabbi
    Source [Schneider, 1994]
  • Culture to an Organization is like Character to an Individual
    • “ Individuals and corporate personality are constituted in much the same way. Both are living forces characterized by energy and direction… Each corporation has a psychic center, too, which consists of the beliefs, values, mission, attitudes and objectives that determine its-long term direction and short-term goals”
    • [Harmon & Jacobs, 1985]
    9
  • Agile Rollout Strategies
  • Rollout Strategy #1
      • Build on strengths of the current culture
        • “… culture is singularly persistent… changing [organizational] behavior works only if it can be based on the existing ‘culture.’” [Drucker, 1991]
    9
  • Rollout Strategy #1
      • Build on strengths of the current culture
        • “… culture is singularly persistent… changing [organizational] behavior works only if it can be based on the existing ‘culture.’” [Drucker, 1991]
    9 There is always a Duck…
  • Rollout Strategy #2
      • Move toward an adjacent culture
        • “ A decade is a short period of time in which to expect to institutionalize cultural changes within a large organization.” [Denison, 1990]
    9
  • Rollout Strategy #3
      • Move toward an opposite culture
        • Unlikely to succeed within a formed culture even if you are the company founder...
    9
  • Schwaber’s 75% Failure Rate
    • For any culture:
      • One cultural identity
      • Two adjacent cultures
      • One opposite culture
    • ¾=75%
  • Scaling and Culture
  • Scale Up
    • Likely to be least disruptive up to a point – you will probably stay within the culture in which you already demonstrated success
    • Furthermore, you are likely to be able to use the same Agile infrastructure
  • Scale Out
    • In this era you are likely to be adding local culture(s) into the mix – Bangalore, Beijing, Moscow, Sao Paolo, etc.
    • The various variants of Distributed Agile might not be optimal, but their use is inevitable in an era characterized by off-shoring and outsourcing
    • Key to success is minimizing implementation variances against the Manifesto principles
  • Scale “Diagonally”
    • Leveraging Agile success in R&D to drive change in downstream functions is an effective strategy…
    • … as long as you are mindful of the cultural boundaries you are crossing
    • Typical border crossing:
      • R&D  Marketing  Sales  Finance
  • Limit on Scaling
    • You can’t effectively scale up, scale out or scale diagonally beyond the joint infrastructure that serves constituencies which are affected by Agile
      • The data the culture pays attention to
      • The process by which decisions are made
  • Example from BMC Software Circa 2006: Diagonal Scaling, Multiple Constituencies, Joint Manual Tools “ xi” release Marketing Release Train “ uber” release 60-90 days 60-90 days 60-90 days 60-90 days R&D Release Train Engineering & Product Management Driven Frequency Market Driven Frequency “ beta” release “ maintenance” release Collaborative Asynchronous R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 GTM Processes
  • Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Who is the Fairest Organization of Them All?
  • Using Your Mirror
    • Look at the organizational mirror to determine your core culture
    • Whatever your current culture might be, it is easier to build on its strengths than to try to change it
    • No single culture is right for Agile
      • (Note: this is different from a culture being a good fit for a certain endeavor)
  • Behavioral Changes through Tools
    • Good Agile tools are likely to induce behavioral changes (in good time) without necessitating a big cultural push
      • The data dimension: Single source of truth
      • The process dimension: Natural and automatic – like the response to an exciting video game
  • Principles for Applying Timeless Principles
  • Know Thyself
    • Subtleties of culture
    • over
    • the fine points of
    • one Agile method versus another
  • Be True to Thyself
    • Build on the strengths of
    • your culture
    • versus
    • trying to quickly change it
  • Behavioral Changes Through Tools
    • Joint Agile infrastructure
    • over
    • explicit cultural change pushes
  • Other Cultures are Part of your Mirror
    • “ The essence of organizational health is Cultural Balance, a condition in which the tendency toward excess that characterizes any ‘pure’ organizational culture is mitigated by the opposing tendencies of the other cultures”
    • [Harrison, 1987]
  • Continuing our Dialog Israel Gat [email_address] www.TheAgileExecutive.com