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Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah
 

Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah

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    Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah Why The Wahabia Pseudo Salafis Are Not Ahlus Sunnah Document Transcript

    • ‫َِ َ َ َ‬ ‫﴿ت ِلۡك ٱدلار ٱٓأۡلخرةُ َنۡعلُها ل ََِّّلِينَ‬ ‫َ َّ ُ‬‫اداۚ‬ ‫َل يُريدون علوا ِف ٱۡلَۡرض وَل فَسَ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ُ َ ُُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وٱلۡعَٰقِبة ل ِلۡمتقِنيَ‬ ‫َ ُ َّ ٣٨﴾‬ ‫َ َ ُ‬ ‫1‬
    • ‫ُ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫الكي ِ‬ ‫َ ْفيُّ‬ ‫يفُمناظرِةُاملسمنيُبالسلَِفيَّةُ‬ ‫َّ َ َّ‬ ‫‪How to Debate with the‬‬ ‫‪So-Called Salafiyyah‬‬ ‫‪A Handbook for People of Sound Mind and Seekers of Truth‬‬ ‫هو ٱَّلِي أَنزل علَيك ٱلكِتَٰب مِنه ءايَٰت ُّمكمَٰت هن أُمح‬ ‫ح ۡ َ َ ٌ ُ َّ‬ ‫ُ َ َّ ٓ َ َ َ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ ۡ ُ َ َ‬‫ُ ُ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ َّ ُ َ‬‫ِف ُلوِِهۡ َيٞ َيتبِعون‬ ‫ٱلكِتَٰب وأُخر متَشبهَٰت فَأَما ٱَّلِينَ‬ ‫َّ َّ‬ ‫َ َ ُ ُ َ َٰ َ‬ ‫ۡ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ َ ۡ َ َۡ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ۡ َ ٓ ۡ َۡ ۡ َ ٓ َۡ‬‫َُٓ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ِ َ‬‫ما تشبه مِنه ٱبتِغاء ٱلفتنةِ وٱبتِغاء تأوِيلِهِۦ وما يعلۡ تأوِيلهۥ‬ ‫َٰ‬ ‫ُ ۡ‬ ‫ۡ ۡ َ ُ ُ َ َ َ َّ‬ ‫َّ َّ ُ َ َّ ُ َ‬ ‫إَِل ٱّللُۗ وٱلرَٰسخون ِف ٱلعِلۡ يقولون ءامنا بِهِۦ ك مِن عِند‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب٧‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َّ َّ ُ َّ ٓ ُ ْ ُ ْ ۡ َ ۡ َ‬ ‫رِِناُۗ وما يَذكر إَِل أولوا ٱۡللبَٰ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫2‬
    • Prophet Muĥammad  May Allah raise his majesty and nobility said: ُ‫إنُاهللُومالئكتهُحّتُاحليتانُيفُالبحر‬ ْ ّ ّ ‫ُلَيصلّونُعلىُمعلِّمُالناسُاخلري‬This means: “Verily, Allāh is Merciful to the onewho teaches the people the Religious Knowledge.His Angels and even the fish in the sea will askAllāh to forgive him.” This is related by at-Tirmidhiyy with Isnād Ŝaĥīĥ (an authentic chain ofnarration). Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus)  May Allah raise his majesty and nobility said: ُ‫منُعلِمُ ُ ُِ ُُمباُعلِمُيدعىُعظيما‬ ً َ ‫َ َ َ وعمل‬ َ َ ُ‫يفُملكوتُالسماء‬ ّThis means: “He who learns the ReligiousKnowledge and practices what he has learnt willbe called great among the Angels of theHeavens.” This is related by al-Ĥāfiđħ Ibnu-l-Jawziyy. 3
    • ContentsForward ..............................................................................................................8Publisher’s Introduction ................................................................................... 10Chapter One ..................................................................................................... 13Basic Refutation of the Wahhābi Creed ............................................................ 13 The Obligation of Following Ahlu-s-Sunnah ................................................ 13 The Wahhābi Attempt to Discredit the Nation at Large ................................ 16 The Madhhabs of Ahlu-s-Sunnah ................................................................. 17 Names that Have Been Attributed to the Wahhābis ...................................... 22 The Correct Belief in Allāh .......................................................................... 24 The Wahhābis Attribute a Body to Allāh ...................................................... 25 The Wahhābi Reasoning Behind Their Incorrect Belief ................................ 27 How the Wahhābis Interpret the Texts ..................................................... 30 The Truth about Majāz (Figurative Speech) ............................................. 32 The Truth about the Lawfulness of Ta’wīl ................................................ 35 The Wahhābis Reject Logic ..................................................................... 38 Reasoning is Necessary and Religiously Confirmed ................................. 39 The Mental Proof that the Wahhābis believe Allāh is a Body ................... 41 The Rational Conclusion which is Supported by the Texts ....................... 44 Islāmic Texts that Refute the Wahhābi Creed ............................................... 45 Proof from the Qur’ān that Refutes the Wahhābi Creed ............................ 45 The Priority of the Muĥkam Verses over the Mutashābih ......................... 47 Proof from the Ĥadīth that Refutes the Wahhābi Creed ............................ 51 Scholarly Texts Refuting the Wahhābi Creed ........................................... 53 The Validity of the Consensus.................................................................. 53 A Documentation of the Salaf’s Belief ..................................................... 54 Important Information and Advice ............................................................... 56 The Meaning of Kufr and Some of its Details .......................................... 57 4
    • Judging Someone as a Kāfir (Takfīr) ....................................................... 59 Having the Correct Intention ................................................................... 61 Refrain from Purposely Leading a Person to Say Kufr ............................. 62 Think First and Hold Your Tongue .......................................................... 63 The Importance of Focusing on the Belief ............................................... 64 Who are the Real Salaf? .............................................................................. 66Chapter Two .................................................................................................... 67A Refutation of their Misunderstanding of the Honorable Texts....................... 67 Translating the Qur’ān ................................................................................. 67 The Wahhābis Take Advantage of the Ignorant ........................................... 69 The Wahhābis Show Outward Adherence to the Sunnah .............................. 70 The Truth about the Ĥadīth of the Female Slave .......................................... 72 The Story Behind the Ĥadīth ................................................................... 72 The Wahhābi Misunderstanding of the Ĥadīth ......................................... 73 The Arabic Terms Have More Than One Meaning .................................. 73 Different Versions (Riwāyāt) of the Ĥadīth ............................................. 75 It is not Sufficient to Say “In the Sky!”.................................................... 77 Muslim’s Narration does not Support Them ............................................ 77 This Ĥadīth is not a Proof in the Issue of Belief ....................................... 78 A Scholarly Clarification ......................................................................... 79 The Wahhābi’s Ta’wīl for the Ĥadīth ...................................................... 81 Similar Texts ........................................................................................... 82 The Truth About Istiwā’ .............................................................................. 84 The Tafsīr of the Verse and How to Refute the Wahhābis Who Misinterpret It ............................................................................................................. 84 Similar Texts Used by Wahhābis ............................................................. 91 The Saying of Imām Mālik ...................................................................... 93 The Truth About the Ĥadīth of An-Nuzūl .................................................... 95 The Explanation of Ibn Ĥajar .................................................................. 95 The Sayings of the Prophet do not Lead to Irrational Matters .................. 98 A Similar Text ........................................................................................ 98 5
    • The Truth About the Ascension of the Good Words ..................................... 98 The Correct Meaning of the Verse ........................................................... 99 The Implications of the Literal Meaning ................................................ 100 A Similar Text ....................................................................................... 100 Allāh is not Attributed with a Shin ............................................................. 100 Allāh is not Attributed with a Face ............................................................. 101 Verses Mentioning the Attribute of Wajh ............................................... 102 Allāh is not Attributed with a Hand ............................................................ 103 The Saying of Abū Ĥanīfah .................................................................... 104 Allāh is not Attributed with Two Hands ................................................. 104 Allāh is not Attributed with an Eye ............................................................ 107 Conclusion ................................................................................................. 108 Three Easy Ways to Smash a Wahhābi .................................................. 113Appendix A: The Speech of Allāh .................................................................. 116 The 82nd Verse of Sūrat Yāsīn ................................................................ 117 The Meaning of the Word al-Qur’ān ...................................................... 119Appendix B: The Truth about Innovations ...................................................... 121 Not Every Innovation is Misguidance ......................................................... 121 Proof from the Ĥadīth about Good Innovations .......................................... 122 Other Texts Used by Wahhābis .................................................................. 123 Statements of Scholars about Good Innovations ......................................... 125 The Meaning of the Saying of ˇUmar Ibnu-l-Khaťťāb ................................ 127 Examples of Good Innovations................................................................... 128 The Commemoration of the Mawlid ........................................................... 129Appendix C: Who are the Heads of the Wahhābis? ......................................... 133 Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah................................................................................. 133 Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb ................................................................. 142 Al-Albāniyy ............................................................................................... 143 Others Whose Names are not Deserving of a Subtitle ................................. 145Appendix D: Rain Clouds over the Graves of the Ĥanābilah ........................... 147 6
    • Appendix E: Further Clarification Concerning the Origins of the Wahhābis....149Appendix F: A Chronological History of Ibn Taymiyah .................................154 Details of the events of 698 (Damascus) .....................................................154 Details of the events of 705 – 707 periods ..................................................155 Details of this period (Egypt) ......................................................................158 Details ........................................................................................................160 Details ........................................................................................................161 Repentance of Ibn Taymiyah (705) .............................................................164 The Decree of Ibn Qalawūn (705)...............................................................166 The Edict of the Four Head Judges in Egypt (726) ......................................170 The Ŝulťān’s Directive (Rajab 726) ............................................................171 References ..................................................................................................173 Epilogue .....................................................................................................174Transliteration System ....................................................................................177Vowels (Tashkīl) ............................................................................................178 Extension (Madd) .......................................................................................178 7
