Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah

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Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah

  1. 1. ‫َِ َ َ َ‬ ‫﴿ت ِلۡك ٱدلار ٱٓأۡلخرةُ َنۡعلُها ل ََِّّلِينَ‬ ‫َ َّ ُ‬‫اداۚ‬ ‫َل يُريدون علوا ِف ٱۡلَۡرض وَل فَسَ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ُ َ ُُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وٱلۡعَٰقِبة ل ِلۡمتقِنيَ‬ ‫َ ُ َّ ٣٨﴾‬ ‫َ َ ُ‬ ‫1‬
  2. 2. ‫ُ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫الكي ِ‬ ‫َ ْفيُّ‬ ‫يفُمناظرِةُاملسمنيُبالسلَِفيَّةُ‬ ‫َّ َ َّ‬ ‫‪How to Debate with the‬‬ ‫‪So-Called Salafiyyah‬‬ ‫‪A Handbook for People of Sound Mind and Seekers of Truth‬‬ ‫هو ٱَّلِي أَنزل علَيك ٱلكِتَٰب مِنه ءايَٰت ُّمكمَٰت هن أُمح‬ ‫ح ۡ َ َ ٌ ُ َّ‬ ‫ُ َ َّ ٓ َ َ َ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ ۡ ُ َ َ‬‫ُ ُ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ َّ ُ َ‬‫ِف ُلوِِهۡ َيٞ َيتبِعون‬ ‫ٱلكِتَٰب وأُخر متَشبهَٰت فَأَما ٱَّلِينَ‬ ‫َّ َّ‬ ‫َ َ ُ ُ َ َٰ َ‬ ‫ۡ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ َ ۡ َ َۡ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ۡ َ ٓ ۡ َۡ ۡ َ ٓ َۡ‬‫َُٓ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ِ َ‬‫ما تشبه مِنه ٱبتِغاء ٱلفتنةِ وٱبتِغاء تأوِيلِهِۦ وما يعلۡ تأوِيلهۥ‬ ‫َٰ‬ ‫ُ ۡ‬ ‫ۡ ۡ َ ُ ُ َ َ َ َّ‬ ‫َّ َّ ُ َ َّ ُ َ‬ ‫إَِل ٱّللُۗ وٱلرَٰسخون ِف ٱلعِلۡ يقولون ءامنا بِهِۦ ك مِن عِند‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب٧‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َّ َّ ُ َّ ٓ ُ ْ ُ ْ ۡ َ ۡ َ‬ ‫رِِناُۗ وما يَذكر إَِل أولوا ٱۡللبَٰ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫2‬
  3. 3. Prophet Muĥammad  May Allah raise his majesty and nobility said: ُ‫إنُاهللُومالئكتهُحّتُاحليتانُيفُالبحر‬ ْ ّ ّ ‫ُلَيصلّونُعلىُمعلِّمُالناسُاخلري‬This means: “Verily, Allāh is Merciful to the onewho teaches the people the Religious Knowledge.His Angels and even the fish in the sea will askAllāh to forgive him.” This is related by at-Tirmidhiyy with Isnād Ŝaĥīĥ (an authentic chain ofnarration). Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus)  May Allah raise his majesty and nobility said: ُ‫منُعلِمُ ُ ُِ ُُمباُعلِمُيدعىُعظيما‬ ً َ ‫َ َ َ وعمل‬ َ َ ُ‫يفُملكوتُالسماء‬ ّThis means: “He who learns the ReligiousKnowledge and practices what he has learnt willbe called great among the Angels of theHeavens.” This is related by al-Ĥāfiđħ Ibnu-l-Jawziyy. 3
  4. 4. ContentsForward ..............................................................................................................8Publisher’s Introduction ................................................................................... 10Chapter One ..................................................................................................... 13Basic Refutation of the Wahhābi Creed ............................................................ 13 The Obligation of Following Ahlu-s-Sunnah ................................................ 13 The Wahhābi Attempt to Discredit the Nation at Large ................................ 16 The Madhhabs of Ahlu-s-Sunnah ................................................................. 17 Names that Have Been Attributed to the Wahhābis ...................................... 22 The Correct Belief in Allāh .......................................................................... 24 The Wahhābis Attribute a Body to Allāh ...................................................... 25 The Wahhābi Reasoning Behind Their Incorrect Belief ................................ 27 How the Wahhābis Interpret the Texts ..................................................... 30 The Truth about Majāz (Figurative Speech) ............................................. 32 The Truth about the Lawfulness of Ta’wīl ................................................ 35 The Wahhābis Reject Logic ..................................................................... 38 Reasoning is Necessary and Religiously Confirmed ................................. 39 The Mental Proof that the Wahhābis believe Allāh is a Body ................... 41 The Rational Conclusion which is Supported by the Texts ....................... 44 Islāmic Texts that Refute the Wahhābi Creed ............................................... 45 Proof from the Qur’ān that Refutes the Wahhābi Creed ............................ 45 The Priority of the Muĥkam Verses over the Mutashābih ......................... 47 Proof from the Ĥadīth that Refutes the Wahhābi Creed ............................ 51 Scholarly Texts Refuting the Wahhābi Creed ........................................... 53 The Validity of the Consensus.................................................................. 53 A Documentation of the Salaf’s Belief ..................................................... 54 Important Information and Advice ............................................................... 56 The Meaning of Kufr and Some of its Details .......................................... 57 4
  5. 5. Judging Someone as a Kāfir (Takfīr) ....................................................... 59 Having the Correct Intention ................................................................... 61 Refrain from Purposely Leading a Person to Say Kufr ............................. 62 Think First and Hold Your Tongue .......................................................... 63 The Importance of Focusing on the Belief ............................................... 64 Who are the Real Salaf? .............................................................................. 66Chapter Two .................................................................................................... 67A Refutation of their Misunderstanding of the Honorable Texts....................... 67 Translating the Qur’ān ................................................................................. 67 The Wahhābis Take Advantage of the Ignorant ........................................... 69 The Wahhābis Show Outward Adherence to the Sunnah .............................. 70 The Truth about the Ĥadīth of the Female Slave .......................................... 72 The Story Behind the Ĥadīth ................................................................... 72 The Wahhābi Misunderstanding of the Ĥadīth ......................................... 73 The Arabic Terms Have More Than One Meaning .................................. 73 Different Versions (Riwāyāt) of the Ĥadīth ............................................. 75 It is not Sufficient to Say “In the Sky!”.................................................... 77 Muslim’s Narration does not Support Them ............................................ 77 This Ĥadīth is not a Proof in the Issue of Belief ....................................... 78 A Scholarly Clarification ......................................................................... 79 The Wahhābi’s Ta’wīl for the Ĥadīth ...................................................... 81 Similar Texts ........................................................................................... 82 The Truth About Istiwā’ .............................................................................. 84 The Tafsīr of the Verse and How to Refute the Wahhābis Who Misinterpret It ............................................................................................................. 84 Similar Texts Used by Wahhābis ............................................................. 91 The Saying of Imām Mālik ...................................................................... 93 The Truth About the Ĥadīth of An-Nuzūl .................................................... 95 The Explanation of Ibn Ĥajar .................................................................. 95 The Sayings of the Prophet do not Lead to Irrational Matters .................. 98 A Similar Text ........................................................................................ 98 5
  6. 6. The Truth About the Ascension of the Good Words ..................................... 98 The Correct Meaning of the Verse ........................................................... 99 The Implications of the Literal Meaning ................................................ 100 A Similar Text ....................................................................................... 100 Allāh is not Attributed with a Shin ............................................................. 100 Allāh is not Attributed with a Face ............................................................. 101 Verses Mentioning the Attribute of Wajh ............................................... 102 Allāh is not Attributed with a Hand ............................................................ 103 The Saying of Abū Ĥanīfah .................................................................... 104 Allāh is not Attributed with Two Hands ................................................. 104 Allāh is not Attributed with an Eye ............................................................ 107 Conclusion ................................................................................................. 108 Three Easy Ways to Smash a Wahhābi .................................................. 113Appendix A: The Speech of Allāh .................................................................. 116 The 82nd Verse of Sūrat Yāsīn ................................................................ 117 The Meaning of the Word al-Qur’ān ...................................................... 119Appendix B: The Truth about Innovations ...................................................... 121 Not Every Innovation is Misguidance ......................................................... 121 Proof from the Ĥadīth about Good Innovations .......................................... 122 Other Texts Used by Wahhābis .................................................................. 123 Statements of Scholars about Good Innovations ......................................... 125 The Meaning of the Saying of ˇUmar Ibnu-l-Khaťťāb ................................ 127 Examples of Good Innovations................................................................... 128 The Commemoration of the Mawlid ........................................................... 129Appendix C: Who are the Heads of the Wahhābis? ......................................... 133 Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah................................................................................. 133 Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb ................................................................. 142 Al-Albāniyy ............................................................................................... 143 Others Whose Names are not Deserving of a Subtitle ................................. 145Appendix D: Rain Clouds over the Graves of the Ĥanābilah ........................... 147 6
