Ramadan Slides


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Ramadan the holy month of fasting in islamic religion

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Ramadan Slides

  1. 1. August 22 nd – September19 th 2009 Ramadan رمضان Arabic text translates as: In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful    Prepared by Mona Osman Ahmed
  2. 2. Ramadan <ul><li>What is Ramadan? </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of Ramadan? </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting: What is it? Who fasts? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Ramadan Activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Eid-ul-Fitr: Marking the End of Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Working with Muslim Colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Travelling to Muslim Countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Ramadan? <ul><li>The Lunar calendar is 11-12 days shorter than Gregorian calendar… therefore, Ramadan is 10-11 days earlier every year. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ninth month of the Hijri calendar (Lunar calendar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramadan is an Arabic word; its root “Ar-Ramad” means “dryness/heat.” </li></ul></ul>Ramadan begins at sighting of new moon Ramadan Ends New  Waxing crescent First quarter Waxing gibbous   Full Waning gibbous Third quarter Waning crescent
  4. 4. Can You Spot the New Moon? Start of Ramadan could differ from location to another depending on ability to sight the moon. Folsom, CA Muhammad Nadim New moon is 30 min. old Efahan, Iran Alireza Mehrani New moon is 50 min. old Esfahan, Iran New moon is 90 min. old KL, Malaysia Ammar Tahir New moon is 24 hrs old
  5. 5. The Significance of Ramadan <ul><li>Ramadan is the 4th of the 5 pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Shahadah - Declaration of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Salah - Daily (5) prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Zakat - Purification of wealth (2.5% of annual savings go to the poor) Zakah is an Arabic word, root “zaka” means to grow, to increase, or to be pure in heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Siyam - Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory to all adult Muslims except those who are exempt. </li></ul><ul><li>Hajj - Pilgrimage to Makkah - obligatory once in a lifetime for those who are physically and financially able. </li></ul>Indeed, the month of Ramadan is when the Qura’n has been revealed, a guidance for mankind and a reference to the way and righteousness Ramadan evening prayer at the Holy Mosque, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  6. 6. The Significance of Ramadan <ul><li>Month in which the Qur’an (the holy book of Islam) was revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Special month of: Fasting, Repentance, Increased prayer, Increased charity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ends with the festival of Eid-ul-Fitr: Day of celebration and gratitude. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fasting - Why? <ul><li>Primary objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To attain taqwa “God consciousness“/ self-discipline Taqwa is an Arabic word that comes from the root “wiqaya” which means prevention/protection </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual objectives/benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Helps Muslims draw closer to God through increased recitation and reflection of the Qur’an and additional prayers/worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in increase of iman (faith) and ihsan (sincerity and righteousness) and removal of riyya’ (showing off). </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in purification of the heart/soul and helps to improve one’s character. </li></ul><ul><li>Trains the person to do praiseworthy acts e.g. charity, kindness, generosity, patience and forgiveness. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fasting - What is it? <ul><li>Fasting begins at the break of dawn and ends at sunset </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Aspect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrain from food, drink and intimacy during fasting hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on location and season, it can vary from 12 hrs to 17 hrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Aspect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrain from blameworthy thoughts and acts e.g. foul language, vain talk, hurtful behaviour, during all hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who fasts ? </li></ul><ul><li>All Muslims except: children, unhealthy adults (mentally or physically), adults travelling long distances, and women who are menstruating, in post-childbirth care, pregnant or breast-feeding. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fasting - Why? <ul><li>Physical Objectives/benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>A fasting person experiences some of the hardships of the poor and hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological effects include lowering of blood sugar, cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves strength, endurance and self-discipline through physical abstentions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The (typical) Activities of Ramadan <ul><li>Sahoor : Meal before dawn and the first prayer of the day. People stay up late and usually sleep around 4:30 – 5:00 AM. </li></ul><ul><li>Iftar : breaking of the fast at Sunset (coincides with the 4 th daily prayer). </li></ul><ul><li>Ziarat: Social gatherings e.g. visiting relatives, sharing food with neighbours, friends, and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Tarawih : Optional Prayers at early night (20-21hrs*) </li></ul><ul><li>Qiraat : Reading of the Qur’ãn during free time. </li></ul><ul><li>Qiam : Optional late-night prayers in the last 10 days (02-04hrs*). </li></ul>* for 2005 only