    • ForwardExcellent praise and gratitude are due to Allāh1, the Lord of the world. MayAllāh, the Exalted and Glorified, increase the rank and honor of ProphetMuĥammad  and protect his nation from what Muĥammad feared for it.Allāh, the Exalted, has praised those who exert themselves in the pursuit ofknowledge. He2 said3: ِ ِ ﴾‫﴿يَرفَعُٱهللُٱلَّذينُآمنواُمنكمُوٱلَّذينُأوتواُٱلعِلمُدرجات‬ ٍ ِ َ ََ َ ْ َ ُْ َ َ َ ِْThis means: “Allāh raises the rank of those amongst you who believed andacquired knowledge.”And Allāh said4: َ ْ َِ َُ ْ َِ ِْ َْ ْ ﴾‫﴿قلُهلُيَستَويُٱلَّذينُيَعلَمونُوٱلَّذينُالُيَعلَمون‬ َThis means: “Say (O Muĥammad), are those who know equal to those whodo not know?”The one who acquires the Islāmic knowledge will prevail and will have his statuselevated by Allāh. This is why Prophet Muĥammad urged his nation to acquirethe knowledge of the religion. Ibn Mājah related a Ĥadīth5 of the Prophet 6:1 Allāh is the proper name of the Creator.2 The words ‘He’, ‘His’ or ‘Him’ when used in reference to Allāh must not beunderstood to represent gender. Allāh has created both the male and the femaleand does not resemble either. Allāh referred to Himself in the Holy Qur’ān withHuwa (He) and not with hiya (she). Therefore, we refer to Allāh with ‘He’ or‘Him’ without associating Allāh with gender.3 Sūrat al-Mujādilah, verse 11.4 Sūrat az-Zumar, verse 9.5 Ĥadīth refers to the narrated sayings, doings, and approvals of the Prophet . 8
    • ُ،‫ياُأَباُذرُألَنُتَغدوُفَتَتَ علَّمُآيَةُمنُكِتَابُاهللُِخْي رُلَكُمنُأَنُتصلِّيُمائَة كعة‬ ٍ ْ‫ِ َُر‬ ََ ِ َ ْ ْ َ ٌَ ِ ِ ْ ً َ َ َ ْ ْ َّ ُ ‫وألَنُتَغدوُفَتَتَ علَّمُبَابًاُمنُالعِلْمُخْي رُلَكُمنُأَنُتصلِّيُأَلْف كع‬ ٍ ‫َ ُرْ َة‬ َ ِ َ ْ ْ َ ٌَ ِ َ ِ ََ َ ْ ْ َThis means: “O Abā Dhar, if you go and learn one verse of the Qur’ān it ismore rewardable for you than praying one hundred rakˇah (of the optionalprayers). If you go and learn a chapter of Islāmic knowledge, it is morerewardable for you than praying one thousand rakˇah (of the optionalprayers).”It is often referred to as the Sunnah.6 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 216. 9
    • Publisher’s IntroductionIslām is the Religion of all the Prophets of Allāh, who started with Ādam and ended with Muĥammad . One becomes Muslim by believing in the heartand declaring with the tongue that no one is God except Allāh and thatMuĥammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Utterance of the Two Testifications ofIslāmic Faith (ash-Shahādatayn) is required if one wants to embrace Islām andone is not dumb (mute). If a person is not able to speak for reason that his tongueis disabled and cannot move at all while his heart is saying the TwoTestifications of Islāmic Faith, this person becomes Muslim according to Allāh,the Exalted. This is because he is not able to utter these Two Testifications whilehis heart is saying them and believing in them.The first declaration of ash-Shahādatayn (“No one is God except Allāh”) meansthat nothing has the right to be worshipped except Allāh. The second declaration(“Muĥammad is the Messenger of Allāh”) includes the belief that Muĥammad was the last of the Prophets and that he was truthful in all that he said and in thatwhich he conveyed from Allāh (as were all the Prophets before him). It alsomeans that the Lord of the world has sent Prophets and Messengers in order toguide us and to teach us to worship Him correctly. The Muslim must believe inall of the Prophets, whether the Rasūl or the Nabiyy7, since all of them came withIslām; the Rusul (pl. Rasūl) were sent with different Religious Laws. That is,they came with one Religion, which is Islām, but with different rules. Imām al-Bukhāriyy related that the Prophet Muĥammad  said8: َُُّ ‫األَنْبِيَاءُإِخوٌُلِعالتُدين همُواحدُوأمهات همُش‬ ‫ْ َة َ ٍ ِ ْ َ ِ ٌ َ َّ َ ْ َ ّت‬This means: “The Prophets are like brothers with the same father, but withdifferent mothers. Their Religion is one, but their religious rules are7 The Rasūl is the Prophet who has been sent with a new religious law. TheNabiyy is the Prophet who has been commanded to follow the religious law ofthe previous Rasūl.8 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 3258; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 2365;Muŝannaf ˇAbdur-Razzāq, Ĥadīth No. 20845;. 10
    • different.” Moreover, Allāh, the Exalted, has said9: ﴾ُ ‫﴿إِنُٱ ِّينُعندُٱ ُُِٱإلسال‬ ‫َّ لد َ ِ َ هلل ِ ْ م‬This means: “Indeed, the only Religion that is accepted by Allāh is Islām.”Hence the term ‘revealed religions’ must not be used. Rather, one should refer to‘Revealed Religious Rules,’ because all the Prophets came with only one religionwhich is the Religion of Islām.Prophet Mūsa (Moses)  commanded the people to believe in Islām bytestifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Moses is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim.Similarly, Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus)  commanded the people to believe in Islāmby testifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Jesus is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim.Finally, Prophet Muĥammad  commanded the people to believe in Islām bytestifying that, “No one is God except Allāh and Muĥammad is the Messenger ofAllāh.” Whoever believed in him became a Muslim. Prophet Muĥammad said10: َُ‫أَفْضلُماُق لْتُأَناُوالنَّبِيُّونُمنُقَ ْبلِيُالُإِلهُاهللُوحدهُالُشريكُل‬ ‫َِ َ ه‬ َْ َ َ ِ ْ َ َ َThis means: “The best of what I and the Prophets before me have said is,‘there is no god except Allāh. He is the only God and there is no partnerwith Him’.”The Two Testifications of Islāmic Faith (ash-Shahādatayn) are the essence ofIslām; they are the foundation of the faith. The analogy of constructing abuilding is useful in that it explains the importance of these basic beliefs. Therewill be no building without a concrete foundation. Similarly, there will be nobenefit in the Hereafter without first having the correct belief. This analogyillustrates the need to start from the beginning and to build upward. In order to be9 Sūrat Āl-ˇImrān, verse 19.10 Narrated by Imām Mālik in al-Muwaťťa’, Ĥadīth No. 498 and al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Bayhaqiyy in Sunan al-Kubrā, Ĥadīth No. 9247. 11
    • Muslim one must firmly believe that there is no God but Allāh and thatMuĥammad  is the Messenger of Allāh. Believing in the heart and declaringwith the tongue that there is no God but Allāh and that Muĥammad  is theMessenger of Allāh is the foundation of the Islāmic Faith. Indeed all Muslims areunited by this basic belief. Muslims use the sound mind as a guide because thereis nothing in the Religious Law that the sound mind will reject. The sound mindwill bear witness to the truthfulness of Religious Law. Religious Knowledge isessential, since learning gives one strength and purpose.Learning ‘The Obligatory Religious Knowledge’ puts the Muslim on the roadtowards moral excellence and self-betterment. The Muslim uses that knowledgeto differentiate between what is lawful and what is unlawful and between what isacceptable and valid worship and what is invalid. The Muslims are distinguishedfrom one another by the amount of Islāmic knowledge that they attain and applyduring their lives.Believing in and declaring that, “No one is God except Allāh and Muĥammad isthe Messenger of Allāh,” is the most important thing that any person can do andis necessary before any good deeds can be accepted for the purposes of theHereafter. The one who becomes Muslim and stays Muslim will have theenjoyment of Paradise without end in the Hereafter. The one who rejects Islāmwill suffer the torture of Hellfire without end in the Hereafter. Undoubtedly, wewill all face death. The one who is prepared for the Day of Judgment is the onewho knows, accepts and applies the Sunni Creed and implements the teachingsof Prophet Muĥammad  in all sincerity to Allāh, the Exalted.We have published this book in an effort to expose the lies and exaggerations ofthe Wahhābi/so-called Salafi movement that have been spread far and wide. Weask Allāh to support us in this effort. Without the protection of Allāh no one canevade sinning, and without the help of Allāh no one has the strength to obeyHim11.Contemplate this and know with certainty that you will not be able to benefitfrom this great book unless the Lord of the world helps you and we would nothave been able to complete it without Allāh’s help. May Allāh make its benefitwidespread.11 This is the meaning of “Lā ĥawla wa-lā quwwata illā billāh” as mentioned inan authentic Ĥasan Ĥadīth related by Abū Yaˇlā from Ibn Masˇūd from theProphet (peace be upon him). 12
    • Chapter One Basic Refutation of the Wahhābi CreedIf Allāh willed, this book will shed light on some of the deviant beliefs of the so-called Salafis/Salafiyyah, those whom the Muslims call theWahhābis/Wahhābiyyah. Hopefully, it will be helpful in understanding whatthese misguided people believe, why they believe it, and give some basic tips onhow to refute them. Although the intention is to keep this book as simple aspossible, learning Islāmic knowledge on one’s own is not encouraged by thereligion. This book is equipped with footnotes for unfamiliar terms, but oneshould not attempt to teach Islām to himself by simply reading books anddepending on his own understanding. Since this is so, every accountable personis obligated to go to a knowledgeable teacher from Ahlu-s-Sunnah12, and if thereis no teacher in his area, he must travel to find one, as said by the renownedShāfiˇiyy scholar Aĥmad Ibn Rislān13 in his famous millennial14 poem entitled az-Zubad: ُِ َُ ‫َُنُملُيَُ ُِ ُ ُُِّم‬ ‫جدُمعل ً اُفلريحل‬ َ ‫م‬ ُُِ ‫ُُذاُفليسأل‬ ‫َُنُملُيكنُيعلم‬ ‫م‬This means: “Whoever does not know, then let him ask, and whoever does notfind a teacher, then let him travel.”May Allāh guide us to knowledgeable teachers who can fill us with knowledge. The Obligation of Following Ahlu-s-SunnahKnow that in a very well known ĥadīth with several narrations, the Messenger ofAllāh (ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām15) warned about 72 sects that would deviate12 The Sunni/Sunniyy Muslims; the group which follows the method of theCompanions of the Prophet .13 Aĥmad Ibn Ĥusayn Ibn Ĥasan Ibn Rislān ar-Ramliyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy (775 AH).14 1000 lined.15 Meaning, “May Allāh raise the rank of Prophet Muĥammad and protect hisNation from whatever he feared for it.” 13