  7. 7. Appendix E: Further Clarification Concerning the Origins of the Wahhābis....149Appendix F: A Chronological History of Ibn Taymiyah .................................154 Details of the events of 698 (Damascus) .....................................................154 Details of the events of 705 – 707 periods ..................................................155 Details of this period (Egypt) ......................................................................158 Details ........................................................................................................160 Details ........................................................................................................161 Repentance of Ibn Taymiyah (705) .............................................................164 The Decree of Ibn Qalawūn (705)...............................................................166 The Edict of the Four Head Judges in Egypt (726) ......................................170 The Ŝulťān’s Directive (Rajab 726) ............................................................171 References ..................................................................................................173 Epilogue .....................................................................................................174Transliteration System ....................................................................................177Vowels (Tashkīl) ............................................................................................178 Extension (Madd) .......................................................................................178 7
  8. 8. ForwardExcellent praise and gratitude are due to Allāh1, the Lord of the world. MayAllāh, the Exalted and Glorified, increase the rank and honor of ProphetMuĥammad  and protect his nation from what Muĥammad feared for it.Allāh, the Exalted, has praised those who exert themselves in the pursuit ofknowledge. He2 said3: ِ ِ ﴾‫﴿يَرفَعُٱهللُٱلَّذينُآمنواُمنكمُوٱلَّذينُأوتواُٱلعِلمُدرجات‬ ٍ ِ َ ََ َ ْ َ ُْ َ َ َ ِْThis means: “Allāh raises the rank of those amongst you who believed andacquired knowledge.”And Allāh said4: َ ْ َِ َُ ْ َِ ِْ َْ ْ ﴾‫﴿قلُهلُيَستَويُٱلَّذينُيَعلَمونُوٱلَّذينُالُيَعلَمون‬ َThis means: “Say (O Muĥammad), are those who know equal to those whodo not know?”The one who acquires the Islāmic knowledge will prevail and will have his statuselevated by Allāh. This is why Prophet Muĥammad urged his nation to acquirethe knowledge of the religion. Ibn Mājah related a Ĥadīth5 of the Prophet 6:1 Allāh is the proper name of the Creator.2 The words ‘He’, ‘His’ or ‘Him’ when used in reference to Allāh must not beunderstood to represent gender. Allāh has created both the male and the femaleand does not resemble either. Allāh referred to Himself in the Holy Qur’ān withHuwa (He) and not with hiya (she). Therefore, we refer to Allāh with ‘He’ or‘Him’ without associating Allāh with gender.3 Sūrat al-Mujādilah, verse 11.4 Sūrat az-Zumar, verse 9.5 Ĥadīth refers to the narrated sayings, doings, and approvals of the Prophet . 8
  9. 9. ُ،‫ياُأَباُذرُألَنُتَغدوُفَتَتَ علَّمُآيَةُمنُكِتَابُاهللُِخْي رُلَكُمنُأَنُتصلِّيُمائَة كعة‬ ٍ ْ‫ِ َُر‬ ََ ِ َ ْ ْ َ ٌَ ِ ِ ْ ً َ َ َ ْ ْ َّ ُ ‫وألَنُتَغدوُفَتَتَ علَّمُبَابًاُمنُالعِلْمُخْي رُلَكُمنُأَنُتصلِّيُأَلْف كع‬ ٍ ‫َ ُرْ َة‬ َ ِ َ ْ ْ َ ٌَ ِ َ ِ ََ َ ْ ْ َThis means: “O Abā Dhar, if you go and learn one verse of the Qur’ān it ismore rewardable for you than praying one hundred rakˇah (of the optionalprayers). If you go and learn a chapter of Islāmic knowledge, it is morerewardable for you than praying one thousand rakˇah (of the optionalprayers).”It is often referred to as the Sunnah.6 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 216. 9
  10. 10. Publisher’s IntroductionIslām is the Religion of all the Prophets of Allāh, who started with Ādam and ended with Muĥammad . One becomes Muslim by believing in the heartand declaring with the tongue that no one is God except Allāh and thatMuĥammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Utterance of the Two Testifications ofIslāmic Faith (ash-Shahādatayn) is required if one wants to embrace Islām andone is not dumb (mute). If a person is not able to speak for reason that his tongueis disabled and cannot move at all while his heart is saying the TwoTestifications of Islāmic Faith, this person becomes Muslim according to Allāh,the Exalted. This is because he is not able to utter these Two Testifications whilehis heart is saying them and believing in them.The first declaration of ash-Shahādatayn (“No one is God except Allāh”) meansthat nothing has the right to be worshipped except Allāh. The second declaration(“Muĥammad is the Messenger of Allāh”) includes the belief that Muĥammad was the last of the Prophets and that he was truthful in all that he said and in thatwhich he conveyed from Allāh (as were all the Prophets before him). It alsomeans that the Lord of the world has sent Prophets and Messengers in order toguide us and to teach us to worship Him correctly. The Muslim must believe inall of the Prophets, whether the Rasūl or the Nabiyy7, since all of them came withIslām; the Rusul (pl. Rasūl) were sent with different Religious Laws. That is,they came with one Religion, which is Islām, but with different rules. Imām al-Bukhāriyy related that the Prophet Muĥammad  said8: َُُّ ‫األَنْبِيَاءُإِخوٌُلِعالتُدين همُواحدُوأمهات همُش‬ ‫ْ َة َ ٍ ِ ْ َ ِ ٌ َ َّ َ ْ َ ّت‬This means: “The Prophets are like brothers with the same father, but withdifferent mothers. Their Religion is one, but their religious rules are7 The Rasūl is the Prophet who has been sent with a new religious law. TheNabiyy is the Prophet who has been commanded to follow the religious law ofthe previous Rasūl.8 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 3258; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 2365;Muŝannaf ˇAbdur-Razzāq, Ĥadīth No. 20845;. 10
  11. 11. different.” Moreover, Allāh, the Exalted, has said9: ﴾ُ ‫﴿إِنُٱ ِّينُعندُٱ ُُِٱإلسال‬ ‫َّ لد َ ِ َ هلل ِ ْ م‬This means: “Indeed, the only Religion that is accepted by Allāh is Islām.”Hence the term ‘revealed religions’ must not be used. Rather, one should refer to‘Revealed Religious Rules,’ because all the Prophets came with only one religionwhich is the Religion of Islām.Prophet Mūsa (Moses)  commanded the people to believe in Islām bytestifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Moses is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim.Similarly, Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus)  commanded the people to believe in Islāmby testifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Jesus is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim.Finally, Prophet Muĥammad  commanded the people to believe in Islām bytestifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Muĥammad is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim. Prophet Muĥammad said10: َُ‫أَفْضلُماُق لْتُأَناُوالنَّبِيُّونُمنُقَ ْبلِيُالُإِلهُاهللُوحدهُالُشريكُل‬ ‫َِ َ ه‬ َْ َ َ ِ ْ َ َ َThis means: “The best of what I and the Prophets before me have said is,‘there is no god except Allāh. He is the only God and there is no partnerwith Him’.”The Two Testifications of Islāmic Faith (ash-Shahādatayn) are the essence ofIslām; they are the foundation of the faith. The analogy of constructing abuilding is useful in that it explains the importance of these basic beliefs. Therewill be no building without a concrete foundation. Similarly, there will be nobenefit in the Hereafter without first having the correct belief. This analogyillustrates the need to start from the beginning and to build upward. In order to be9 Sūrat Āl-ˇImrān, verse 19.10 Narrated by Imām Mālik in al-Muwaťťa’, Ĥadīth No. 498 and al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Bayhaqiyy in Sunan al-Kubrā, Ĥadīth No. 9247. 11
  12. 12. Muslim one must firmly believe that there is no God but Allāh and thatMuĥammad  is the Messenger of Allāh. Believing in the heart and declaringwith the tongue that there is no God but Allāh and that Muĥammad  is theMessenger of Allāh is the foundation of the Islāmic Faith. Indeed all Muslims areunited by this basic belief. Muslims use the sound mind as a guide because thereis nothing in the Religious Law that the sound mind will reject. The sound mindwill bear witness to the truthfulness of Religious Law. Religious Knowledge isessential, since learning gives one strength and purpose.Learning ‘The Obligatory Religious Knowledge’ puts the Muslim on the roadtowards moral excellence and self-betterment. The Muslim uses that knowledgeto differentiate between what is lawful and what is unlawful and between what isacceptable and valid worship and what is invalid. The Muslims are distinguishedfrom one another by the amount of Islāmic knowledge that they attain and applyduring their lives.Believing in and declaring that, “No one is God except Allāh and Muĥammad isthe Messenger of Allāh,” is the most important thing that any person can do andis necessary before any good deeds can be accepted for the purposes of theHereafter. The one who becomes Muslim and stays Muslim will have theenjoyment of Paradise without end in the Hereafter. The one who rejects Islāmwill suffer the torture of Hellfire without end in the Hereafter. Undoubtedly, wewill all face death. The one who is prepared for the Day of Judgment is the onewho knows, accepts and applies the Sunni Creed and implements the teachingsof Prophet Muĥammad  in all sincerity to Allāh, the Exalted.We have published this book in an effort to expose the lies and exaggerations ofthe Wahhābi/so-called Salafi movement that have been spread far and wide. Weask Allāh to support us in this effort. Without the protection of Allāh no one canevade sinning, and without the help of Allāh no one has the strength to obeyHim11.Contemplate this and know with certainty that you will not be able to benefitfrom this great book unless the Lord of the world helps you and we would nothave been able to complete it without Allāh’s help. May Allāh make its benefitwidespread.11 This is the meaning of “Lā ĥawla wa-lā quwwata illā billāh” as mentioned inan authentic Ĥasan Ĥadīth related by Abū Yaˇlā from Ibn Masˇūd from theProphet (peace be upon him). 12
