RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HALAL FOOD ANALYSIS YAAKOB B. CHE MAN, Ph.D INSTITUTE OF HALAL FOOD Universiti Putra Malaysia In conjuction with the Annual General Meeting of MIFT, 20 May 2006, Subang Jaya, Selangor
Shariah Law means Islamic Law based on the Quran, Hadith, Ijma’ and Qiyas
A particular food or other consumer product becomes halal or haram if it is considered so through any one of the above mentioned sources or Fatwa (religious rulings) issued by competent Islamic Authorities.
The lives of every Muslims, including their dietary requirements, are guided by Shariah Law Cont…
Al Quran Surah Al-Baqarah: “ O ye people! Eat of what is on earth, Halal and good ; and do not follow the footsteps of the Evil One, for he is to you an avowed enemy.” (Verse 168)
Al-Quran Surah Al-Maidah “ O ye who believe! Forbid not the good thing which Allah hath made Halal for you, and transgress not. Lo Allah loveth not transgressors. Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed on you as food Halal and Good , and keep your duty to Allah in Whom ye are believers.” (verse 87 –88)
“ Halal is clear and Haram is clear; in between these two are certain things that are shubhah (suspected ). Many people may not know whether those items are Halal or Haram . Whosoever leaves them, he is innocent towards his religion and his conscience. He is, therefore, safe. Anyone who gets involved in any of these suspected items, he may fall into the unlawful and the prohibition. This case is similar to the one who wishes to raise his animals next to a restricted area, he may step into it. Indeed for every landlord there is a restricted area. Indeed the restrictions of Allah are the unlawful (Haram).”
Due to breathtaking technological development today and the diversification of sources acquired globally for food processing and production - various kinds of processed foods are available in the market
It is very challenging and increasingly difficult for Muslims to ensure halal status of food in the market
This trend has raised concerns among Muslim consumers regarding new processed food
Food is only halal if the entire food chain, from farm to plate, is processed, handled and stored in accordance to Shariah or Islamic Guidelines, e.g MS1500:2004, JAKIM’s Guidelines, Codex Alimentarious etc .
“ He has only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, - then is he guiltless. For Allah is oft-forgiving, most merciful.”
M A1 A2 A3 D1 D2 D3 K1 K2 P1 P2 228 bp 131 bp 500 bp ≈ 360 bp Restriction Enzyme Analysis of PCR Amplified Cytochrome b Gene (sausages) M-1Kb DNA ladder A1, A2 and A3- sosej ayam berlainan jenama D1, D2 and D3- sosej daging lembu berlainan jenama K1 and K2- sosej babi berlainan jenama P1 and P2- sosej yang tidak dikenalpasti
ELISA is used to determine the level of antibodies in a sample and useful because they are specific and are relatively simple to perform.
We developed method for detection of pig derivatives qualitatively in the food samples using ELISA technique
The analysis yielded excellent results for detection of pig derivatives in samples
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E F G H ELISA Results A1- positive control; B1 and C1- negative controls; D1- mutton, E1- beef; F1- chicken meat, G1, H1, A2 and B2-pork; C2- mutton fat; D2- beef fat; E2- chicken fat; F2, G2, H2, A3- lard; B3, C3 and D3- chicken sausages with different brands; E3, F3 and G3- beef sausages with different brands; H3 and A4- pork sausages with different brands; B4 and C4- unknown sausages; D4, E4 and F4- unknown casings; G4, H4, A5 and B5- bread with different brands; C5 and D5- biscuits with different brands; E5- homemade biscuit with 1% lard; F5- homemade biscuit with 50% lard; G5- homemade biscuits with 100% lard.