    • from the correct path of the Muslims. He said 16: ًَُُ ُِ ‫وُِ َُُّ َُ ُُُاأل ُ ُُ ََُتُ ُْت ُُعلىَُُ ٍُُو َُُ ُِ َُُُُِرَُةُُ ُُُّ َُاُيفُالَُّا ُُُُُِّو‬ ‫ن ر إال ُاحدة‬ َ ِ ‫ثالث ُسْبعني ف ْق ً كله‬ َ َ َّ ِ ِ ‫إن هذه مة س ف َُِق‬This means: “Surely, this nation will divide into 73 factions. All of them willbe in Hell except one.” That path is the way of Ahlu-s-Sunnah wa-l-Jamāˇah,which means “the People of the Sunnah17 and the Majority”. They are calledAhlu-s-Sunnah for short. They are referred to in a ĥadīth18: ‫فمنُأرادُُببوحةُاجلنّةُفَلْيَلزِمُاجلماعة‬ َ َ ََ ْ َ ْ َThis means: “Whoever wishes for the prosperity of Paradise then let himstick to the Jamāˇah.” The Prophet  taught his Companions19 that 72 out of73 different sects would be in Hellfire. Some will dwell in Hell forever becauseof a blasphemous conviction. Some will dwell therein for a limited time knownto Allāh, due to a deviant creed that did not reach blasphemy 20, for every creedthat does not comply with the creed of the Prophet and his Companions is amajor sin if it does not reach the level of blasphemy 21. Only one group out of the73 groups would deserve Paradise without first being tortured in Hell. His16 Narrated by ad-Dārimiyy, Abū Dāwūd, al-Ĥākim, Ibn Abi-d-Dunyā, at-Tirmidhiyy, Ibn Ĥibbān, and Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal.17 Sunnah has many meanings. Linguistically, it means, “a way”. Religiously, itcould refer to the ĥadīth of the Prophet; to the optional, recommended, andrewardable matters; and to the Prophet’s  practice of the religion in general,including the obligations.18 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2165.19 Companion refers to those who met the Prophet , believed in him, and diedas Muslims.20 Blasphemy (kufr) is the opposite of belief.21 An example of a deviant creed that does not reach the level of blasphemy isthe creed of those who say that after the death of the Prophet, Abū Bakr, ˇUmarand ˇUthmān all took the rulership before ˇAliyy unjustly. This is deviant becauseit contradicts the agreement of the Companions. 14
    • Companions asked him about that single group, and he  told them: 22 ‫اجلماعة‬ َThis means: “The Jamāˇah.”Ahlu-s-Sunnah, the People of the Prophet’s Method, is the group with the largestfollowing. In one narration, the Prophet  said23: ِ ‫َُُ ُ ََُُيُُ ُُاخُِالفًاُفُ َُُُ ُ ُُُِْ َُّو ُُا َُ ُ َُم‬ ‫فِإذاُرأ ْتم ْ ت َعلْيكم بالسُاد ألعظ‬ َ ْ َ َThis means: “If you see (unacceptable) differences among you, then adhereto as-Sawādu-l-Aˇđħam (the vast majority).” These different narrations ofĥadīth comply with each other. There is no contradiction between that single,guided group being the “Jamāˇah” and being “as-Sawādu-l-Aˇđħam”. “Jamāˇah”means “group”, and must be explained to comply with the other ĥadīth, so in thiscontext it means the majority.In another narration, the Prophet  named that group24: ِ ‫َُاََُُُ ُ ُُوَُ ُْ َُايب‬ ‫م أناُعليه ُأصح‬ َ َThis means: “The group which is upon what my Companions and I areupon.” There is still no conflict in the different descriptions of Ahlu-s-Sunnah,for historically, the majority of Muslims have always had the same belief sincethe time of the Companions, who never disagreed about the basics of beliefamong themselves.The majority of Muslims did not disagree about the validity of the rulership ofthe four pious Caliphs after the Prophet, nor did they deny the attributes [ofAllāh] or liken them to the attributes of the creations. They did not deny thetorture of the grave, or believe that major sins take a person out of Islām. Theydid not deny that Allāh can be seen, although He is seen without having a shape,22 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 4597.23 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3950.24 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2641. 15
    • form or color. They did not deny destiny, or that there will be believers who willbe tortured in Hell, or that people have wills; all of which were beliefs held bydifferent deviant groups throughout history. Never has the majority disagreedabout the basics of the correct belief, and we challenge anyone to bring evidenceof such a disagreement. Until today, 75% to 80% of the nation has the samebelief, and from that, we know that the so-called Salafis are deviant people, sincethey consider most of the Muslims throughout the world as mushriks25 and badinnovators.The Wahhābi Attempt to Discredit the Nation at LargeA Wahhābi may put up a defense in this area. Proving that the nation as a wholewill always be guided necessitates that any small group who disagrees with themajority of the nation is misguided. Therefore, for a Wahhābi, it is imperative todiscredit this notion since he does not and cannot deny that they are a smalloutnumbered group. To do that, he may mention the poor situation of Muslimstoday, their lack of knowledge and being overwhelmed with sins.This is why we, Ahlu-s-Sunnah, say that the belief of the majority of the nationwill always be correct. They would not agree upon a misguided creed. However,the Prophet foretold that his nation will become weak and sinful. There areseveral narrations about this, among them26: ٍ َّ ِ ُ ُِ َُ ُُ ُْ ََُُُُُ‫َُ َُ ُِّ ُُُِ َُُّ ُُِ ََُُُ َُ ُُُأ ُيت‬ ‫املتمسك بسنيتُعْند فساد م له أجر شهيد‬This means: “Whoever adheres to my Sunnah upon the corruption of mynation has the reward of a martyr.” This corruption in the nation does notmean that the majority will believe in a deviant creed. Similar is the ĥadīth27: ُ‫وُِ َُُُّ َُُ ُ ُُْ َُ ُُُ ُ َُُِ ُُْ ُ َُُِتُ َُاُيفَُُوهلا‬ ُ ‫َُإن أمتكم هذه جعلت عافي ه أ‬ َّ َ ِِ َّ ‫و َُُ ُِ ُُ ُُِرهاُُِ ٌُُوُأ ُ ٌُُتُُ ُروهنا‬ ِ ُ‫ُسيصيب آخ بالء ُ مور َنْك‬ َ َ25 Mushrik is someone who associates partners with Allāh.26 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ ať-Ťabarāniyy in al-Muˇjam al-Awsať, Ĥadīth No.5414.27 Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 4191; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3956. 16
    • This means: “Allāh’s protection (the ˇāfiyah) has been granted to thebeginning of this nation of yours, and its end will be inflicted with hardshipand matters to which you object.” A Wahhābi may also produce the verse28: ﴾ُ ‫﴿وقَلِيل ُِنُعبَاديُٱ َّك‬ ‫َ ٌُم ْ ِ ِ َ لش ور‬This means: “Only few of My slaves (the slaves of Allāh) are very thankful.”We tell them that this is in reference to piety- that few slaves of Allāh refrainfrom using their endowments sinfully, which is ungratefulness to Allāh. Thereare other narrations about this issue, so know that they may produce severalreferences. The ĥadīths already mentioned are enough to prove them wrong.The Wahhābis took the name of Ahlu-s-Sunnah for themselves, but if they are aminority, only a couple million strong, how can they still claim the name? It iseasy if one merely distorts the meaning of “jamāˇah”. To fool others, and toconsider the millions upon millions upon millions of Muslims as misguided, theysay, “The Jamāˇah can be one person.” This statement may be applicable to aperson truly following Ahlu-s-Sunnah, which is the majority, but is secluded andsurrounded by misguided people. The case of the Wahhābis does not apply. Weseek the protection of Allāh from such sly deviance. The Madhhabs of Ahlu-s-SunnahIn reality, Ahlu-s-Sunnah is the vast, vast majority of Muslims. They stuck to thesame belief since the time of the Prophet  and never deviated from it. Ahlu-s-Sunnah follows the four famous madhhabs29 in obedience to Allāh and HisMessenger, without disputing the validity of any of them, despite the differencesamong them. It is important to know that in the past, there were other validschools, like the school of Abū ˇAmr Abdur-Raĥmān al-Awzāˇiyy, as well asothers, but these four are the remaining schools. The followers of these schoolstook great care to document their schools and pass them down to the followinggenerations.The largest of those four schools is the Ĥanafiyy School, the followers of the28 Sūrat Saba’, verse 13.29 Madhhab “school of practical rules” refers to the work of scholars following aparticular mujtahid. Sometimes the word is used for other meanings. 17
    • great Imām Abū Ĥanīfah an-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit al-Kūfiyy30. Imām Mālik IbnAnas al-Aŝbaĥiyy31 was a contemporary of his, and the greatest scholar in thecity of al-Madīnah at his time. His school, the Mālikiyy school, is the mostwidely spread in Africa, with the exception of the eastern African countries.Imām Muĥammad Ibn Idrīs ash-Shāfiˇiyy32 was the greatest student of Mālik, andhis school, the Shāfiˇiyy School, is the most common in the areas of Lebanon,Palestine, Syria, and Jordon, as well as Indonesia and Malaysia, and manySyrians are Ĥanafiyy. As for the Hambaliyy school, the followers of ImāmAĥmad [Ibn Muĥammad] Ibn Ĥambal ash-Shaybāniyy33, it is the smallest of thefour, because many of the people who likened Allāh to the creations attributedthemselves to that school and have defamed it - repelling people from adheringto it. Ahlu-s-Sunnah believes that if someone follows any one of thosemadhhabs, he would be guided. By that, they respect the acceptable differenceswithin the boundaries of the Islāmic Sharīˇah (Law), as validated by the Prophethimself, and just as the Companions respected the different judgments given byother mujtahid34 Companions.30 He is the Great Imām, al-Mujtahid, an-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit Ibn an-Nuˇmān Ibnal-Marzubān al-Kūfiyy. He was born in the year 80 AH and died in 150 AH. Hewas buried in Baghdād. Among his teachers was Ĥammād Ibn Abī Sulaymān,ˇAťā’ Ibn Abī Rabāĥ, Abū Isĥāq as-Sabiˇiyy, ash-Shaˇbiyy, Maĥārib Ibn Dathar,al-Haytham Ibn Ĥabīb as-Sawwāf, Muĥammad Ibn Munkadir, Nāfiˇ, Abū Bakraz-Zuhriyy, Abu-l-Ĥasan Zayd Ibn al-Ĥusayn, and Abū Jaˇfar Muĥammad IbnˇAliyy Ibn al-Ĥusayn Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Abī Ťālib.31 Al-Imām, al-Mujtahid, Abū ˇAbdillāh Mālik Ibn Anas Ibn Mālik Ibn ˇAmr al-Aŝbaĥiyy al-Madaniyy. He was born in 93 AH and died in 179 AH. He is theauthor of al-Muwaťťa’. Imām ash-Shāfiˇiyy said about his book that it was themost authentic book on the earth after the Qur’ān. Among his teachers wasAyyūb ash-Shakhtiyāniyy, Jaˇfar aŝ-Ŝādiq, ˇAťā’ Ibn Abī Rabāĥ, Muĥammad IbnMunkadir, Nāfiˇ, and Abū Bakr az-Zuhriyy.32 Al-Imām, al-Mujtahid, Abū ˇAbdillāh Muĥammad Ibn Idrīs ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Muťťalibiyy. He was born in 150 AH in Ghazzā and died in 204 AH in Cairo.Among his teachers was: Mālik Ibn Anas, Muĥammad Ibn al-Ĥasan ash-Shaybāniyy, and ˇAbdur-Razzāq aŝ-Ŝanˇāniyy.33 Al-Imām al-Mujtahid Aĥmad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Ĥambal ash-Shaybāniyy al-Marwaziyy. He was born 164 AH in Marw and died in 241 in Baghdād. Amonghis teachers was: Hushaym, Sufyān Ibn ˇUyaynah, and ash-Shāfiˇiyy.34 Mujtahid refers to the top scholars who deduce judgments in case the ruling is 18
    • Clear evidence from the incidents that took place between the Companions at thetime of the Prophet is what was narrated by Imām Muĥammad Ibn Ismāˇīl al-Bukhāriyy35 from the route of Ibn ˇUmar36: ‫ََُُُاُملاُر َُ ُُ ُِ َُُا َُ ُْز ُُِال يصلين أحد العصر‬ُ‫عنُابنُعمرُقال:ُقالُالنيب‬ ‫لن َُجع من ألح اب‬ ََُُّ َُ ُُِّ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ‫إال ي َن ق ريظةََُُُ ُرَُُبُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُْ ُُيفُال َُُّر ُُِفُ ُ َُُب‬ ‫فأدَُك َعضهمُالعصر ط ِيق َقال َعضهمُالُنصليُحّت‬ َ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ّ َُُُِ ‫ََُُُِْيُ َُاُوَُ َُُبُ ُ ُ ُ َُ ُُُ ُُِّيُملُيُُرُُ َُُِّاُ ُُِ ََُُُذ‬ ‫َد من ذَلك فَُكر‬ ْ ‫نأت ه ُقال َعضهمُبل نصل‬ َ ْ ْ َ ‫ُفَُُ ُُْيُ ُُِّ ُُْو ُِ ًُ ُِنُْ ُم‬ُ‫ُللَُّيب‬ ‫َلم عنف ُاحداُم ه‬ َ َ ‫ن‬This means: “Ibn ˇUmar said, ‘When he returned from the battle against theunited parties37 the Prophet said to us, ‘No one prays al-ˇAsr until reachingBanī Qurayđħah38.’ Some of them were in route when the ˇAŝr prayer came in.Some said, ‘We do not pray until we get there.’ Some of them said, ‘No, we shallpray, that is not what he wanted from us.’ That was (later) mentioned to theProphet and he did not scold anyone of them.” The evidence contained in thisĥadīth is that some mujtahid companions understood the apparent expression ofthe Prophet, and thus took it to be permission to pray ˇAsr outside of its time if itmeant praying it only at their destination. Others understood that the Prophet wastelling them to rush to their destination so to pray the prayer in its time there, butnot to pray the Prayer outside of its time.Had their difference been unacceptable, the Prophet would have scolded thosewho disobeyed him, because the belief of the Muslims is that the Prophet doesnot remain silent in the face of sins. Thus, Ahlu-s-Sunnah, unlike the Wahhābis,follows the Companions in what they did in reference to imitation (taqlīd) ofscholars and following schools. As a result, they did not tamper with the rules ofthe Religion. More will be mentioned about the validity of following the schoolsin the section about the Wahhābi grandfather, Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah.All of Ahlu-s-Sunnah have the same belief. They belong to one of two madhhabsnot explicitly mentioned in the Qur’ān or Ĥadīth.35 Al-Imām Muĥammad Ibn Ismāˇīl al-Bukhāriyy (194 – 256 AH).36 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 904.37 Al-Aĥzāb.38 They were a tribe of Jews who had breached their treaty with the Prophet. 19