  13. 13. Chapter One Basic Refutation of the Wahhābi CreedIf Allāh willed, this book will shed light on some of the deviant beliefs of the so-called Salafis/Salafiyyah, those whom the Muslims call theWahhābis/Wahhābiyyah. Hopefully, it will be helpful in understanding whatthese misguided people believe, why they believe it, and give some basic tips onhow to refute them. Although the intention is to keep this book as simple aspossible, learning Islāmic knowledge on one’s own is not encouraged by thereligion. This book is equipped with footnotes for unfamiliar terms, but oneshould not attempt to teach Islām to himself by simply reading books anddepending on his own understanding. Since this is so, every accountable personis obligated to go to a knowledgeable teacher from Ahlu-s-Sunnah12, and if thereis no teacher in his area, he must travel to find one, as said by the renownedShāfiˇiyy scholar Aĥmad Ibn Rislān13 in his famous millennial14 poem entitled az-Zubad: ُِ َُ ‫َُنُملُيَُ ُِ ُ ُُِّم‬ ‫جدُمعل ً اُفلريحل‬ َ ‫م‬ ُُِ ‫ُُذاُفليسأل‬ ‫َُنُملُيكنُيعلم‬ ‫م‬This means: “Whoever does not know, then let him ask, and whoever does notfind a teacher, then let him travel.”May Allāh guide us to knowledgeable teachers who can fill us with knowledge. The Obligation of Following Ahlu-s-SunnahKnow that in a very well known ĥadīth with several narrations, the Messenger ofAllāh (ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām15) warned about 72 sects that would deviate12 The Sunni/Sunniyy Muslims; the group which follows the method of theCompanions of the Prophet .13 Aĥmad Ibn Ĥusayn Ibn Ĥasan Ibn Rislān ar-Ramliyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy (775 AH).14 1000 lined.15 Meaning, “May Allāh raise the rank of Prophet Muĥammad and protect hisNation from whatever he feared for it.” 13
  14. 14. from the correct path of the Muslims. He said 16: ًَُُ ُِ ‫وُِ َُُّ َُ ُُُاأل ُ ُُ ََُتُ ُْت ُُعلىَُُ ٍُُو َُُ ُِ َُُُُِرَُةُُ ُُُّ َُاُيفُالَُّا ُُُُُِّو‬ ‫ن ر إال ُاحدة‬ َ ِ ‫ثالث ُسْبعني ف ْق ً كله‬ َ َ َّ ِ ِ ‫إن هذه مة س ف َُِق‬This means: “Surely, this nation will divide into 73 factions. All of them willbe in Hell except one.” That path is the way of Ahlu-s-Sunnah wa-l-Jamāˇah,which means “the People of the Sunnah17 and the Majority”. They are calledAhlu-s-Sunnah for short. They are referred to in a ĥadīth18: ‫فمنُأرادُُببوحةُاجلنّةُفَلْيَلزِمُاجلماعة‬ َ َ ََ ْ َ ْ َThis means: “Whoever wishes for the prosperity of Paradise then let himstick to the Jamāˇah.” The Prophet  taught his Companions19 that 72 out of73 different sects would be in Hellfire. Some will dwell in Hell forever becauseof a blasphemous conviction. Some will dwell therein for a limited time knownto Allāh, due to a deviant creed that did not reach blasphemy 20, for every creedthat does not comply with the creed of the Prophet and his Companions is amajor sin if it does not reach the level of blasphemy 21. Only one group out of the73 groups would deserve Paradise without first being tortured in Hell. His16 Narrated by ad-Dārimiyy, Abū Dāwūd, al-Ĥākim, Ibn Abi-d-Dunyā, at-Tirmidhiyy, Ibn Ĥibbān, and Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal.17 Sunnah has many meanings. Linguistically, it means, “a way”. Religiously, itcould refer to the ĥadīth of the Prophet; to the optional, recommended, andrewardable matters; and to the Prophet’s  practice of the religion in general,including the obligations.18 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2165.19 Companion refers to those who met the Prophet , believed in him, and diedas Muslims.20 Blasphemy (kufr) is the opposite of belief.21 An example of a deviant creed that does not reach the level of blasphemy isthe creed of those who say that after the death of the Prophet, Abū Bakr, ˇUmarand ˇUthmān all took the rulership before ˇAliyy unjustly. This is deviant becauseit contradicts the agreement of the Companions. 14
  15. 15. Companions asked him about that single group, and he  told them: 22 ‫اجلماعة‬ َThis means: “The Jamāˇah.”Ahlu-s-Sunnah, the People of the Prophet’s Method, is the group with the largestfollowing. In one narration, the Prophet  said23: ِ ‫َُُ ُ ََُُيُُ ُُاخُِالفًاُفُ َُُُ ُ ُُُِْ َُّو ُُا َُ ُ َُم‬ ‫فِإذاُرأ ْتم ْ ت َعلْيكم بالسُاد ألعظ‬ َ ْ َ َThis means: “If you see (unacceptable) differences among you, then adhereto as-Sawādu-l-Aˇđħam (the vast majority).” These different narrations ofĥadīth comply with each other. There is no contradiction between that single,guided group being the “Jamāˇah” and being “as-Sawādu-l-Aˇđħam”. “Jamāˇah”means “group”, and must be explained to comply with the other ĥadīth, so in thiscontext it means the majority.In another narration, the Prophet  named that group24: ِ ‫َُاََُُُ ُ ُُوَُ ُْ َُايب‬ ‫م أناُعليه ُأصح‬ َ َThis means: “The group which is upon what my Companions and I areupon.” There is still no conflict in the different descriptions of Ahlu-s-Sunnah,for historically, the majority of Muslims have always had the same belief sincethe time of the Companions, who never disagreed about the basics of beliefamong themselves.The majority of Muslims did not disagree about the validity of the rulership ofthe four pious Caliphs after the Prophet, nor did they deny the attributes [ofAllāh] or liken them to the attributes of the creations. They did not deny thetorture of the grave, or believe that major sins take a person out of Islām. Theydid not deny that Allāh can be seen, although He is seen without having a shape,22 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 4597.23 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3950.24 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2641. 15
  16. 16. form or color. They did not deny destiny, or that there will be believers who willbe tortured in Hell, or that people have wills; all of which were beliefs held bydifferent deviant groups throughout history. Never has the majority disagreedabout the basics of the correct belief, and we challenge anyone to bring evidenceof such a disagreement. Until today, 75% to 80% of the nation has the samebelief, and from that, we know that the so-called Salafis are deviant people, sincethey consider most of the Muslims throughout the world as mushriks25 and badinnovators.The Wahhābi Attempt to Discredit the Nation at LargeA Wahhābi may put up a defense in this area. Proving that the nation as a wholewill always be guided necessitates that any small group who disagrees with themajority of the nation is misguided. Therefore, for a Wahhābi, it is imperative todiscredit this notion since he does not and cannot deny that they are a smalloutnumbered group. To do that, he may mention the poor situation of Muslimstoday, their lack of knowledge and being overwhelmed with sins.This is why we, Ahlu-s-Sunnah, say that the belief of the majority of the nationwill always be correct. They would not agree upon a misguided creed. However,the Prophet foretold that his nation will become weak and sinful. There areseveral narrations about this, among them26: ٍ َّ ِ ُ ُِ َُ ُُ ُْ ََُُُُُ‫َُ َُ ُِّ ُُُِ َُُّ ُُِ ََُُُ َُ ُُُأ ُيت‬ ‫املتمسك بسنيتُعْند فساد م له أجر شهيد‬This means: “Whoever adheres to my Sunnah upon the corruption of mynation has the reward of a martyr.” This corruption in the nation does notmean that the majority will believe in a deviant creed. Similar is the ĥadīth27: ُ‫وُِ َُُُّ َُُ ُ ُُْ َُ ُُُ ُ َُُِ ُُْ ُ َُُِتُ َُاُيفَُُوهلا‬ ُ ‫َُإن أمتكم هذه جعلت عافي ه أ‬ َّ َ ِِ َّ ‫و َُُ ُِ ُُ ُُِرهاُُِ ٌُُوُأ ُ ٌُُتُُ ُروهنا‬ ِ ُ‫ُسيصيب آخ بالء ُ مور َنْك‬ َ َ25 Mushrik is someone who associates partners with Allāh.26 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ ať-Ťabarāniyy in al-Muˇjam al-Awsať, Ĥadīth No.5414.27 Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 4191; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3956. 16
  17. 17. This means: “Allāh’s protection (the ˇāfiyah) has been granted to thebeginning of this nation of yours, and its end will be inflicted with hardshipand matters to which you object.” A Wahhābi may also produce the verse28: ﴾ُ ‫﴿وقَلِيل ُِنُعبَاديُٱ َّك‬ ‫َ ٌُم ْ ِ ِ َ لش ور‬This means: “Only few of My slaves (the slaves of Allāh) are very thankful.”We tell them that this is in reference to piety- that few slaves of Allāh refrainfrom using their endowments sinfully, which is ungratefulness to Allāh. Thereare other narrations about this issue, so know that they may produce severalreferences. The ĥadīths already mentioned are enough to prove them wrong.The Wahhābis took the name of Ahlu-s-Sunnah for themselves, but if they are aminority, only a couple million strong, how can they still claim the name? It iseasy if one merely distorts the meaning of “jamāˇah”. To fool others, and toconsider the millions upon millions upon millions of Muslims as misguided, theysay, “The Jamāˇah can be one person.” This statement may be applicable to aperson truly following Ahlu-s-Sunnah, which is the majority, but is secluded andsurrounded by misguided people. The case of the Wahhābis does not apply. Weseek the protection of Allāh from such sly deviance. The Madhhabs of Ahlu-s-SunnahIn reality, Ahlu-s-Sunnah is the vast, vast majority of Muslims. They stuck to thesame belief since the time of the Prophet  and never deviated from it. Ahlu-s-Sunnah follows the four famous madhhabs29 in obedience to Allāh and HisMessenger, without disputing the validity of any of them, despite the differencesamong them. It is important to know that in the past, there were other validschools, like the school of Abū ˇAmr Abdur-Raĥmān al-Awzāˇiyy, as well asothers, but these four are the remaining schools. The followers of these schoolstook great care to document their schools and pass them down to the followinggenerations.The largest of those four schools is the Ĥanafiyy School, the followers of the28 Sūrat Saba’, verse 13.29 Madhhab “school of practical rules” refers to the work of scholars following aparticular mujtahid. Sometimes the word is used for other meanings. 17