  11. 11. Cairo Life in Ramadan <ul><li>Working hours : Most companies adjust their working hours in Ramdan, Typically, it is 10:00 AM to 3:00 PM. If you have fasting household staff, please plan to release them around 3:00 – 3:30 PM, so they can get home on time and join their families for the main meal (iftar) </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic : Traffic jams are normal in Cairo in Ramdan, especially in the 3 hours before Maghrib (sunset) when people break their fasting. Plan ahead to avoid getting stuck. </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping : Many shops decorate their windows specially for the month of Ramadan, and since there is huge demand for groceries (sugar, cooking oil, rice, dried fruits, etc.) during Ramadan, many shops do promotions/discounts on many items. Shops open late in Ramdan (10:30 AM or later) and some even won’t open at all before sunset (coffee shops, restaurants, etc.). Shops usually close around 12:00 AM, but many stay opened until 4:00 AM or even later (restaurants) </li></ul><ul><li>TV Channels : A large number of sitcoms, talk shows, and game shows air on almost every channel during Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Streets : Most streets in old Cairo are decorated during Ramdan with colourful paper cut-outs & confetti. In the modern parts of Cairo, these decorations are less visible, but still they look different in Ramdan. </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels : hotels offer a limited lunch menu, and no buffets, as the main open buffet is iftar, which is quite lavish in most hotels, and an experience for the whole family. </li></ul>* for 2005 only
  12. 12. Giving in Ramadan (gifts/gratuities) <ul><li>It is customary to give staff working in a household (drivers, house maids, nannies, etc.) a gratuity at the beginning of Ramdan. LE 50 to LE 100 per person should be enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively, some people opt to buy Ramadan foodstuff for their needy neighbours and household staff. A typical Ramadan bag contains one or more items of rice, cooking oil, dates & other dried fruits, beans, margarine, sugar, tea, and some pastry materials. </li></ul><ul><li>While neighbourhood kids no longer go knocking door to door asking for Ramadan treats, it is customary to give the neighbours’ kids (same building, etc.) sweets, nuts, or dried fruits. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of Ramadan, it is expected to give a monetary gratuity (called eideya) to household staff and all the family children. LE 50 to LE 100 per person is OK, and for children it can be higher, especially when grandparents give their grandchildren. If giving to a household staff (a driver, for example), make sure you give enough for him to be able to give his children their eideyas. </li></ul>* for 2005 only
  13. 13. Eid-ul-Fitr: Marking the End of Ramadan <ul><li>Eid-ul Fitr: The feast marking end of Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Zakat-ul Fitr: A prescribed amount of money obligatory on every Muslim, calculated to feed one poor person in his region for one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Eid activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eid prayer in the early morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visiting family, friends, neighbours, the sick, elderly etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoying festive meals (especially eid cookies in different forms/flavors). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modest gift-giving especially to children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greeting on that day is: Eid Mubarak </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. If you are working with Muslim colleagues <ul><li>Try to avoid the following for your Muslim colleagues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings which include lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings extending after 5 p.m. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department parties (or social events) during Ramadan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be understanding that it is the most special month in a Muslim’s calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>It is common to take vacation during the last week of Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting colleagues saying: “Ramadan Mubarak” (Blessed Ramadan) is a very nice way to cross into a new culture. </li></ul><ul><li>If invited to share Iftar, try to make it… it will be fun! </li></ul><ul><li>You may even want to try fasting part of the day as a challenge to yourself and to feel how Muslims feel during the day. </li></ul>Ramadan Etiquette
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Ramadan is a month of fasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abstentions and intensification of acts of worship are a means towards attaining the spiritual objectives of self purification and improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially a month of training used to discipline/prepare oneself for the remainder of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>Be considerate of and supportive to the Muslims around you, and enjoy the festivities! </li></ul><ul><li>Ramadan Mubarak TO ALL! </li></ul>