    • of ˇaqīdah (creed), even if some do so without realization. Knowing about this isimportant. In brief, the two madhhabs of ˇaqīdah do not have different creeds.They carry the same basic belief. The difference between them is in such mattersas definitions and terminology. In other words, the base of these two schools isthe same. The outcome they reached in regards to the belief is the same. Theirdifferences are in issues like defining terms, ways of analyzing proofs, and thelike. If someone follows one of the schools of ˇaqīdah, the Ashˇariyy39 School orthe Māturīdiyy40 School, he follows the belief of the Prophet of Allāh  and hisCompanions, just as the one who follows the method of the previouslymentioned schools of fiqh follows the method of the Prophet of Allāh  and hisCompanions.If someone says, “If their belief is the same, why have two different schools, andif they have two different schools, how could they both be the guided faction?”The answers for these two questions are as follows:The first is that they are different schools because they were established by twodifferent men in two different areas, but both with the same basic belief.Naturally, being different individuals, they would differ in their terminology andexpressions, even if their belief were the same. Then, the scholars who cameafter them applied the method of those two scholars, and taught according totheir ways, out of confession that those two scholars were the masters of theirtime in the science of the creed, just as al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim41 were the39 Al-Imām Abu-l-Ĥasan ˇAliyy Ibn Ismāˇīl Ibn Isĥāq Ibn Sālim Ibn Ismāˇīl IbnˇAbdillāh Ibn Mūsā Ibn Bilāl Ibn Abī Bardah Ibn Abī Musā al-Ashˇariyy al-Baŝriyy. He was born in 260 AH and died in 324 AH. After leaving theMuˇtazilah, he devoted himself to defending the creed of Ahlu-s-Sunnah. Hetook the Shāfiˇiyy Fiqh from Abū Isĥāq al-Marwaziyy. Among his students was:Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Bāhiliyy, Abu-l-Ĥasan ať-Ťabariyy, Abū Sahl as-Suˇlūkiyy (theshaykh of al-Ĥākim an-Naysābūriyy), Ibn Mujāhid and many more.40 He was the Imām of Guidance, Abū Manŝūr Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad IbnMaĥmūd as-Samarqandiyy al-Māturīdiyy al- Ĥanafiyy. He died in the year 333AH. Among his teachers was al-Imām Abū Bakr Aĥmad al-Jawzajāniyy al-Ĥanafiyy who took from al-Imām Abū Sulaymān Musā Ibn Sulaymān al-Jawzajāniyy al-Ĥanafiyy who took from al-Qāďī Abū Yūsuf Yaˇqūb Ibn Ibrāhīmal-Anŝāriyy who took from al-Imām Abū Ĥanīfah An-Nuˇmān Ibn Thābit.41 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Muslim Ibn Ĥajjāj al-Qushayriyy an-Naysabūriyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 202 AH and died in 261 AH. He was the most 20
    • masters in ĥadīth narration42, and the Four Imāms were the masters of Fiqh.Thus, anyone who took by the way of al-Ashˇariyy in expressing the matters ofthe creed was attributed to his school. Likewise is said about whoever taught andauthored according to the way of al-Māturīdiyy.The answer to the second question is that the fact that they share the same basiccreed confirms that both groups are the guided faction, just as the Companions,who had the same basic creed, differed about whether the Prophet saw Allāh.Some, like Ibn ˇAbbās, said that he saw Allāh with his heart43. Others likeˇĀ’ishah Bint Abī Bakr, said that he did not see Allāh. Some of Ahlu-s-Sunnahsaid that he saw Allāh with his eyes. Yes, what is correct is that he saw Allāhwith his heart and not with his eyes, and that no one will see Allāh with theireyes in this lifetime, the proof for which does not befit this summarized booklet,but the point is that this difference does not mean that the Companions havedivided into factions. They all still have the same basic belief, which is that Allāhcan be seen. Likewise, the differing expressions between the Ashˇariyyah and theMāturīdiyyah do not make them two different factions, because their basic creedis the same. Hence, what is precise is to say that they are two schools within thesame guided faction.In explaining the Muslim’s creed, most scholars, like the Shāfiˇiyy and theMālikiyy scholars, are Ashˇariyyah, also known as al-Ashāˇirah. Others, usuallyĤanafiyy scholars, are Māturīdiyyah, and it should be known that they are notfew. The Wahhābis hate both groups, claiming that al-Ashāˇirah and al-Māturīdiyyah are deviants.They are cornered into this claim, because both fountains of knowledge refutethe Wahhābi creed, and all other deviant creeds. Furthermore, since they claimthat the Ashāˇirah are deviant, and since most of the scholars are Ashāˇirah, theyoften quote scholars whom they would consider deviant. The authority ofheavyweight scholars like an-Nawawiyy44, Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy45, and al-accomplished student of Imām al-Bukhāriyy.42 If someone asks, “Do al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim have a school in ĥadīth?” Theanswer is: yes. Among the scholars who followed the way of those two imāmswas Abū ˇAbdillāh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh al-Ĥākim an-Naysabūriyy, theauthor of al-Mustadrak.43 Not in his heart! Rather, with his heart instead of his eyes.44 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Abū Zakariyyā Muĥyu-d-Dīn Yaĥyā Ibn Sharaf an-Nawawiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 631 AH and died in 676 AH. 21
    • Bayhaqiyy46 give their books and lessons an authentic tone, although in realitysuch scholars refuted and disagreed with the Wahhābi beliefs. The Wahhābispick and choose what they like from the scholars’ comments and judgments, thenif one were to show them what those scholars believed, those Wahhābis wouldsay, “O, but he is an Ashˇariyy!” Ahlu-s-Sunnah is moderate, safe between thedifferent extremes that are and have been practiced. Unlike the Wahhābis, theydo not liken the attributes of Allāh to the attributes of the creations. Nor do theydeny the attributes or existence of Allāh, as the Wahhābis would accuse them.They do not deem the intellect as something that has priority over the rules ofAllāh, nor do they stoop like the Wahhābis and read the Qur’ān and the ĥadīthwithout using their minds. Some scholars said that the one who reads theRevelation without using his mind is like the one who steps into the light withhis eyes closed, and the one who uses his mind without using the Revelation islike the one who steps into the darkness with his eyes opened. We must step intothe light with our eyes opened. We must accept the Revelation of Allāh and useour minds (according to the guidance of the great scholars of Islām). Names that Have Been Attributed to the WahhābisAl-Mushabbihah; “the Likeners”, are among the ancient, deviant factions aboutwhich the Prophet  warned. They are religiously defined as the people wholiken the self of Allāh to the selves of His creations, or they liken His attributesto their attributes. The so-called Salafis; “the followers of the Salafi Daˇwah”, asthey call themselves, are a modern branch of al-Mushabbihah, as we will prove,if Allāh willed.Rather than being Salafi (followers of the scholars of the first 300 years), theyare talafiyy (destructive). Do not call them Salafi, call them imposters. Call them“so-called Salafis”, or “pseudo (fake) Salafis”. Put “Salafi” in quotation marks to45 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām, the Seal of the Scholars of Ĥadīth, Abu-l-Faďl Aĥmad IbnĤajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy. He was born in 773 AH and died in 852 AH.Among his teachers was: Sirāj al-Bulqīniyy, Ibnu-l-Mulaqqin, al-Ĥāfiđħ Zaynu-d-Dīn al-ˇIrāqiyy, al-Ustādh at-Tanūkhiyy and many others.46 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Imām Ŝāĥibu-l-Wujūh, Abū Bakr Aĥmad Ibn al-Ĥusayn IbnˇAliyy al-Bayhaqiyy, an-Naysābūriyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Ashˇariyy. He was born inthe year 384 AH and died in 458 AH. Among his teachers was: al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Ĥākim an-Naysābūriyy, Muĥammad Ibn Maĥmish az-Ziyādiyy, Abū ˇAbdir-Raĥmān as-Sulamiyy, Abū Sulaymān al-Khaťťābiyy, al-Imām Abū Bakr IbnFūrak and al-Ustādh Abū Manŝūr al-Baghdādiyy. 22
    • show that you do not consider them to actually be Salafi. If Allāh willed, we willalso speak about the true Salaf.Call them the Wahhābiyyah, the name given to them by the scholars when theyfirst deviated more than 200 years ago, emerging from the land of Najd in theArabian Peninsula, following their master, Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb an-Najdiyy. ***EXTRA DETAIL***One would find many Wahhābis who are offended by being called Wahhābis,and say that it is sinful to use the term, because it is derived from the name ofAllāh: “al-Wahhāb” (the one who gives abundantly). They would say, “How canyou use Allāh’s name to refer to people you consider deviant, is this notbelittling His name?” This is yet another example of their ignorance. Had theyknown some of the basics of the Arabic language, they would not argue thispoint. In the books of Arabic morphology (ŝarf), which is the knowledge of thestructures of the words, there is a chapter called “an-Nasab”, which means toattribute/relate something to something else. For example, if someone isattributed to the tribe of Quraysh, he would be “Qurashiyy”, and if he was afollower of Imām Mālik he would be “Mālikiyy”. We are not actually attributingthose people to al-Wahhāb, who is Allāh the Exalted, but to Muĥammad IbnˇAbdil-Wahhāb or more specifically to the last part of his name: ˇAbdul-Wahhāb(the slave of al-Wahhāb). This name is composed of two words: “ˇabd (slave)”and “al-Wahhāb”, which is Allāh’s name. When someone is attributed to aperson with this type of constructed name, one of the two parts must be omitted.And so, the first part of the name in this case is omitted and the second part iskept. Hence, anyone attributed to Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb is not called“ˇAbdiyy”, but “Wahhābiyy”. ***They also call themselves Ahlu-l-Ĥaqq (the People of the Truth) and Ahlu-l-Ĥadīth (the People of [the science of] Ĥadīth). When calling themselves Ahlu-l-Ĥadīth, they truly mean that they (unrightfully) make ijtihād47 from the ĥadīths,bypassing what the mujtahids said. They have also been called Lā Madhhabiyyah(those who do not claim any school of fiqh), and Ghayru-l-Muqallidīn (thosewho do not imitate). They explain this name to mean that they do not merely47 Ijtihād is the effort put by the mujtahid to deduce judgments not explicitlymentioned in the Qur’ān or Ĥadīth. 23