  18. 18. great Imām Abū Ĥanīfah an-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit al-Kūfiyy30. Imām Mālik IbnAnas al-Aŝbaĥiyy31 was a contemporary of his, and the greatest scholar in thecity of al-Madīnah at his time. His school, the Mālikiyy school, is the mostwidely spread in Africa, with the exception of the eastern African countries.Imām Muĥammad Ibn Idrīs ash-Shāfiˇiyy32 was the greatest student of Mālik, andhis school, the Shāfiˇiyy School, is the most common in the areas of Lebanon,Palestine, Syria, and Jordon, as well as Indonesia and Malaysia, and manySyrians are Ĥanafiyy. As for the Hambaliyy school, the followers of ImāmAĥmad [Ibn Muĥammad] Ibn Ĥambal ash-Shaybāniyy33, it is the smallest of thefour, because many of the people who likened Allāh to the creations attributedthemselves to that school and have defamed it - repelling people from adheringto it. Ahlu-s-Sunnah believes that if someone follows any one of thosemadhhabs, he would be guided. By that, they respect the acceptable differenceswithin the boundaries of the Islāmic Sharīˇah (Law), as validated by the Prophethimself, and just as the Companions respected the different judgments given byother mujtahid34 Companions.30 He is the Great Imām, al-Mujtahid, an-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit Ibn an-Nuˇmān Ibnal-Marzubān al-Kūfiyy. He was born in the year 80 AH and died in 150 AH. Hewas buried in Baghdād. Among his teachers was Ĥammād Ibn Abī Sulaymān,ˇAťā’ Ibn Abī Rabāĥ, Abū Isĥāq as-Sabiˇiyy, ash-Shaˇbiyy, Maĥārib Ibn Dathar,al-Haytham Ibn Ĥabīb as-Sawwāf, Muĥammad Ibn Munkadir, Nāfiˇ, Abū Bakraz-Zuhriyy, Abu-l-Ĥasan Zayd Ibn al-Ĥusayn, and Abū Jaˇfar Muĥammad IbnˇAliyy Ibn al-Ĥusayn Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Abī Ťālib.31 Al-Imām, al-Mujtahid, Abū ˇAbdillāh Mālik Ibn Anas Ibn Mālik Ibn ˇAmr al-Aŝbaĥiyy al-Madaniyy. He was born in 93 AH and died in 179 AH. He is theauthor of al-Muwaťťa’. Imām ash-Shāfiˇiyy said about his book that it was themost authentic book on the earth after the Qur’ān. Among his teachers wasAyyūb ash-Shakhtiyāniyy, Jaˇfar aŝ-Ŝādiq, ˇAťā’ Ibn Abī Rabāĥ, Muĥammad IbnMunkadir, Nāfiˇ, and Abū Bakr az-Zuhriyy.32 Al-Imām, al-Mujtahid, Abū ˇAbdillāh Muĥammad Ibn Idrīs ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Muťťalibiyy. He was born in 150 AH in Ghazzā and died in 204 AH in Cairo.Among his teachers was: Mālik Ibn Anas, Muĥammad Ibn al-Ĥasan ash-Shaybāniyy, and ˇAbdur-Razzāq aŝ-Ŝanˇāniyy.33 Al-Imām al-Mujtahid Aĥmad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Ĥambal ash-Shaybāniyy al-Marwaziyy. He was born 164 AH in Marw and died in 241 in Baghdād. Amonghis teachers was: Hushaym, Sufyān Ibn ˇUyaynah, and ash-Shāfiˇiyy.34 Mujtahid refers to the top scholars who deduce judgments in case the ruling is 18
  19. 19. Clear evidence from the incidents that took place between the Companions at thetime of the Prophet is what was narrated by Imām Muĥammad Ibn Ismāˇīl al-Bukhāriyy35 from the route of Ibn ˇUmar36: ‫ََُُُاُملاُر َُ ُُ ُِ َُُا َُ ُْز ُُِال يصلين أحد العصر‬ُ‫عنُابنُعمرُقال:ُقالُالنيب‬ ‫لن َُجع من ألح اب‬ ََُُّ َُ ُُِّ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ‫إال ي َن ق ريظةََُُُ ُرَُُبُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُْ ُُيفُال َُُّر ُُِفُ ُ َُُب‬ ‫فأدَُك َعضهمُالعصر ط ِيق َقال َعضهمُالُنصليُحّت‬ َ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ّ َُُُِ ‫ََُُُِْيُ َُاُوَُ َُُبُ ُ ُ ُ َُ ُُُ ُُِّيُملُيُُرُُ َُُِّاُ ُُِ ََُُُذ‬ ‫َد من ذَلك فَُكر‬ ْ ‫نأت ه ُقال َعضهمُبل نصل‬ َ ْ ْ َ ‫ُفَُُ ُُْيُ ُُِّ ُُْو ُِ ًُ ُِنُْ ُم‬ُ‫ُللَُّيب‬ ‫َلم عنف ُاحداُم ه‬ َ َ ‫ن‬This means: “Ibn ˇUmar said, ‘When he returned from the battle against theunited parties37 the Prophet said to us, ‘No one prays al-ˇAsr until reachingBanī Qurayđħah38.’ Some of them were in route when the ˇAŝr prayer came in.Some said, ‘We do not pray until we get there.’ Some of them said, ‘No, we shallpray, that is not what he wanted from us.’ That was (later) mentioned to theProphet and he did not scold anyone of them.” The evidence contained in thisĥadīth is that some mujtahid companions understood the apparent expression ofthe Prophet, and thus took it to be permission to pray ˇAsr outside of its time if itmeant praying it only at their destination. Others understood that the Prophet wastelling them to rush to their destination so to pray the prayer in its time there, butnot to pray the Prayer outside of its time.Had their difference been unacceptable, the Prophet would have scolded thosewho disobeyed him, because the belief of the Muslims is that the Prophet doesnot remain silent in the face of sins. Thus, Ahlu-s-Sunnah, unlike the Wahhābis,follows the Companions in what they did in reference to imitation (taqlīd) ofscholars and following schools. As a result, they did not tamper with the rules ofthe Religion. More will be mentioned about the validity of following the schoolsin the section about the Wahhābi grandfather, Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah.All of Ahlu-s-Sunnah have the same belief. They belong to one of two madhhabsnot explicitly mentioned in the Qur’ān or Ĥadīth.35 Al-Imām Muĥammad Ibn Ismāˇīl al-Bukhāriyy (194 – 256 AH).36 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 904.37 Al-Aĥzāb.38 They were a tribe of Jews who had breached their treaty with the Prophet. 19
  20. 20. of ˇaqīdah (creed), even if some do so without realization. Knowing about this isimportant. In brief, the two madhhabs of ˇaqīdah do not have different creeds.They carry the same basic belief. The difference between them is in such mattersas definitions and terminology. In other words, the base of these two schools isthe same. The outcome they reached in regards to the belief is the same. Theirdifferences are in issues like defining terms, ways of analyzing proofs, and thelike. If someone follows one of the schools of ˇaqīdah, the Ashˇariyy39 School orthe Māturīdiyy40 School, he follows the belief of the Prophet of Allāh  and hisCompanions, just as the one who follows the method of the previouslymentioned schools of fiqh follows the method of the Prophet of Allāh  and hisCompanions.If someone says, “If their belief is the same, why have two different schools, andif they have two different schools, how could they both be the guided faction?”The answers for these two questions are as follows:The first is that they are different schools because they were established by twodifferent men in two different areas, but both with the same basic belief.Naturally, being different individuals, they would differ in their terminology andexpressions, even if their belief were the same. Then, the scholars who cameafter them applied the method of those two scholars, and taught according totheir ways, out of confession that those two scholars were the masters of theirtime in the science of the creed, just as al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim41 were the39 Al-Imām Abu-l-Ĥasan ˇAliyy Ibn Ismāˇīl Ibn Isĥāq Ibn Sālim Ibn Ismāˇīl IbnˇAbdillāh Ibn Mūsā Ibn Bilāl Ibn Abī Bardah Ibn Abī Musā al-Ashˇariyy al-Baŝriyy. He was born in 260 AH and died in 324 AH. After leaving theMuˇtazilah, he devoted himself to defending the creed of Ahlu-s-Sunnah. Hetook the Shāfiˇiyy Fiqh from Abū Isĥāq al-Marwaziyy. Among his students was:Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Bāhiliyy, Abu-l-Ĥasan ať-Ťabariyy, Abū Sahl as-Suˇlūkiyy (theshaykh of al-Ĥākim an-Naysābūriyy), Ibn Mujāhid and many more.40 He was the Imām of Guidance, Abū Manŝūr Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad IbnMaĥmūd as-Samarqandiyy al-Māturīdiyy al- Ĥanafiyy. He died in the year 333AH. Among his teachers was al-Imām Abū Bakr Aĥmad al-Jawzajāniyy al-Ĥanafiyy who took from al-Imām Abū Sulaymān Musā Ibn Sulaymān al-Jawzajāniyy al-Ĥanafiyy who took from al-Qāďī Abū Yūsuf Yaˇqūb Ibn Ibrāhīmal-Anŝāriyy who took from al-Imām Abū Ĥanīfah An-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit.41 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Muslim Ibn Ĥajjāj al-Qushayriyy an-Naysabūriyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 202 AH and died in 261 AH. He was the most 20
  21. 21. masters in ĥadīth narration42, and the Four Imāms were the masters of Fiqh.Thus, anyone who took by the way of al-Ashˇariyy in expressing the matters ofthe creed was attributed to his school. Likewise is said about whoever taught andauthored according to the way of al-Māturīdiyy.The answer to the second question is that the fact that they share the same basiccreed confirms that both groups are the guided faction, just as the Companions,who had the same basic creed, differed about whether the Prophet saw Allāh.Some, like Ibn ˇAbbās, said that he saw Allāh with his heart43. Others likeˇĀ’ishah Bint Abī Bakr, said that he did not see Allāh. Some of Ahlu-s-Sunnahsaid that he saw Allāh with his eyes. Yes, what is correct is that he saw Allāhwith his heart and not with his eyes, and that no one will see Allāh with theireyes in this lifetime, the proof for which does not befit this summarized booklet,but the point is that this difference does not mean that the Companions havedivided into factions. They all still have the same basic belief, which is that Allāhcan be seen. Likewise, the differing expressions between the Ashˇariyyah and theMāturīdiyyah do not make them two different factions, because their basic creedis the same. Hence, what is precise is to say that they are two schools within thesame guided faction.In explaining the Muslim’s creed, most scholars, like the Shāfiˇiyy and theMālikiyy scholars, are Ashˇariyyah, also known as al-Ashāˇirah. Others, usuallyĤanafiyy scholars, are Māturīdiyyah, and it should be known that they are notfew. The Wahhābis hate both groups, claiming that al-Ashāˇirah and al-Māturīdiyyah are deviants.They are cornered into this claim, because both fountains of knowledge refutethe Wahhābi creed, and all other deviant creeds. Furthermore, since they claimthat the Ashāˇirah are deviant, and since most of the scholars are Ashāˇirah, theyoften quote scholars whom they would consider deviant. The authority ofheavyweight scholars like an-Nawawiyy44, Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy45, and al-accomplished student of Imām al-Bukhāriyy.42 If someone asks, “Do al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim have a school in ĥadīth?” Theanswer is: yes. Among the scholars who followed the way of those two imāmswas Abū ˇAbdillāh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh al-Ĥākim an-Naysabūriyy, theauthor of al-Mustadrak.43 Not in his heart! Rather, with his heart instead of his eyes.44 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Abū Zakariyyā Muĥyu-d-Dīn Yaĥyā Ibn Sharaf an-Nawawiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 631 AH and died in 676 AH. 21
  22. 22. Bayhaqiyy46 give their books and lessons an authentic tone, although in realitysuch scholars refuted and disagreed with the Wahhābi beliefs. The Wahhābispick and choose what they like from the scholars’ comments and judgments, thenif one were to show them what those scholars believed, those Wahhābis wouldsay, “O, but he is an Ashˇariyy!” Ahlu-s-Sunnah is moderate, safe between thedifferent extremes that are and have been practiced. Unlike the Wahhābis, theydo not liken the attributes of Allāh to the attributes of the creations. Nor do theydeny the attributes or existence of Allāh, as the Wahhābis would accuse them.They do not deem the intellect as something that has priority over the rules ofAllāh, nor do they stoop like the Wahhābis and read the Qur’ān and the ĥadīthwithout using their minds. Some scholars said that the one who reads theRevelation without using his mind is like the one who steps into the light withhis eyes closed, and the one who uses his mind without using the Revelation islike the one who steps into the darkness with his eyes opened. We must step intothe light with our eyes opened. We must accept the Revelation of Allāh and useour minds (according to the guidance of the great scholars of Islām). Names that Have Been Attributed to the WahhābisAl-Mushabbihah; “the Likeners”, are among the ancient, deviant factions aboutwhich the Prophet  warned. They are religiously defined as the people wholiken the self of Allāh to the selves of His creations, or they liken His attributesto their attributes. The so-called Salafis; “the followers of the Salafi Daˇwah”, asthey call themselves, are a modern branch of al-Mushabbihah, as we will prove,if Allāh willed.Rather than being Salafi (followers of the scholars of the first 300 years), theyare talafiyy (destructive). Do not call them Salafi, call them imposters. Call them“so-called Salafis”, or “pseudo (fake) Salafis”. Put “Salafi” in quotation marks to45 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām, the Seal of the Scholars of Ĥadīth, Abu-l-Faďl Aĥmad IbnĤajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 773 AH and died in 852 AH.Among his teachers was: Sirāj al-Bulqīniyy, Ibnu-l-Mulaqqin, al-Ĥāfiđħ Zaynu-d-Dīn al-ˇIrāqiyy, al-Ustādh at-Tanūkhiyy and many others.46 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Ŝāĥibu-l-Wujūh, Abū Bakr Aĥmad Ibn al-Ĥusayn IbnˇAliyy al-Bayhaqiyy, an-Naysābūriyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Ashˇariyy. He was born inthe year 384 AH and died in 458 AH. Among his teachers was: al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Ĥākim an-Naysābūriyy, Muĥammad Ibn Maĥmish az-Ziyādiyy, Abū ˇAbdir-Raĥmān as-Sulamiyy, Abū Sulaymān al-Khaťťābiyy, al-Imām Abū Bakr IbnFūrak and al-Ustādh Abū Manŝūr al-Baghdādiyy. 22
  23. 23. show that you do not consider them to actually be Salafi. If Allāh willed, we willalso speak about the true Salaf.Call them the Wahhābiyyah, the name given to them by the scholars when theyfirst deviated more than 200 years ago, emerging from the land of Najd in theArabian Peninsula, following their master, Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb an-Najdiyy. ***EXTRA DETAIL***One would find many Wahhābis who are offended by being called Wahhābis,and say that it is sinful to use the term, because it is derived from the name ofAllāh: “al-Wahhāb” (the one who gives abundantly). They would say, “How canyou use Allāh’s name to refer to people you consider deviant, is this notbelittling His name?” This is yet another example of their ignorance. Had theyknown some of the basics of the Arabic language, they would not argue thispoint. In the books of Arabic morphology (ŝarf), which is the knowledge of thestructures of the words, there is a chapter called “an-Nasab”, which means toattribute/relate something to something else. For example, if someone isattributed to the tribe of Quraysh, he would be “Qurashiyy”, and if he was afollower of Imām Mālik he would be “Mālikiyy”. We are not actually attributingthose people to al-Wahhāb, who is Allāh the Exalted, but to Muĥammad IbnˇAbdil-Wahhāb or more specifically to the last part of his name: ˇAbdul-Wahhāb(the slave of al-Wahhāb). This name is composed of two words: “ˇabd (slave)”and “al-Wahhāb”, which is Allāh’s name. When someone is attributed to aperson with this type of constructed name, one of the two parts must be omitted.And so, the first part of the name in this case is omitted and the second part iskept. Hence, anyone attributed to Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb is not called“ˇAbdiyy”, but “Wahhābiyy”. ***They also call themselves Ahlu-l-Ĥaqq (the People of the Truth) and Ahlu-l-Ĥadīth (the People of [the science of] Ĥadīth). When calling themselves Ahlu-l-Ĥadīth, they truly mean that they (unrightfully) make ijtihād47 from the ĥadīths,bypassing what the mujtahids said. They have also been called Lā Madhhabiyyah(those who do not claim any school of fiqh), and Ghayru-l-Muqallidīn (thosewho do not imitate). They explain this name to mean that they do not merely47 Ijtihād is the effort put by the mujtahid to deduce judgments not explicitlymentioned in the Qur’ān or Ĥadīth. 23
  24. 24. imitate the scholars, rather they imitate the Prophet through the ĥadīth, but infact, it means that they do not follow qualified scholarship.Truly, they are Ahlu-l-Kibr (the People of Arrogance), Ahlu-đ-Ďalālah (thepeople of misguidance), al-Mushabbihah (the people who liken Allāh to Hiscreations), al-Mujassimah (the people who believe that Allāh has a body), al-Ĥashwiyyah (people who speak nonsense) and kuffār (blasphemers), amongother titles.It is easy for an ignorant person to commit kufr (blasphemy) because of them.Many people have fallen into their snare. Except for their kufr, they talk anddress like Muslims. However, if lent a listening ear, they surely will throw anunfortunate person into the black flames of Jahannam48. This does not includepeople who do not believe the bad belief of the Wahhābis, but may affiliatethemselves with the so-called Salafis.The Wahhābis are as the Prophet  said49: ُ‫أناسُمنُجلدتناُيتكلمونُبألسنتناُتسمعُمنهمُوتنكرُدعاةُعلىُأبوابُجهنم‬ ‫منُاستمعُإليهمُقذفوهُفيها‬ ْ َThis means: “There are people who look like us and talk with our talk. Youwould hear their message and reject. They are preachers at the gates ofHell. They will throw whoever listens to them in it.” The Correct Belief in AllāhTo avoid confusion, the correct creed will be discussed before discussing theirincorrect creed.Know that Allāh exists differently from anything else. His self is His reality, andnot a body. He alone is without a beginning, because no one created Him. He isthe only Creator. He exists everlastingly and does not change. He is perfect.Before creating the creations, He existed without them. He existed before theskies or the ˇArsh50 existed, and He now exists as He eternally existed, without48 Jahannam is a name of Hell.49 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6673; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 1847.50 The ˇArsh “Throne” is the ceiling of Paradise. 24
  25. 25. those creations affecting or changing Him.He is alive without a body or soul, and without needing sustenance. He isknowledgeable without a teacher and does not learn or forget. He possesses theperfect knowledge of everything, and the creations exist only as He knew theywould. He has power to bring things from non-existence into existence. Hecreates without tools and without getting weak or sleepy. He has the eternal andeverlasting Will, by which He specified His creations with particular places,directions, shapes, colors, times, changes, movement, stability, hardships, ease,choice, wills, and everything else He eternally willed for His creations. Hismanagement is unhindered and uninterrupted. He cannot be distracted becauseHe does not have limbs. He has no partner, wife, parent, son, branch, origin, noropposite. He does not need anything, not a space to occupy, nor time to bindHim. He is not benefited nor harmed by His creatures. He eternally sees andhears everything without eyes or ears, without looking into a direction, withoutneeding volume or sound waves, light, time, or space. Nothing is hidden fromHim. He speaks with His eternal Kalām (Speech), without it being of a word,letter, sound, nor language. It is not the result of organs touching or air moving,and it does not come from any direction. Allāh does not resemble anything in theworld. He is not composed of particles, nor does He have the characteristics ofparticles, such as color, shape, place, motion, stillness, texture, temperature, etc.He is neither inside nor outside of something, since those are places for bodies.He is not in a particular place, nor is He everywhere. He exists without being inany place. He does not have the attributes of the creations. The creations are notparts or attributes of Allāh. All of His attributes are eternal and everlasting. Theyare not organs or emotions. Since His Self is Eternal, His attributes cannot becreated. He is different from whatever is imagined. Let there be no doubt thatthis is the correct belief in Him, the mighty Lord with the perfect names. The Wahhābis Attribute a Body to AllāhThe focus of our discussion will be the Wahhābis’ disbelief in the attributes ofAllāh. They claim Tawĥīd, but they really believe in tajsīm (attributing bodilyattributes to Allāh).Their belief is that Allāh has attributes whose linguistic meanings refer to theattributes of a body. This means that the meanings they choose to ascribe toAllāh are meanings that imply a bodily reference, like organs, places and motion.Notice the word “meanings”. They intend particular (bodily) definitions whenthey use certain words. Let whoever talks to one of them pay attention not onlyto the words they use, but also to the meanings they intend.They believe that Allāh has a real face that should be understood literally. They 25