    • imitate the scholars, rather they imitate the Prophet through the ĥadīth, but infact, it means that they do not follow qualified scholarship.Truly, they are Ahlu-l-Kibr (the People of Arrogance), Ahlu-đ-Ďalālah (thepeople of misguidance), al-Mushabbihah (the people who liken Allāh to Hiscreations), al-Mujassimah (the people who believe that Allāh has a body), al-Ĥashwiyyah (people who speak nonsense) and kuffār (blasphemers), amongother titles.It is easy for an ignorant person to commit kufr (blasphemy) because of them.Many people have fallen into their snare. Except for their kufr, they talk anddress like Muslims. However, if lent a listening ear, they surely will throw anunfortunate person into the black flames of Jahannam48. This does not includepeople who do not believe the bad belief of the Wahhābis, but may affiliatethemselves with the so-called Salafis.The Wahhābis are as the Prophet  said49: ُ‫أناسُمنُجلدتناُيتكلمونُبألسنتناُتسمعُمنهمُوتنكرُدعاةُعلىُأبوابُجهنم‬ ‫منُاستمعُإليهمُقذفوهُفيها‬ ْ َThis means: “There are people who look like us and talk with our talk. Youwould hear their message and reject. They are preachers at the gates ofHell. They will throw whoever listens to them in it.” The Correct Belief in AllāhTo avoid confusion, the correct creed will be discussed before discussing theirincorrect creed.Know that Allāh exists differently from anything else. His self is His reality, andnot a body. He alone is without a beginning, because no one created Him. He isthe only Creator. He exists everlastingly and does not change. He is perfect.Before creating the creations, He existed without them. He existed before theskies or the ˇArsh50 existed, and He now exists as He eternally existed, without48 Jahannam is a name of Hell.49 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6673; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 1847.50 The ˇArsh “Throne” is the ceiling of Paradise. 24
    • those creations affecting or changing Him.He is alive without a body or soul, and without needing sustenance. He isknowledgeable without a teacher and does not learn or forget. He possesses theperfect knowledge of everything, and the creations exist only as He knew theywould. He has power to bring things from non-existence into existence. Hecreates without tools and without getting weak or sleepy. He has the eternal andeverlasting Will, by which He specified His creations with particular places,directions, shapes, colors, times, changes, movement, stability, hardships, ease,choice, wills, and everything else He eternally willed for His creations. Hismanagement is unhindered and uninterrupted. He cannot be distracted becauseHe does not have limbs. He has no partner, wife, parent, son, branch, origin, noropposite. He does not need anything, not a space to occupy, nor time to bindHim. He is not benefited nor harmed by His creatures. He eternally sees andhears everything without eyes or ears, without looking into a direction, withoutneeding volume or sound waves, light, time, or space. Nothing is hidden fromHim. He speaks with His eternal Kalām (Speech), without it being of a word,letter, sound, nor language. It is not the result of organs touching or air moving,and it does not come from any direction. Allāh does not resemble anything in theworld. He is not composed of particles, nor does He have the characteristics ofparticles, such as color, shape, place, motion, stillness, texture, temperature, etc.He is neither inside nor outside of something, since those are places for bodies.He is not in a particular place, nor is He everywhere. He exists without being inany place. He does not have the attributes of the creations. The creations are notparts or attributes of Allāh. All of His attributes are eternal and everlasting. Theyare not organs or emotions. Since His Self is Eternal, His attributes cannot becreated. He is different from whatever is imagined. Let there be no doubt thatthis is the correct belief in Him, the mighty Lord with the perfect names. The Wahhābis Attribute a Body to AllāhThe focus of our discussion will be the Wahhābis’ disbelief in the attributes ofAllāh. They claim Tawĥīd, but they really believe in tajsīm (attributing bodilyattributes to Allāh).Their belief is that Allāh has attributes whose linguistic meanings refer to theattributes of a body. This means that the meanings they choose to ascribe toAllāh are meanings that imply a bodily reference, like organs, places and motion.Notice the word “meanings”. They intend particular (bodily) definitions whenthey use certain words. Let whoever talks to one of them pay attention not onlyto the words they use, but also to the meanings they intend.They believe that Allāh has a real face that should be understood literally. They 25
    • believe that He has two real eyes, and that He actually smiles (these are theirown words) and laughs. Their grandfather, Abu-l-ˇAbbās Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyahal-Ĥarrāniyy, claimed that Allāh spoke after He was not speaking. They believethat Allāh speaks Arabic, claiming that whenever Allāh creates, He literally says“‫( ُن‬Kun) (be; exist)”. They say that Allāh is attributed with a very real pair of ‫ك‬hands that must be understood as stated, and that Allāh really holds creations inthem.They believe that He has a real right hand and a real left hand, and some said Heonly has two right hands, because a left would not befit Him.They believe that Allāh has real fingers, but they may have different opinionsabout how many. At least, they would say He has two, and some may say six.They have been known to say that Allāh sits on His ˇArsh, but it seems that wastoo easy to refute, so they reverted to saying that He is above His ˇArsh. Theyfocus on attributing places and directions to Him. They say He is “above”, andthey mean it in the physical sense. They claim that He is above the seven skies,above the ˇArsh, which is the ceiling of Paradise.They believe that Allāh is separate from His creations, disconnected from them,existing in a very high location. Some of them say that Allāh is above the ˇArshand there is no place there, which is absurd and against what the Prophet  saidabout the book above it. They do not see this as drawing similarities betweenAllāh and His creations. Some of them said that Allāh exists in the sky, butperhaps those who say that He is above His ˇArsh have overtaken them. Somemay say that Allāh is above the ˇArsh by a four-finger spaced distance.They believe that Allāh descends from above the ˇArsh down to the first sky, andthen ascends back up; that Allāh comes and goes- so that they believe that Allāhmoves from one place to another. Furthermore, they bind Allāh by time,believing that He descends during the last third of the night, and that He is abovethe ˇArsh during the day.They believe that Allāh has a shin and a real foot, which will be submersed in thefire of Hell on the Day of Judgment. They even believe that Allāh will cast ashadow on that day. They firmly believe that all of these so-called attributes mustbe taken by their real, literal, apparent and obvious meanings.As can be seen, when using the name “Allāh”, they refer to somethingimaginary. Compare this to the correct belief mentioned in the previous section,and easily see that they do not believe in God. Let whoever meets one of thesedeviant people not be intimidated, nor should he underestimate every one of 26
    • them. Some Wahhābis study and memorize, ready to bombard their opponent.The point of mentioning their belief without mentioning their so-called proof isto expose the result of their analysis. They misinterpreted many verses andĥadīth to establish their beliefs and this is the result.The Wahhābi Reasoning Behind Their Incorrect BeliefWhat complicates the issue is that they usually deny that they believe that Allāhhas a body. On the contrary, they say that they do not believe that He has a body.Some of them say that they do not confirm whether He has a body or not, whichis still blasphemy. Some of them might say that He has a body, but then wouldsay that they do not know how His body is, which also does not escapeblasphemy51.51 Ibn Ĥajar al-Haytamiyy said in al-Minhāj al-Qawīm Sharĥu-l-Muqaddimahal-Ĥadramiyyah, page 144: “Know that [Shihābu-d-Dīn Aĥmad Ibn Idrīs al-Mālikiyy] al-Qarāfiyy and others narrated from ash-Shāfiˇiyy, Mālik, Aĥmad andAbū Ĥanīfah (may Allāh raise their ranks) that those who say that Allāh is in adirection, or has a body have committed blasphemy — and they deserve thisverdict.”Al-Ĥāfiđħ as-Suyūťiyy narrated in al-Ashbāh wa an-Nađħā’ir, page 488, thatImām ash-Shāfiˇiyy said: “The one who attributes a body to Allāh is ablasphemer.”The Imām of Ahlu-s-Sunnah, Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy said in an-Nawādir:“The one who believes that Allāh is a body does not know Allāh and he is adisbeliever in Allāh.”Al-Qāďī ˇAbdul-Wahhāb Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Naŝr al-Baghdādiyy al-Mālikiyy (422AH) said in Sharĥ ˇAqīdah Mālik aŝ-Ŝaghīr, page 28: “It is not permissible toattribute to Him (Allāh) a ‘how’ because the Religion did not come with that,nor did the Prophet convey such a thing, nor did the Companions ask him aboutthat. This is because that implies movement, transformation, occupancy,containment and going from one place to another. And the implication of that isthe attribution of a body to Allāh and the claim that bodies are eternal and this isblasphemy according to all Muslims.”Ash-Shaykh Kamāl Ibn al-Hammām al-Ĥanafiyy said in Fatĥ al-Qadīr: “The onewho says Allāh is a body unlike other bodies blasphemes.”Al-Imām Muĥammad Ibn Badri-d-Dīn Ibn Balbān ad-Dimashqiyy al-Ĥambaliyysaid in Mukhtaŝar al-Ifādāt, page 489: “The one who believes or says that ‘Allāh 27
    • They would deny that Allāh has a body, because they know that they would beclearly admitting that He is like His creations. Taking this position may be thecase of most of them. Despite this denial, it is known that they secretly believethat Allāh has a body because they hate for someone to say that He has no placeor direction, and they think that denial of place and direction is denial of Hisexistence. Had that been true, then where was Allāh before he created places anddirections?They may not confirm whether Allāh has a body or not, because they would notwant to explicitly liken Allāh to His creations, and at the same time they do notwant to reject their literal meanings. This is still blasphemy, since taking amiddle ground and saying, “I do not say if Allāh has a body or not,” is likedoubting about Allāh. It is the same as saying, “I do not say if Allāh exists ornot,” or “I do not say if Allāh has a partner or not.” The one who doubts aboutany attribute of Allāh that is known by necessity52 (such as His knowledge,power, the fact that He does not resemble the creations, etc) is not a Muslim, asmentioned by the great Imām Abū Ĥanīfah, one of the heads of the [real] Salaf53,in his book al-Fiqh al-Akbar54. He said:Himself is in every place or in one particular place’ then he is a blasphemer.”And he says on page 490: “He (Allāh) does not resemble anything and nothingresembles Him, so the one who likens Him to something among His creationsblasphemes. This is like the one who believes He is a body or he says ‘He is abody unlike other bodies’.”52 Known by both scholars and laymen.53 Salaf “predecessors” It refers to the first three centuries of Muslims. Somescholars said it only refers to the Companions, their students, and their students -and not the first three centuries entirely. The first saying is the strong one.54 Some Wahhābis will try to deny that Imām Abū Ĥanīfah authored this bookbecause it contains statements that they don’t agree with. So let it be known thatImām Abū Ĥanīfah dictated this book to a group of his students, among thembeing: Ĥammād Ibn Abī Ĥanīfah, al-Qāďī Abū Yūsuf, Abū Muťīˇ al-Ĥakam IbnˇAbdillāh al-Balkhiyy and Abī Maqātil Ĥafŝ Ibn Salm as-Samarqandiyy. A groupof scholars conveyed this book from the previous group, such as: Ismāˇīl IbnĤammād Ibn Abī Ĥanīfah, Muĥammad Ibn Maqātil ar-Rāziyy, Muĥammad IbnSamāˇah, Nuŝayr Ibn Yaĥyā al-Balkhiyy, Shaddād Ibn al-Ĥakam and others. Andfrom this group of scholars al-Fiqh al-Akbar was conveyed with a saĥīĥ chain toal-Imām Abū Manŝūr al-Māturīdiyy. This has been documented by al-ĤāfiđħMuĥammad Murtaďā az-Zabīdiyy (Itĥāf as-Sādah al-Muttaqīn, vol. 2, page 14) 28