  26. 26. believe that He has two real eyes, and that He actually smiles (these are theirown words) and laughs. Their grandfather, Abu-l-ˇAbbās Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyahal-Ĥarrāniyy, claimed that Allāh spoke after He was not speaking. They believethat Allāh speaks Arabic, claiming that whenever Allāh creates, He literally says“‫( ُن‬Kun) (be; exist)”. They say that Allāh is attributed with a very real pair of ‫ك‬hands that must be understood as stated, and that Allāh really holds creations inthem.They believe that He has a real right hand and a real left hand, and some said Heonly has two right hands, because a left would not befit Him.They believe that Allāh has real fingers, but they may have different opinionsabout how many. At least, they would say He has two, and some may say six.They have been known to say that Allāh sits on His ˇArsh, but it seems that wastoo easy to refute, so they reverted to saying that He is above His ˇArsh. Theyfocus on attributing places and directions to Him. They say He is “above”, andthey mean it in the physical sense. They claim that He is above the seven skies,above the ˇArsh, which is the ceiling of Paradise.They believe that Allāh is separate from His creations, disconnected from them,existing in a very high location. Some of them say that Allāh is above the ˇArshand there is no place there, which is absurd and against what the Prophet  saidabout the book above it. They do not see this as drawing similarities betweenAllāh and His creations. Some of them said that Allāh exists in the sky, butperhaps those who say that He is above His ˇArsh have overtaken them. Somemay say that Allāh is above the ˇArsh by a four-finger spaced distance.They believe that Allāh descends from above the ˇArsh down to the first sky, andthen ascends back up; that Allāh comes and goes- so that they believe that Allāhmoves from one place to another. Furthermore, they bind Allāh by time,believing that He descends during the last third of the night, and that He is abovethe ˇArsh during the day.They believe that Allāh has a shin and a real foot, which will be submersed in thefire of Hell on the Day of Judgment. They even believe that Allāh will cast ashadow on that day. They firmly believe that all of these so-called attributes mustbe taken by their real, literal, apparent and obvious meanings.As can be seen, when using the name “Allāh”, they refer to somethingimaginary. Compare this to the correct belief mentioned in the previous section,and easily see that they do not believe in God. Let whoever meets one of thesedeviant people not be intimidated, nor should he underestimate every one of 26
  27. 27. them. Some Wahhābis study and memorize, ready to bombard their opponent.The point of mentioning their belief without mentioning their so-called proof isto expose the result of their analysis. They misinterpreted many verses andĥadīth to establish their beliefs and this is the result.The Wahhābi Reasoning Behind Their Incorrect BeliefWhat complicates the issue is that they usually deny that they believe that Allāhhas a body. On the contrary, they say that they do not believe that He has a body.Some of them say that they do not confirm whether He has a body or not, whichis still blasphemy. Some of them might say that He has a body, but then wouldsay that they do not know how His body is, which also does not escapeblasphemy51.51 Ibn Ĥajar al-Haytamiyy said in al-Minhāj al-Qawīm Sharĥu-l-Muqaddimahal-Ĥadramiyyah, page 144: “Know that [Shihābu-d-Dīn Aĥmad Ibn Idrīs al-Mālikiyy] al-Qarāfiyy and others narrated from ash-Shāfiˇiyy, Mālik, Aĥmad andAbū Ĥanīfah (may Allāh raise their ranks) that those who say that Allāh is in adirection, or has a body have committed blasphemy — and they deserve thisverdict.”Al-Ĥāfiđħ as-Suyūťiyy narrated in al-Ashbāh wa an-Nađħā’ir, page 488, thatImām ash-Shāfiˇiyy said: “The one who attributes a body to Allāh is ablasphemer.”The Imām of Ahlu-s-Sunnah, Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy said in an-Nawādir:“The one who believes that Allāh is a body does not know Allāh and he is adisbeliever in Allāh.”Al-Qāďī ˇAbdul-Wahhāb Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Naŝr al-Baghdādiyy al-Mālikiyy (422AH) said in Sharĥ ˇAqīdah Mālik aŝ-Ŝaghīr, page 28: “It is not permissible toattribute to Him (Allāh) a ‘how’ because the Religion did not come with that,nor did the Prophet convey such a thing, nor did the Companions ask him aboutthat. This is because that implies movement, transformation, occupancy,containment and going from one place to another. And the implication of that isthe attribution of a body to Allāh and the claim that bodies are eternal and this isblasphemy according to all Muslims.”Ash-Shaykh Kamāl Ibn al-Hammām al-Ĥanafiyy said in Fatĥ al-Qadīr: “The onewho says Allāh is a body unlike other bodies blasphemes.”Al-Imām Muĥammad Ibn Badri-d-Dīn Ibn Balbān ad-Dimashqiyy al-Ĥambaliyysaid in Mukhtaŝar al-Ifādāt, page 489: “The one who believes or says that ‘Allāh 27
  28. 28. They would deny that Allāh has a body, because they know that they would beclearly admitting that He is like His creations. Taking this position may be thecase of most of them. Despite this denial, it is known that they secretly believethat Allāh has a body because they hate for someone to say that He has no placeor direction, and they think that denial of place and direction is denial of Hisexistence. Had that been true, then where was Allāh before he created places anddirections?They may not confirm whether Allāh has a body or not, because they would notwant to explicitly liken Allāh to His creations, and at the same time they do notwant to reject their literal meanings. This is still blasphemy, since taking amiddle ground and saying, “I do not say if Allāh has a body or not,” is likedoubting about Allāh. It is the same as saying, “I do not say if Allāh exists ornot,” or “I do not say if Allāh has a partner or not.” The one who doubts aboutany attribute of Allāh that is known by necessity52 (such as His knowledge,power, the fact that He does not resemble the creations, etc) is not a Muslim, asmentioned by the great Imām Abū Ĥanīfah, one of the heads of the [real] Salaf53,in his book al-Fiqh al-Akbar54. He said:Himself is in every place or in one particular place’ then he is a blasphemer.”And he says on page 490: “He (Allāh) does not resemble anything and nothingresembles Him, so the one who likens Him to something among His creationsblasphemes. This is like the one who believes He is a body or he says ‘He is abody unlike other bodies’.”52 Known by both scholars and laymen.53 Salaf “predecessors” It refers to the first three centuries of Muslims. Somescholars said it only refers to the Companions, their students, and their students -and not the first three centuries entirely. The first saying is the strong one.54 Some Wahhābis will try to deny that Imām Abū Ĥanīfah authored this bookbecause it contains statements that they don’t agree with. So let it be known thatImām Abū Ĥanīfah dictated this book to a group of his students, among thembeing: Ĥammād Ibn Abī Ĥanīfah, al-Qāďī Abū Yūsuf, Abū Muťīˇ al-Ĥakam IbnˇAbdillāh al-Balkhiyy and Abī Maqātil Ĥafŝ Ibn Salm as-Samarqandiyy. A groupof scholars conveyed this book from the previous group, such as: Ismāˇīl IbnĤammād Ibn Abī Ĥanīfah, Muĥammad Ibn Maqātil ar-Rāziyy, Muĥammad IbnSamāˇah, Nuŝayr Ibn Yaĥyā al-Balkhiyy, Shaddād Ibn al-Ĥakam and others. Andfrom this group of scholars al-Fiqh al-Akbar was conveyed with a saĥīĥ chain toal-Imām Abū Manŝūr al-Māturīdiyy. This has been documented by al-ĤāfiđħMuĥammad Murtaďā az-Zabīdiyy (Itĥāf as-Sādah al-Muttaqīn, vol. 2, page 14) 28
  29. 29. ُُ ٌُُُُِِ َُ ُُ‫َُ َُ َُُُْ َُُُِ ٌَََُُُُُُْ ُوَُ ٌَُُُُْوَُّ ََُُُُُْ َُ َُُُِّ َُاُفُ ُو‬ ِ ‫فمن قال إهناُحمدث ُ أو خمل ق ُ أو ُقف أو شك فيه َه َ كافر باهلل‬ َ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬This means: “Whoever says that Allāh has a created attribute, or doubts55, or isneutral56 is a blasphemer.” Whoever considers it possible for Allāh to have abody, even if he did not believe that Allāh actually has a body, would blasphemefor deeming it possible.The less intelligent among them might say that Allāh has a body, because it isobvious that they describe a body, but they would say that His body is not likeours, or that they do not know how His body is. According to the great AĥmadIbn Ĥambal, the Salafiyy scholar whom they often claim to follow, whoever saysAllāh has a body unlike other bodies blasphemes57. In his book, “The creed ofthe distinguished Imām Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal”, Abū Faďl at-Tamīmiyy, the head ofBadru-d-Dīn az-Zarkashiyy (Tashnīf al-Masāmiˇ, vol. 4, page 258), Abu-l-Muđħaffar al-Asfarāyīniyy (at-Tabŝīr fi-d-Dīn, page 184) and others.55 Doubt means to deem two matters equally possible without one of the twomatters being more probable.56 Neutral means not to take one side or another side; neither to confirm nor denyeither side.57 Tashnīf al-Masāmiˇ, vol. 4, page 684.From this statement of Imām Aĥmad and others, it is known that the case of theone who says “Allāh is a body unlike other bodies” is similar to the one who says“Allāh is everywhere.” That is, these words carry only one blasphemousmeaning according to the language and the one who utters them while knowingtheir meaning blasphemes. However, if out of their ignorance they think thatthese words carry a meaning which is acceptable according to the Religion thenthis person does not blaspheme. This is the case of the one who thinks thestatement “Allāh is everywhere,” means “Allāh knows about everything in everyplace,” although this is not a valid linguistic meaning. Similarly, the one whosays “Allāh is a body unlike other bodies” while thinking the the word “body”means “an existent thing” is not declared a blasphemer if this is hisunderstanding. However, if he knows the true linguistic meaning of “body” (aconstructed entity composed of two or more parts (atoms) that takes up spaceand dwells in a direction) and he says it anyway, then he is a blasphemeraccording to all Muslims. This is what some scholars intended when they said“the one who says Allāh is a body unlike other bodies is not charged withblasphemy.” 29
  30. 30. the Ĥambaliyy scholars in Baghdād said, “Aĥmad objected to those who callAllāh a body, and said: ‘The names of things are taken from the language and thereligious law; the linguists defined the jism (body) as that which has length,width, depth, composition and image, and it (the term “jism”) did not come in thereligious law, and so it is invalid’.”Furthermore, it is blasphemous to say that they do not know how His body is,because the scholars of Islām have made it very clear that “how” cannot beattributed to Him. Throughout the books of the Sunni scholars, you would findthat they said about Allāh and His attributes: ِ ‫َُُُِ َُُ َُُّة‬ ‫بال كْيفي‬This means: “without a how (manner of being)”. Thus, to say “they do not knowhow He is” is to say that there is a how, but it is unknown to them. Saying thatthe “how” is unknown does not negate the fact that they believe that He has abody, just as saying, “the door is open, but I do not know how,” does not negatethe fact that the door is open. So, if one of them says, “We do not know how,”tell him that the scholars of the (real) Salaf have agreed that there is no how, asnarrated from the likes of Umm Salamah, the Prophet’s  wife, and ImāmMālik. She said, “the ‘How’ (being attributed to Him) is not rational (ghayrumaˇqūl).58” If Allāh willed, this point will be revisited in the section, “The Truthabout the Istiwā’ of Allāh.”These people may have never learned the correct belief, so when they learnedtheir incorrect belief, they became attached to it and developed a warped logic.Their thinking is based on an unsound premise: that Allāh is attributed with these(human) attributes. They also have other horrendous and contradictory claims,which need not be mentioned now. As a result, their thinking became twisted,like the Christians who say that Allāh is one, and is three while He is one. TheWahhābis believe that Allāh has these (human) attributes, yet they claim thatthey believe that Allāh is not similar to His creations. This is clearly unsound andincorrect. How the Wahhābis Interpret the TextsNotice that their so-called proofs have not been referenced yet. Go through thisprocess gradually and systematically. First, have a general idea of how they58 Al-Fatĥ al-Bārī, vol. 13, page 407 by al-Ĥāfiđĥ Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy. 30
  31. 31. believe in Allāh, which is really disbelief. They will not deny the belief of whichwe have accused them, but they may deny certain words used in this book, like“organ” and “motion”. They openly use such words as “real”, “literal”, and“apparent” when they attribute these (human) attributes to Allāh. In Arabic theyuse such words as “đħāhir” and “ĥaqīqah”. Why do they believe these things?The following is the reasoning behind their bad belief in Allāh, the Exalted:They believe that Allāh must be attributed with these (bodily) attributes becauseof some literal meanings of Qur’ānic verses and ĥadīths of the Prophet . Theysay that these (bodily) attributes are found in al-Qur’ān and as-Sunnah, so wemust believe in them and whoever does not believe in them has negated them.They mean that one must believe in those texts by their literal meanings, andwhoever does not believe in the literal meanings has completely negated theattribute, which of course is not true. Hence, if they meet someone who does notbelieve that the Yad of Allāh is a real and literal hand, they will accuse him ofrejecting an attribute of Allāh. If they find someone who does not believe thatAllāh has a true and literal face, as they would describe it without explicitlycalling it an organ, they would accuse him of completely rejecting an attribute ofAllāh.This twisted reasoning is a trick that lead many Muslims to blasphemy. They leftIslām to join the Wahhābis, not realizing that this reasoning is perverted. Theydid not possess the answers that would protect their faith. Seeing that too manyMuslims did not know how to defend themselves or Islām against the lies of theWahhābis is what inspired the writing of this book. The Wahhābis are amongthose whom Allāh warned us about in the Qur’ān when He told us59: ٌ َ ْ ‫َّ ِ َ ِ وِب‬ ُُ‫﴿فَأَماُٱلَّذينُيفُق ل ِِمُزيْغُفَيَتَّبِعونُماُتَشابَهُمْن‬ ‫َ َ َ َِه‬ ﴾ُِ‫ُابْتِغَاءَُٱلفْت نَةُوٱبْتِغَاءَُتَأْويل‬ ِ ‫ِه‬ ُِ ِ َThis means: “As for those with perversion in their hearts, they follow whatmay have more than one meaning (mutashābih60 verses), with the purpose ofcausing tribulation, and to misinterpret it…”59 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 7.60 Mutashābih is a verse or ĥadīth that can have more than one meaning. Even anArab may not reach its true meaning. 31
  32. 32. Know that these difficult people do not deem rational thinking valid. How couldthey when it shows the invalidity of their creed? They say, “Logic is good, but ithas its place.” Although a true statement, what they truly mean is that one mustbelieve what they consider as proper belief, regardless of logic or reasoning.They believe that assigning a meaning to a verse or ĥadīth that is different fromits literal meaning, which is called “making ta’wīl61”, is sinful. This basic creedof theirs - that ta’wīl is sinful - is one of their greatest reasons for encounteringcontradictions, as will be shown in the second chapter, if Allāh willed. It is truethat some texts may literally suggest some bodily attributes, but sound reasoningdoes not attribute bodily characteristics to the Creator, nor is it valid for theverses to contradict each other, which is the result of their claims. The Wahhābisdo not believe that this is grounds to interpret these texts differently from theliteral meanings. As a result, they fell into tajsīm (attributing bodily attributes toAllāh), which is blasphemy, and they accuse the one who believes in a different(befitting) interpretation of takdhīb (the blasphemy of contradicting the religiousjudgments) and taˇťīl (the blasphemy of denying the attributes of Allāh).They say statements like, “If Allāh revealed this word, then it must beunderstood by the literal meaning, or He would have revealed a different word.”This is a very devious and weak-minded understanding, which may soundappealing to an ignorant person. This reasoning has no support from the Qur’ānor the Sunnah. Scholars like Abu-n-Naŝr ˇAbdur-Raĥīm Ibn Abi-l-Qāsim ˇAbdil-Karīm al-Qushayriyy62 said that those who follow this method do so because oftheir ignorance in Arabic 63. The Truth about Majāz (Figurative Speech)The Wahhābis have denied that there is any figurative speech in the Qur’ān orthe Sunnah, and some of them have denied it from the speech of the Arabscompletely.Ibn Taymiyah said64:61 Ta’wīl is interpreting a text to have a meaning different from its apparentmeaning. The term ‘We’ when referring to Allāh denotes majesty, not plurality.62 Died 514 AH.63 Conveyed by al-Ĥāfiđħ Muĥammad Murtaďā az-Zabīdiyy al-Ĥanafiyy in Itĥāfas-Sādah al-Muttaqīn, vol. 2, page 110.64 Al-Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā, vol. 7, page 113 (Maktabah al-ˇArabiyyah as- 32
  33. 33. ٍ ٍَ ُ‫ُ ُُوجما ُُتَقسيمُمْبتَد ٌُحمدثُمل‬ ِ ٌ َ ‫َُُيفُالقرآنُبلُوتُ ُْ ُُ ُُإىلُحقيقة ز ْ ٌ َع‬ ‫َقسيم اللغة‬ ‫فالُجماز‬ ِ ُُ َ‫يَْنطقُبهُالسل‬ ‫َّ ف‬This means: “There is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān. In fact, dividing thelanguage into ‘literal speech’ and ‘figurative speech’ is an innovatedcategorization. It was never uttered by the Salaf.” This denial is necessary fortheir creed, and they only deny figurative speech because of their incredibleattachment to likening Allāh to the creations. If they confirm that there isfigurative speech in the religious texts, the entire foundation of their claim willbe destroyed and all of their argumentation would be petty and useless. Thus, tojustify interpreting the mutashābih verses by their apparent meanings, IbnTaymiyah made this claim.The ease of demolishing this absurdity frees us from having to give a detailedrefutation. Let us settle with a few clear examples and references. Allāhdescribes His Prophet in the Qur’ān as65: ﴾‫﴿وسراجاُمنِريا‬ ً ُّ ً َ َ ِThis literally means: “A luminous lantern.”If there is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān, then the Prophet must be a literallamp, which is not true because he is a human being. The actual meaning is thatthe Prophet eradicates the darkness of blasphemy and is a reason for misguidedpeople to become guided. In the Qur’ān, Allāh described a wall as66: ِ ًَِ ﴾َُّ ‫﴿جداراُيريدُأَنُيَنق‬ ‫َض‬This literally means: “A wall that wants to fall.”If there is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān, then that wall would have toliterally been ascribed with a will, which is an attribute of the living. Thescholars said that the meaning of this verse is that the expression gives the wallSaˇūdiyyah, 2004).65 Sūrat al-Aĥzāb, verse 46.66 Sūrat al-Kahf, verse 77. 33
  34. 34. the image of something living and willing, so to portray its leaning over as if it isready to fall. Taking this verse literally would necessitate confirming that thewall was alive.Lastly, Allāh informed us in His Book67: ﴾ُْ ‫﴿نِس كمُحرثُلَّك‬ ‫َ اؤ ْ َ ْ ٌ م‬This literally means: “Your women are plots of land for your cultivation.”Therefore, according those who deny figurative speech in the Book of Allāh orthe sayings of His prophet, the women are actual plots of land, and not humansmade of flesh and blood. The verse actually contains a metaphor that refers to theimpregnation of women.So, just as it is known to us that these texts should not be taken literally, it isknown that nothing in the Qur’ān or the ĥadīth that would seemingly ascribeorgans, places, directions or motion to Allāh should be taken literally. As for IbnTaymiyah’s claim that the Salaf did not confirm figurative speech in the Arabiclanguage, that is refuted by the fact that the Imāms like Ibn ˇAbbās, al-Bukhariyy,Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal and others from the Salaf interpreted texts according tomeanings different from the apparent meanings, as will come in the secondchapter. Ibn ˇAbbās said in confirmation of figurative speech in the Qur’ān68: ُ‫إذاُخفيُعليكمُشئُمنُالقرآنُفابتغوهُمنُالشعرُفإنهُديوانُالعرب‬This means: “If anything in the Qur’ān is unclear to you, then seek its meaningfrom the poetry, for the poetry is the portfolio of the Arabs.” Also among theSalaf who confirmed figurative speech is Abū ˇUbaydah Maˇmar Ibn al-Muthannā69. He has a famous book entitled, Majāz al-Qur’ān (the figurativespeech within the Qur’ān).67 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 223.68 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Bayhaqiyy from the route of ˇIkrimah, ˇAliyy Ibn AbīŤalĥah, ˇAmr Ibn Dīnār, Ibrāhīm, and ˇAťiyyah Ibn Saˇd from Ibn ˇAbbās in hisbook al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 436 – 438.69 Al-Imām Abū ˇUbaydah Maˇmar Ibn al-Muthannā at-Taymiyy an-Naĥwiyy,110 AH – 207 AH. 34
  35. 35. The Truth about the Lawfulness of Ta’wīlOn the contrary, Allāh taught us this lesson in His book: ‫ٌ ُّْ َ َ ٌ َّ ُّ ِ ِ َ َ َ ِ ات‬ ِ ﴾ٌُ َ‫﴿منْهُآيَاتُحمكماتُهنُأمُٱلكتَابُوأخرُمتَشاِب‬This means: “Within the Qur’ān there are muĥkam70 verses. They are thebase of the book, and other verses are mutashābih (susceptible to more thanone meaning).”Also, the Prophet  made a supplication for Ibn ˇAbbās (may Allāh accept hisand his father’s deeds) to know the ta’wīl of the Qur’ān, when he said 71: ُ‫ُُعلمهُاحلكمةُوتأويلُالكتاب‬ ‫اللهم‬ ّThis means: “O Allāh, teach him the Wisdom (the Sunnah) and the ta’wīl ofthe Book (al-Qur’ān).” Ta’wīl is to interpret a text differently from its literalmeaning. It is known that Ibn ˇAbbās interpreted many texts that the Wahhābisuse to liken Allāh to His creations. The fact is that ta’wīl is necessary for makingall of the texts free of contradiction. ***EXTRA DETAIL***Know that the Wahhābis may deny the validity of ta’wīl by referring to theverse: ﴾‫﴿وماُيَعلَمُتَأْويلَهُإِ َُُّٱهلل‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِ ال‬This means: “No one knows its ta’wīl except Allāh.”They say that it is not permissible to make ta’wīl because no one can know theta’wīl of the mutashābih verses except Allāh. So, they say that we must takethem literally, because only Allāh knows the ta’wīl. We answer, “When recitingthis verse and stopping at the word ‘Allāh’ so that it means, ‘No one knows its70 Muĥkam is a verse or ĥadīth that has only one meaning in the Arabic language.71 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ Ibn Mājah in his Sunan from the route of Ibn ˇAbbās(Ĥadīth No. 166). 35