    • ُُ ٌُُُُِِ َُ ُُ‫َُ َُ َُُُْ َُُُِ ٌَََُُُُُُْ ُوَُ ٌَُُُُْوَُّ ََُُُُُْ َُ َُُُِّ َُاُفُ ُو‬ ِ ‫فمن قال إهناُحمدث ُ أو خمل ق ُ أو ُقف أو شك فيه َه َ كافر باهلل‬ َ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬This means: “Whoever says that Allāh has a created attribute, or doubts55, or isneutral56 is a blasphemer.” Whoever considers it possible for Allāh to have abody, even if he did not believe that Allāh actually has a body, would blasphemefor deeming it possible.The less intelligent among them might say that Allāh has a body, because it isobvious that they describe a body, but they would say that His body is not likeours, or that they do not know how His body is. According to the great AĥmadIbn Ĥambal, the Salafiyy scholar whom they often claim to follow, whoever saysAllāh has a body unlike other bodies blasphemes57. In his book, “The creed ofthe distinguished Imām Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal”, Abū Faďl at-Tamīmiyy, the head ofBadru-d-Dīn az-Zarkashiyy (Tashnīf al-Masāmiˇ, vol. 4, page 258), Abu-l-Muđħaffar al-Asfarāyīniyy (at-Tabŝīr fi-d-Dīn, page 184) and others.55 Doubt means to deem two matters equally possible without one of the twomatters being more probable.56 Neutral means not to take one side or another side; neither to confirm nor denyeither side.57 Tashnīf al-Masāmiˇ, vol. 4, page 684.From this statement of Imām Aĥmad and others, it is known that the case of theone who says “Allāh is a body unlike other bodies” is similar to the one who says“Allāh is everywhere.” That is, these words carry only one blasphemousmeaning according to the language and the one who utters them while knowingtheir meaning blasphemes. However, if out of their ignorance they think thatthese words carry a meaning which is acceptable according to the Religion thenthis person does not blaspheme. This is the case of the one who thinks thestatement “Allāh is everywhere,” means “Allāh knows about everything in everyplace,” although this is not a valid linguistic meaning. Similarly, the one whosays “Allāh is a body unlike other bodies” while thinking the the word “body”means “an existent thing” is not declared a blasphemer if this is hisunderstanding. However, if he knows the true linguistic meaning of “body” (aconstructed entity composed of two or more parts (atoms) that takes up spaceand dwells in a direction) and he says it anyway, then he is a blasphemeraccording to all Muslims. This is what some scholars intended when they said“the one who says Allāh is a body unlike other bodies is not charged withblasphemy.” 29
    • the Ĥambaliyy scholars in Baghdād said, “Aĥmad objected to those who callAllāh a body, and said: ‘The names of things are taken from the language and thereligious law; the linguists defined the jism (body) as that which has length,width, depth, composition and image, and it (the term “jism”) did not come in thereligious law, and so it is invalid’.”Furthermore, it is blasphemous to say that they do not know how His body is,because the scholars of Islām have made it very clear that “how” cannot beattributed to Him. Throughout the books of the Sunni scholars, you would findthat they said about Allāh and His attributes: ِ ‫َُُُِ َُُ َُُّة‬ ‫بال كْيفي‬This means: “without a how (manner of being)”. Thus, to say “they do not knowhow He is” is to say that there is a how, but it is unknown to them. Saying thatthe “how” is unknown does not negate the fact that they believe that He has abody, just as saying, “the door is open, but I do not know how,” does not negatethe fact that the door is open. So, if one of them says, “We do not know how,”tell him that the scholars of the (real) Salaf have agreed that there is no how, asnarrated from the likes of Umm Salamah, the Prophet’s  wife, and ImāmMālik. She said, “the ‘How’ (being attributed to Him) is not rational (ghayrumaˇqūl).58” If Allāh willed, this point will be revisited in the section, “The Truthabout the Istiwā’ of Allāh.”These people may have never learned the correct belief, so when they learnedtheir incorrect belief, they became attached to it and developed a warped logic.Their thinking is based on an unsound premise: that Allāh is attributed with these(human) attributes. They also have other horrendous and contradictory claims,which need not be mentioned now. As a result, their thinking became twisted,like the Christians who say that Allāh is one, and is three while He is one. TheWahhābis believe that Allāh has these (human) attributes, yet they claim thatthey believe that Allāh is not similar to His creations. This is clearly unsound andincorrect. How the Wahhābis Interpret the TextsNotice that their so-called proofs have not been referenced yet. Go through thisprocess gradually and systematically. First, have a general idea of how they58 Al-Fatĥ al-Bārī, vol. 13, page 407 by al-Ĥāfiđĥ Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy. 30
    • believe in Allāh, which is really disbelief. They will not deny the belief of whichwe have accused them, but they may deny certain words used in this book, like“organ” and “motion”. They openly use such words as “real”, “literal”, and“apparent” when they attribute these (human) attributes to Allāh. In Arabic theyuse such words as “đħāhir” and “ĥaqīqah”. Why do they believe these things?The following is the reasoning behind their bad belief in Allāh, the Exalted:They believe that Allāh must be attributed with these (bodily) attributes becauseof some literal meanings of Qur’ānic verses and ĥadīths of the Prophet . Theysay that these (bodily) attributes are found in al-Qur’ān and as-Sunnah, so wemust believe in them and whoever does not believe in them has negated them.They mean that one must believe in those texts by their literal meanings, andwhoever does not believe in the literal meanings has completely negated theattribute, which of course is not true. Hence, if they meet someone who does notbelieve that the Yad of Allāh is a real and literal hand, they will accuse him ofrejecting an attribute of Allāh. If they find someone who does not believe thatAllāh has a true and literal face, as they would describe it without explicitlycalling it an organ, they would accuse him of completely rejecting an attribute ofAllāh.This twisted reasoning is a trick that lead many Muslims to blasphemy. They leftIslām to join the Wahhābis, not realizing that this reasoning is perverted. Theydid not possess the answers that would protect their faith. Seeing that too manyMuslims did not know how to defend themselves or Islām against the lies of theWahhābis is what inspired the writing of this book. The Wahhābis are amongthose whom Allāh warned us about in the Qur’ān when He told us59: ٌ َ ْ ‫َّ ِ َ ِ وِب‬ ُُ‫﴿فَأَماُٱلَّذينُيفُق ل ِِمُزيْغُفَيَتَّبِعونُماُتَشابَهُمْن‬ ‫َ َ َ َِه‬ ﴾ُِ‫ُابْتِغَاءَُٱلفْت نَةُوٱبْتِغَاءَُتَأْويل‬ ِ ‫ِه‬ ُِ ِ َThis means: “As for those with perversion in their hearts, they follow whatmay have more than one meaning (mutashābih60 verses), with the purpose ofcausing tribulation, and to misinterpret it…”59 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 7.60 Mutashābih is a verse or ĥadīth that can have more than one meaning. Even anArab may not reach its true meaning. 31
    • Know that these difficult people do not deem rational thinking valid. How couldthey when it shows the invalidity of their creed? They say, “Logic is good, but ithas its place.” Although a true statement, what they truly mean is that one mustbelieve what they consider as proper belief, regardless of logic or reasoning.They believe that assigning a meaning to a verse or ĥadīth that is different fromits literal meaning, which is called “making ta’wīl61”, is sinful. This basic creedof theirs - that ta’wīl is sinful - is one of their greatest reasons for encounteringcontradictions, as will be shown in the second chapter, if Allāh willed. It is truethat some texts may literally suggest some bodily attributes, but sound reasoningdoes not attribute bodily characteristics to the Creator, nor is it valid for theverses to contradict each other, which is the result of their claims. The Wahhābisdo not believe that this is grounds to interpret these texts differently from theliteral meanings. As a result, they fell into tajsīm (attributing bodily attributes toAllāh), which is blasphemy, and they accuse the one who believes in a different(befitting) interpretation of takdhīb (the blasphemy of contradicting the religiousjudgments) and taˇťīl (the blasphemy of denying the attributes of Allāh).They say statements like, “If Allāh revealed this word, then it must beunderstood by the literal meaning, or He would have revealed a different word.”This is a very devious and weak-minded understanding, which may soundappealing to an ignorant person. This reasoning has no support from the Qur’ānor the Sunnah. Scholars like Abu-n-Naŝr ˇAbdur-Raĥīm Ibn Abi-l-Qāsim ˇAbdil-Karīm al-Qushayriyy62 said that those who follow this method do so because oftheir ignorance in Arabic 63. The Truth about Majāz (Figurative Speech)The Wahhābis have denied that there is any figurative speech in the Qur’ān orthe Sunnah, and some of them have denied it from the speech of the Arabscompletely.Ibn Taymiyah said64:61 Ta’wīl is interpreting a text to have a meaning different from its apparentmeaning. The term ‘We’ when referring to Allāh denotes majesty, not plurality.62 Died 514 AH.63 Conveyed by al-Ĥāfiđħ Muĥammad Murtaďā az-Zabīdiyy al-Ĥanafiyy in Itĥāfas-Sādah al-Muttaqīn, vol. 2, page 110.64 Al-Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā, vol. 7, page 113 (Maktabah al-ˇArabiyyah as- 32
    • ٍ ٍَ ُ‫ُ ُُوجما ُُتَقسيمُمْبتَد ٌُحمدثُمل‬ ِ ٌ َ ‫َُُيفُالقرآنُبلُوتُ ُْ ُُ ُُإىلُحقيقة ز ْ ٌ َع‬ ‫َقسيم اللغة‬ ‫فالُجماز‬ ِ ُُ َ‫يَْنطقُبهُالسل‬ ‫َّ ف‬This means: “There is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān. In fact, dividing thelanguage into ‘literal speech’ and ‘figurative speech’ is an innovatedcategorization. It was never uttered by the Salaf.” This denial is necessary fortheir creed, and they only deny figurative speech because of their incredibleattachment to likening Allāh to the creations. If they confirm that there isfigurative speech in the religious texts, the entire foundation of their claim willbe destroyed and all of their argumentation would be petty and useless. Thus, tojustify interpreting the mutashābih verses by their apparent meanings, IbnTaymiyah made this claim.The ease of demolishing this absurdity frees us from having to give a detailedrefutation. Let us settle with a few clear examples and references. Allāhdescribes His Prophet in the Qur’ān as65: ﴾‫﴿وسراجاُمنِريا‬ ً ُّ ً َ َ ِThis literally means: “A luminous lantern.”If there is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān, then the Prophet must be a literallamp, which is not true because he is a human being. The actual meaning is thatthe Prophet eradicates the darkness of blasphemy and is a reason for misguidedpeople to become guided. In the Qur’ān, Allāh described a wall as66: ِ ًَِ ﴾َُّ ‫﴿جداراُيريدُأَنُيَنق‬ ‫َض‬This literally means: “A wall that wants to fall.”If there is no figurative speech in the Qur’ān, then that wall would have toliterally been ascribed with a will, which is an attribute of the living. Thescholars said that the meaning of this verse is that the expression gives the wallSaˇūdiyyah, 2004).65 Sūrat al-Aĥzāb, verse 46.66 Sūrat al-Kahf, verse 77. 33