  36. 36. ta’wīl except Allāh’, this means, ‘No one knows the manifestation; time ofhappening (of certain matters like the Day of Judgment or the coming of theOne-eyed Imposter) except Allāh’.”According to this recitation of the verse, Allāh dispraised the Jews who tried todetermine the exact time of the occurrence of Judgment Day by referring to someof the mutashābih verses of the Qur’ān like72: ٓٓ ﴾١ ۡ‫﴿ال‬Which are three letters among the Arabic letters. This verse, and similar verses,such as73: ٓ ﴾‫﴿ن‬ ۚhave been interpreted in different ways, and hence are mutashābih. The word“ta’wīl” can mean “the manifestation; the time of happening”, as proven by thesaying of Allāh74: ﴾ُ ‫﴿يَومُيَأِِْتُتَأْويل‬ ‫ِه‬ َْThis means: “The Day when its ta’wīl (manifestation; time of happening)comes…”In order to interpret the word “ta’wīl” as “meaning” or “interpretation”, recitepast the word “Allāh”, and continue until reaching the word “al-ˇIlm (theknowledge)”.Hence, the verse would say75: ﴾ُِ ْ‫﴿وماُيَعلَمُتَأْويلَهُإِ َُُّٱ ُُوٱلراسخونُيفُٱلعِل‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِ ال هلل ُ َّ ِ َ ِ م‬ َ72 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 1.73 Sūrat al-Qalam, verse 1.74 Sūrat al-Aˇrāf, verse 53.75 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 7. 36
  37. 37. This means: “No one knows the ta’wīl (true interpretation) except Allāh andthose who are deeply rooted in the knowledge.”In this way, both recitations are in compliance, for just as there is nocontradiction between the meanings of the verses of the Qur’ān, there must be nocontradiction between the meanings in its recitations.Furthermore, the Wahhābis do make ta’wīl for any verse whose literal meaningcontradicts their belief, as will be made obvious in the second chapter, in shā’Allāh. In their so-called Noble Qur’ān translation, they put a period after theword “Allāh” because of their disregard and disbelief in the other recitation(qirā’ah76) of the verse, known as the recitation of Mujāhid, the student of IbnˇAbbās.Lastly, the claim that there are verses in the Qur’ān whose meanings cannot bepossibly known by any creature is actually a blasphemous claim, because itimplies that there are verses that have no benefit for the people, since the peoplecould never understand their meanings. Had this been true, the old Arabs wouldhave discredited the Prophet by saying, “This book is not a miracle as you claim,for our language is understood and intelligible, and you have come withsomething that has no meaning to us, and cannot be known by anyone.” Thisclaim is mentioned in some of the footnotes of their so-called Noble Qur’āntranslation in reference to some of the verses. Do not be impressed by it becauseit is a trap. It contradicts the verse of the Qur’ān that proves that everything inthe Qur’ān has a meaning that can be possibly known to the creatures77: ﴾ٍُ ِ‫﴿بِلِسانُعرِيبُمب‬ ‫َ ٍ ََ ٍّ ُّ ني‬This means: “(The Qur’ān is revealed) in a clear Arabic tongue.”This extra detail may not be needed for many, so do not bring it up without need,especially if you do not completely understand this point. But, in case this bookis used to refute a Wahhābi who raises this point, then here is the answer. ***76 Qirā’ah “recitation” could refer to any of the proper ways of reciting theQur’ān.77 Sūrat ash-Shuˇarā’, verse 195. 37
  38. 38. They quote the verse from the Qur’ān78: ِ ﴾‫﴿وقَالواَُسعنَاُوأَطَعنَا‬ ْ َ َْ َThis means: “They said, ‘we hear and we obey’,” which to them means thatthey take things by face value without looking into other possible meanings.Their belief is so unsound, that they are forced to reject logic. They believe thatthe logical process of refuting them is philosophy and innovation, which is alsonot true, as will now be addressed, if Allāh willed. If the Wahhābi were to ask:“How could we be misguided by merely believing what is in the Qur’ān? We arejust taking what is in the Book and going no further.” Tell him, “But yourmethod of interpretation is sinful, and Allāh told us about His book79: ‫ِ ُّ ِ َ ً َ ْ ِ ِ ك ً َ َ ِ ُّ ِ ال َ ِ ِ ني‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿يضلُبِهُكثِرياُويَهديُبِهُ َُثِرياُوماُيضلُبِهُإِ َُُّٱلفاسق‬This means: “He guides many by the Qur’ān and misguides many by it, andHe only misguides the major sinners by it.” The Wahhābis Reject LogicSo let us address the intellectual and logical issues pertaining to this blasphemy.They do not agree that the mind (al-ˇaql)80 should have consideration indeciphering what Allāh revealed, so they say, “Sound thinking is good, but it hasits place.” If they completely reject sound thinking, no one will listen to them, sothey give some weight to it, but if they encourage people to think, they willexpose themselves, so they deny that rational thinking is a part of the creed (al-ˇaqīdah), which is a lie. They teach people to just believe in the texts by theirliteral and apparent meanings and not to listen to anyone who says otherwise.They might actually put their fingers in their ears, following the sunnah of theblasphemers from the time of Prophet Nūĥ (Noah, ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām).Allāh told us in the Qur’ān about their rejection of the truth, that Nūĥ said81:78 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 285.79 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 26.80 ˇAql “mind; intellect” It is the faculty given to some creatures which enablesthem to distinguish between what is valid and what is invalid.81 Sūrat Nūĥ, verse 7. 38
  39. 39. ﴾ُْ ِِ ‫﴿وإِِّنُكلَّماُدعوت همُلِتَ غْفرُهلمُجعلواُأَصابِعهمُيفُآذ‬ ‫َ ِّ َ َ َ ْ ْ ِ َ َ ْ َ َ َ َ ْ ِ َاهنم‬This means: “And surely, whenever I call them so that You would forgivethem (by guiding them to Islām), they put their fingers in their ears.”They refer to a saying of Imām ˇAliyy (may Allāh accept his deeds), but theypervert its text and distort its true meaning. They say that ˇAliyy (may Allāhaccept his deeds) said, “If the religion were by logic, we would wipe the bottomof the khuff (foot gear)82 instead of the top.83” They would then tell the person toforget about logic, and just accept the literal interpretations. Reasoning is Necessary and Religiously ConfirmedIt is important to have the correct understanding of this saying. ˇAliyy Ibn AbīŤālib (may Allāh accept his deeds) actually said, “Had the Religion been byopinion (ra’y), we would wipe the bottom of the foot gear instead of the top(because the bottom is the side that gets dirty), however I saw The Messenger ofAllāh  wiping the top”. Imām ˇAliyy did not negate the use of logic. Logic,reasoning, and use of the intellect are praised throughout the Qur’ān. The twoSayings of Allāh are repeated many times in the Qur’ān84: ‫ِْ ن‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿أَفَالُتَعقلو‬This means: “Do you not use your minds?” and85 ‫ِْ ن‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿أَفَالُيَعقلو‬This means: “Do they not use their minds?”82 The Khuff refers to foot gear with specific qualities that one is allowed to wipeinstead of washing the feet in Wuďū’.83 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 162.84 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 44 & 76; Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 65; Sūrat al-Anˇām,verse 32; Sūrat al-Aˇrāf, verse 169; Sūrat Yūnus, verse 16; Sūrat Hūd, verse 51;Sūrat Yūsuf, verse 109; Sūrat al-Ambiyā’, verse 10 & 67; Sūrat al-Mu’minūn,verse 80.85 Sūrat Yāsīn, verse 68. 39
  40. 40. Al-Imām ˇAliyy, the most knowledgeable of the Companions (may Allāh raise allof their ranks), would not say anything against the Qur’ān, and if so, then hissaying would be rejected for the revelation of Allāh. In fact, consideration of themental judgments is an integral part of understanding the belief, and has itsorigin in al-Qur’ān and as-Sunnah. Hence, it is not philosophy or innovation.The scholars of ˇaqīdah (creed), like Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy also pointed outthe fact that the Prophets, the greatest of Allāh’s creations (ˇalayhimu-s-Salām),used logical arguments to refute the blasphemers they encountered and toestablish the correct belief in Allāh, such as what was narrated in the stories ofProphet Ibrāhīm (Abraham, ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām). Among those storieswas Ibrāhīm’s debate with the tyrant, Nimrod86: ‫َ َ ِ َّ هلل‬ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ِّ ِ ‫ْ َ إ‬َُُ ‫﴿إِذُقَالُُِبْراهيمُريبُٱلَّذيُُييِيُوُيِيتُقَالُأَنَاُأحيِيُوأميتُقَالُإِبْراهيمُفَِإنُٱ‬ ِ ََ َ ‫ب لش ْ ِ ِ َ ْ ِِ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ ِ َ َ ر‬ ﴾َُ‫يَأِِْتُُِٱ َّمسُمنُٱملشرقُفَأْتُِبَاُمنُٱملغربُفَبهتُٱلَّذيُكف‬This means: “When Ibrāhīm said, ‘My Lord creates life and makes the livingdie.’ Nimrod said, ‘I create life and make the living die.’ Ibrāhīm said,‘Surely, Allāh brings the sun from the east, so bring it from the west.’ Uponthat, the one who blasphemed was dumbfounded.”By this simple and clever logic, Ibrāhīm silenced Nimrod, who claimed to beGod. This verse is evidence for the permissibility of debating deviant people toestablish the truth. So, if a Wahhābi claims that debating is forbidden, or thatmental evidence is not from the Religion, use this verse as your evidence. In fact,it is obligatory on some Muslims (communal obligation) to know the mental andtextual evidence, and to refute the deviant people.Thus, Imām ˇAliyy’s aforementioned saying refers to the details of the practicalrules (al-fiqh), not the essentials of belief. One can realize the correct beliefabout the Creator through reasoning; that worshipping a man or a stone or apicture is invalid. Why else do the Christians readily say, “Just believe”? It isbecause they realize the confusion of their beliefs. However, we do not use logicto deduce the practical rules. For example, how would one logically concludethat there are five prayers? Mere logic does not necessitate five prayers over sixor four. How would one logically deduce that the bowing position comes beforeprostration when praying? These judgments cannot be known by logic, and are86 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 258. 40

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