    • the image of something living and willing, so to portray its leaning over as if it isready to fall. Taking this verse literally would necessitate confirming that thewall was alive.Lastly, Allāh informed us in His Book67: ﴾ُْ ‫﴿نِس كمُحرثُلَّك‬ ‫َ اؤ ْ َ ْ ٌ م‬This literally means: “Your women are plots of land for your cultivation.”Therefore, according those who deny figurative speech in the Book of Allāh orthe sayings of His prophet, the women are actual plots of land, and not humansmade of flesh and blood. The verse actually contains a metaphor that refers to theimpregnation of women.So, just as it is known to us that these texts should not be taken literally, it isknown that nothing in the Qur’ān or the ĥadīth that would seemingly ascribeorgans, places, directions or motion to Allāh should be taken literally. As for IbnTaymiyah’s claim that the Salaf did not confirm figurative speech in the Arabiclanguage, that is refuted by the fact that the Imāms like Ibn ˇAbbās, al-Bukhariyy,Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal and others from the Salaf interpreted texts according tomeanings different from the apparent meanings, as will come in the secondchapter. Ibn ˇAbbās said in confirmation of figurative speech in the Qur’ān68: ُ‫إذاُخفيُعليكمُشئُمنُالقرآنُفابتغوهُمنُالشعرُفإنهُديوانُالعرب‬This means: “If anything in the Qur’ān is unclear to you, then seek its meaningfrom the poetry, for the poetry is the portfolio of the Arabs.” Also among theSalaf who confirmed figurative speech is Abū ˇUbaydah Maˇmar Ibn al-Muthannā69. He has a famous book entitled, Majāz al-Qur’ān (the figurativespeech within the Qur’ān).67 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 223.68 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Bayhaqiyy from the route of ˇIkrimah, ˇAliyy Ibn AbīŤalĥah, ˇAmr Ibn Dīnār, Ibrāhīm, and ˇAťiyyah Ibn Saˇd from Ibn ˇAbbās in hisbook al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 436 – 438.69 Al-Imām Abū ˇUbaydah Maˇmar Ibn al-Muthannā at-Taymiyy an-Naĥwiyy,110 AH – 207 AH. 34
    • The Truth about the Lawfulness of Ta’wīlOn the contrary, Allāh taught us this lesson in His book: ‫ٌ ُّْ َ َ ٌ َّ ُّ ِ ِ َ َ َ ِ ات‬ ِ ﴾ٌُ َ‫﴿منْهُآيَاتُحمكماتُهنُأمُٱلكتَابُوأخرُمتَشاِب‬This means: “Within the Qur’ān there are muĥkam70 verses. They are thebase of the book, and other verses are mutashābih (susceptible to more thanone meaning).”Also, the Prophet  made a supplication for Ibn ˇAbbās (may Allāh accept hisand his father’s deeds) to know the ta’wīl of the Qur’ān, when he said 71: ُ‫ُُعلمهُاحلكمةُوتأويلُالكتاب‬ ‫اللهم‬ ّThis means: “O Allāh, teach him the Wisdom (the Sunnah) and the ta’wīl ofthe Book (al-Qur’ān).” Ta’wīl is to interpret a text differently from its literalmeaning. It is known that Ibn ˇAbbās interpreted many texts that the Wahhābisuse to liken Allāh to His creations. The fact is that ta’wīl is necessary for makingall of the texts free of contradiction. ***EXTRA DETAIL***Know that the Wahhābis may deny the validity of ta’wīl by referring to theverse: ﴾‫﴿وماُيَعلَمُتَأْويلَهُإِ َُُّٱهلل‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِ ال‬This means: “No one knows its ta’wīl except Allāh.”They say that it is not permissible to make ta’wīl because no one can know theta’wīl of the mutashābih verses except Allāh. So, they say that we must takethem literally, because only Allāh knows the ta’wīl. We answer, “When recitingthis verse and stopping at the word ‘Allāh’ so that it means, ‘No one knows its70 Muĥkam is a verse or ĥadīth that has only one meaning in the Arabic language.71 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ Ibn Mājah in his Sunan from the route of Ibn ˇAbbās(Ĥadīth No. 166). 35
    • ta’wīl except Allāh’, this means, ‘No one knows the manifestation; time ofhappening (of certain matters like the Day of Judgment or the coming of theOne-eyed Imposter) except Allāh’.”According to this recitation of the verse, Allāh dispraised the Jews who tried todetermine the exact time of the occurrence of Judgment Day by referring to someof the mutashābih verses of the Qur’ān like72: ٓٓ ﴾١ ۡ‫﴿ال‬Which are three letters among the Arabic letters. This verse, and similar verses,such as73: ٓ ﴾‫﴿ن‬ ۚhave been interpreted in different ways, and hence are mutashābih. The word“ta’wīl” can mean “the manifestation; the time of happening”, as proven by thesaying of Allāh74: ﴾ُ ‫﴿يَومُيَأِِْتُتَأْويل‬ ‫ِه‬ َْThis means: “The Day when its ta’wīl (manifestation; time of happening)comes…”In order to interpret the word “ta’wīl” as “meaning” or “interpretation”, recitepast the word “Allāh”, and continue until reaching the word “al-ˇIlm (theknowledge)”.Hence, the verse would say75: ﴾ُِ ْ‫﴿وماُيَعلَمُتَأْويلَهُإِ َُُّٱ ُُوٱلراسخونُيفُٱلعِل‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِ ال هلل ُ َّ ِ َ ِ م‬ َ72 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 1.73 Sūrat al-Qalam, verse 1.74 Sūrat al-Aˇrāf, verse 53.75 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 7. 36
    • This means: “No one knows the ta’wīl (true interpretation) except Allāh andthose who are deeply rooted in the knowledge.”In this way, both recitations are in compliance, for just as there is nocontradiction between the meanings of the verses of the Qur’ān, there must be nocontradiction between the meanings in its recitations.Furthermore, the Wahhābis do make ta’wīl for any verse whose literal meaningcontradicts their belief, as will be made obvious in the second chapter, in shā’Allāh. In their so-called Noble Qur’ān translation, they put a period after theword “Allāh” because of their disregard and disbelief in the other recitation(qirā’ah76) of the verse, known as the recitation of Mujāhid, the student of IbnˇAbbās.Lastly, the claim that there are verses in the Qur’ān whose meanings cannot bepossibly known by any creature is actually a blasphemous claim, because itimplies that there are verses that have no benefit for the people, since the peoplecould never understand their meanings. Had this been true, the old Arabs wouldhave discredited the Prophet by saying, “This book is not a miracle as you claim,for our language is understood and intelligible, and you have come withsomething that has no meaning to us, and cannot be known by anyone.” Thisclaim is mentioned in some of the footnotes of their so-called Noble Qur’āntranslation in reference to some of the verses. Do not be impressed by it becauseit is a trap. It contradicts the verse of the Qur’ān that proves that everything inthe Qur’ān has a meaning that can be possibly known to the creatures77: ﴾ٍُ ِ‫﴿بِلِسانُعرِيبُمب‬ ‫َ ٍ ََ ٍّ ُّ ني‬This means: “(The Qur’ān is revealed) in a clear Arabic tongue.”This extra detail may not be needed for many, so do not bring it up without need,especially if you do not completely understand this point. But, in case this bookis used to refute a Wahhābi who raises this point, then here is the answer. ***76 Qirā’ah “recitation” could refer to any of the proper ways of reciting theQur’ān.77 Sūrat ash-Shuˇarā’, verse 195. 37
    • They quote the verse from the Qur’ān78: ِ ﴾‫﴿وقَالواَُسعنَاُوأَطَعنَا‬ ْ َ َْ َThis means: “They said, ‘we hear and we obey’,” which to them means thatthey take things by face value without looking into other possible meanings.Their belief is so unsound, that they are forced to reject logic. They believe thatthe logical process of refuting them is philosophy and innovation, which is alsonot true, as will now be addressed, if Allāh willed. If the Wahhābi were to ask:“How could we be misguided by merely believing what is in the Qur’ān? We arejust taking what is in the Book and going no further.” Tell him, “But yourmethod of interpretation is sinful, and Allāh told us about His book79: ‫ِ ُّ ِ َ ً َ ْ ِ ِ ك ً َ َ ِ ُّ ِ ال َ ِ ِ ني‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿يضلُبِهُكثِرياُويَهديُبِهُ َُثِرياُوماُيضلُبِهُإِ َُُّٱلفاسق‬This means: “He guides many by the Qur’ān and misguides many by it, andHe only misguides the major sinners by it.” The Wahhābis Reject LogicSo let us address the intellectual and logical issues pertaining to this blasphemy.They do not agree that the mind (al-ˇaql)80 should have consideration indeciphering what Allāh revealed, so they say, “Sound thinking is good, but it hasits place.” If they completely reject sound thinking, no one will listen to them, sothey give some weight to it, but if they encourage people to think, they willexpose themselves, so they deny that rational thinking is a part of the creed (al-ˇaqīdah), which is a lie. They teach people to just believe in the texts by theirliteral and apparent meanings and not to listen to anyone who says otherwise.They might actually put their fingers in their ears, following the sunnah of theblasphemers from the time of Prophet Nūĥ (Noah, ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām).Allāh told us in the Qur’ān about their rejection of the truth, that Nūĥ said81:78 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 285.79 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 26.80 ˇAql “mind; intellect” It is the faculty given to some creatures which enablesthem to distinguish between what is valid and what is invalid.81 Sūrat Nūĥ, verse 7. 38
    • ﴾ُْ ِِ ‫﴿وإِِّنُكلَّماُدعوت همُلِتَ غْفرُهلمُجعلواُأَصابِعهمُيفُآذ‬ ‫َ ِّ َ َ َ ْ ْ ِ َ َ ْ َ َ َ َ ْ ِ َاهنم‬This means: “And surely, whenever I call them so that You would forgivethem (by guiding them to Islām), they put their fingers in their ears.”They refer to a saying of Imām ˇAliyy (may Allāh accept his deeds), but theypervert its text and distort its true meaning. They say that ˇAliyy (may Allāhaccept his deeds) said, “If the religion were by logic, we would wipe the bottomof the khuff (foot gear)82 instead of the top.83” They would then tell the person toforget about logic, and just accept the literal interpretations. Reasoning is Necessary and Religiously ConfirmedIt is important to have the correct understanding of this saying. ˇAliyy Ibn AbīŤālib (may Allāh accept his deeds) actually said, “Had the Religion been byopinion (ra’y), we would wipe the bottom of the foot gear instead of the top(because the bottom is the side that gets dirty), however I saw The Messenger ofAllāh  wiping the top”. Imām ˇAliyy did not negate the use of logic. Logic,reasoning, and use of the intellect are praised throughout the Qur’ān. The twoSayings of Allāh are repeated many times in the Qur’ān84: ‫ِْ ن‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿أَفَالُتَعقلو‬This means: “Do you not use your minds?” and85 ‫ِْ ن‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿أَفَالُيَعقلو‬This means: “Do they not use their minds?”82 The Khuff refers to foot gear with specific qualities that one is allowed to wipeinstead of washing the feet in Wuďū’.83 Sunan Abū Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 162.84 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 44 & 76; Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 65; Sūrat al-Anˇām,verse 32; Sūrat al-Aˇrāf, verse 169; Sūrat Yūnus, verse 16; Sūrat Hūd, verse 51;Sūrat Yūsuf, verse 109; Sūrat al-Ambiyā’, verse 10 & 67; Sūrat al-Mu’minūn,verse 80.85 Sūrat Yāsīn, verse 68. 39
    • Al-Imām ˇAliyy, the most knowledgeable of the Companions (may Allāh raise allof their ranks), would not say anything against the Qur’ān, and if so, then hissaying would be rejected for the revelation of Allāh. In fact, consideration of themental judgments is an integral part of understanding the belief, and has itsorigin in al-Qur’ān and as-Sunnah. Hence, it is not philosophy or innovation.The scholars of ˇaqīdah (creed), like Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy also pointed outthe fact that the Prophets, the greatest of Allāh’s creations (ˇalayhimu-s-Salām),used logical arguments to refute the blasphemers they encountered and toestablish the correct belief in Allāh, such as what was narrated in the stories ofProphet Ibrāhīm (Abraham, ˇalayhi-ŝ-Ŝalātu wa-s-Salām). Among those storieswas Ibrāhīm’s debate with the tyrant, Nimrod86: ‫َ َ ِ َّ هلل‬ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ِّ ِ ‫ْ َ إ‬َُُ ‫﴿إِذُقَالُُِبْراهيمُريبُٱلَّذيُُييِيُوُيِيتُقَالُأَنَاُأحيِيُوأميتُقَالُإِبْراهيمُفَِإنُٱ‬ ِ ََ َ ‫ب لش ْ ِ ِ َ ْ ِِ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ ِ َ َ ر‬ ﴾َُ‫يَأِِْتُُِٱ َّمسُمنُٱملشرقُفَأْتُِبَاُمنُٱملغربُفَبهتُٱلَّذيُكف‬This means: “When Ibrāhīm said, ‘My Lord creates life and makes the livingdie.’ Nimrod said, ‘I create life and make the living die.’ Ibrāhīm said,‘Surely, Allāh brings the sun from the east, so bring it from the west.’ Uponthat, the one who blasphemed was dumbfounded.”By this simple and clever logic, Ibrāhīm silenced Nimrod, who claimed to beGod. This verse is evidence for the permissibility of debating deviant people toestablish the truth. So, if a Wahhābi claims that debating is forbidden, or thatmental evidence is not from the Religion, use this verse as your evidence. In fact,it is obligatory on some Muslims (communal obligation) to know the mental andtextual evidence, and to refute the deviant people.Thus, Imām ˇAliyy’s aforementioned saying refers to the details of the practicalrules (al-fiqh), not the essentials of belief. One can realize the correct beliefabout the Creator through reasoning; that worshipping a man or a stone or apicture is invalid. Why else do the Christians readily say, “Just believe”? It isbecause they realize the confusion of their beliefs. However, we do not use logicto deduce the practical rules. For example, how would one logically concludethat there are five prayers? Mere logic does not necessitate five prayers over sixor four. How would one logically deduce that the bowing position comes beforeprostration when praying? These judgments cannot be known by logic, and are86 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 258. 40
    • not based merely on opinion. These judgments are taken from The Messenger ofAllāh . Prophets are sent as a mercy to humans and jinn, who otherwise cannotknow how to worship their Lord properly. However, those humans and jinn canuse their minds to know what is and what is not befitting to say about their Lord.For that reason, some scholars even said that whoever is sane and pubescent isaccountable87 to confirm the existence of the Creator and to believe in Hisoneness correctly; that He alone is the creator of everything; the one who doesnot resemble anything, even if that person never heard the message of a Prophet.This is because every child is born with the readiness for the correct belief(fiťrah), and is mentally able to reach it.Allāh said88: ‫ْ َ ْ ْ ِ َ ِ ْ َ ِ َّ ري‬ ﴾ُ ِ‫﴿وقَالواُلَوُكنَّاُنَسمعُأَوُنَعقلُماُكنَّاُيفُأَصحابُٱلسع‬ ِ ْ َThis means: “They will say, ‘Had we listened and had we used our minds, wewould not have been inhabitants of Hell’.” This verse proves that the mentaljudgment has weight and should be considered. The Mental Proof that the Wahhābis believe Allāh is a BodyBecause the true goal is to help the misguided person and to let him accept thetruth, not to debate, tell the Wahhābi in a wise way that it is blasphemy toattribute a body to Allāh. Unfortunately, it is known through experience that theone infected with the disease of tashbīh (likening Allāh to the creations) does notusually want to be cured. If the Wahhābi has not read this book yet, he wouldprobably agree with you without thinking about it; he would probably agree thatit is blasphemy to attribute a body to Allāh. On the other hand, he will still insistthat Allāh is attributed with those (bodily) attributes. He will say, “We mustbelieve in them as they are without changing their meanings.”If this is his position, how could you still say that he truly believes that Allāh hasa body? They want you to believe that Allāh has bodily attributes, but to deny87 According to most scholars, accountability refers to being sane, pubescent, andhaving heard the basic message of Islām, which is the meaning of the shahādah.Whoever dies as an accountable non-Muslim will be tortured everlastingly inHell on the Day of Resurrection.88 Sūrat al-Mulk, verse 10. 41
    • that He has a body. Whoever accepts such contradictory reasoning is a person ofa simple mind, someone who lacks guidance, and does not value the high level ofmeanings that are revealed in the Qur’ān, or the usefulness of the mind.According to the mental judgment, whatever occupies a place is a body. Themore space it occupies, the bigger it is. They believe that the space Allāhoccupies is above the ˇArsh, although they will deny the terms “occupyingspace”. They have sayings about whether Allāh is bigger than, smaller than, orthe same size as the ˇArsh. They believe that He leaves that space to occupyanother space, somewhere in the first sky.Also, according to the mental judgment, whatever moves has a body. It musthave boundaries, limits and certain edges, so to fit in the places between which itmoves. Hence, whatever moves has a body, and whoever believes that Allāhmoves consequently believes in his heart that He has a body, even if he denies itwith his tongue.They say that “Highness (al-ˇuluww)” is Allāh’s attribute89, but they intend thephysical connotation instead of the majestic one. They say that He is “up”, whilerepeatedly pointing to the sky. They do not say that “below” or “lowness” areattributes of Allāh, although they say that He literally descends to the first sky,which implies that He would be below whatever He passed on His way down.This sick belief stands in direct contradiction with the authentic and explicitsaying of The Messenger of Allāh that even al-Albāniyy says is authentic(although he has no right to grade any ĥadīth, as will come) 90: ‫أنتُالظاهرُفليسُفوقكُشيءُوأنتُالباطنُفليسُدونكُشيء‬This means: “O Allāh, You are ađħ-Đħāhir (the One whose existence isobvious) and there is nothing above You, and You are al-Bāťin (the OneWho cannot be reached by delusions) and there is nothing below You.”Because of this devastating refutation, Ibn Taymiyah, contradicted himself when89 It is true that Allāh has the attribute of ˇuluww (highness), but its correctmeaning refers to His majesty and perfection, not a direction.90 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Dhikr, Ĥadīth No. 2713; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, ĤadīthNo. 5051; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3831; Muŝannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah,Ĥadīth No. 4223; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 3400. 42
    • he said91: ُُ ِ ِ ِ ‫أنّهُفوقُالعرشُوأنّهُينزلُإىلُالسماءُالدنياُوالُخيلوُمْنهُالعرش‬ َ ّThis means: “He is above the ˇArsh, and He descends down to the sky, but theˇArsh is never devoid (vacant) of Him.” It is unacceptable to the sound mind thatAllāh would be on the ˇArsh above the sky, then descend down to the sky, andstill upon the ˇArsh.Whatever has a direction is restricted to a place. Anything bound by a directionhas limits, because it is restricted to one place and not to another. Anything in aplace is something with a body, whether in a high place, like the book above theˇArsh and the angels in the sky, or a low place, like the bottom of Hellfire. Theseare descriptions of a body.So, tell the Wahhābi that he is implying that Allāh has a body, and for him todeny that Allāh has a body is ta’wīl; negating the literal meanings. It is helpfulfor you to know and understand a rule of the scholars92: ُ‫الزمُاملذهبُمذهبُإذاُكانُبينًا‬This means: “The implication of one’s opinion is his opinion, if that implicationwere obvious.” This means that if one holds an opinion or a belief, such as if onewere to say that Allāh sits upon a grand throne, then the obvious implication ofhis belief is that Allāh is a body. Therefore, since this implication is obvious, it isconfirmed as his belief, even if he does not state it explicitly. So, do not let theWahhābis hold both points. In one hand, they hold literal meanings that apply tobodies, and in the other, they deny that Allāh has a body. Both points add up to acontradiction93. It is the same as a Christian saying that he believes in91 Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā, vol. 16, page 107.92 Al-Muĥaddith ˇAbdur-Ra’ūf al-Munāwiyy, 1031 AH (Al-Yawāqīt wa-d-Durar,vol. 2, page 150); Shaykh Muĥammad ať-Ťāhir Ibn Muĥammad Ibn ˇĀshūr al-Mālikiyy, 1393 AH (At-Taĥrīr wa-t-Tanwīr, vol. 23, page 248); ShaykhMuĥammad Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Ĥusayn al-Makkiyy al-Mālikiyy, 1367 AH (Tahdhībal-Furūq , vol. 1, page 185).93 Al-Fakhr Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn al-Muˇallim al-Qurashiyy, in hisbook Najmu-l-Muhtadī on page 588 narrates from ˇAliyy Ibn Abī Ťālib, thefourth Caliph: “A people of this Nation (of the Prophet Muĥammad) shall return 43
    • monotheism while saying that God is three. Is it a coincidence that the so-calledSalafiyyah split the Tawĥīd (oneness of Allāh) into three categories (which is abad innovation)!? The Rational Conclusion which is Supported by the TextsThen, a sound mind concludes that Allāh exists without being in any place ordirection, since places and directions are attributes of created things; bodies. Thissound reasoning complies with the verse: ﴾ٌُ ‫﴿لَْيسُُكمثْلِهُشي‬ ‫َ َ ِ ِ َ ْء‬This means “Nothing is similar to Allāh in any way.”If Allāh were in a place, many things would be similar to Him. His Existencewithout a place is not impossible, as Wahhābis think. On the contrary, the mentaljudgment confirms that Allāh exists without a place, because He existed beforeHe created places.If someone says that clearing Allāh from all places is negating His existence,then we pose a question similar to that of Abū Ĥanīfah’s, “If Allāh needed aplace, where was He before He created them?94” Such a person tries, but cannotimagine Allāh existing without a place, so he thinks that would be denying Hisexistence. The Wahhābi does not know what it means to say that nothing iswhatsoever like Allāh.He believes that Allāh needs something. Actually, negating a place for Allāh isdenying that Allāh has a body, since the place is the space that a body occupies.It is confirmed that Allāh exists without a place, and therefore is not a body, so itfollows that He is not attributed with organs, motion, or time, and is totallyunlike all of His creations. That is the judgment of the sound mind in this issue.to being blasphemers when the Day of Judgment is near.” A man asked, “OPrince of the Believers! What is their blasphemy for? Is it for inventingsomething, or for denying something?” ˇAliyy replied: “It is for denial. Theydeny their Creator; they say that He is attributed with a body and limbs.” Whatwe observe today testifies to the soundness of the meaning of this narration.94 Al-Waŝiyyah. 44
    • Islāmic Texts that Refute the Wahhābi CreedAn ignorant person may ask, “So, what if they believe that Allāh has a body?What is wrong with that?” The answer is that such a bad creed is against theexplicit texts of the Qur’ān, the ĥadīth, the consensus of the scholars, and as justaddressed, the judgment of the mind. Proof from the Qur’ān that Refutes the Wahhābi CreedBesides the mental proof, we also refute them by referring to some very simpleand basic textual proofs. It is not necessary to refer to twenty different verses toconfirm the validity of the sound creed about the self of Allāh95. One verse fromThe Qur’ān refutes their entire foundation96: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َThis means: “Nothing is similar to Allāh in any way whatsoever.” It is amuĥkam verse; a verse that only has one meaning according to the Arabiclanguage. It is explicit, not ambiguous nor figurative. It means that there isnothing in common between Allāh and His creations; that Allāh is not likeanything, and nothing is like Him; that every creation is not similar to Allāh inany respect. This is the meaning. This is enough to protect you from falling intothe blasphemy of likening Allāh to His creations, which is shirk.Take a closer look at this explicit verse: Allāh said: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َThe word ‫س‬ َُ ْ‫“ لَي‬laysa” is the word of negation. The first letter prefixed to thenext word is the ‫“ ك‬kāf” with a fatĥah; a word made of one letter, simply95 Since they believe that Allāh is made of parts, they had to refer to many versesto establish their creed about the bodily self that they worship. However, sinceAllāh is not a body or made of parts, it is enough to refer to one verse to establishthe correct understanding about the belief in Allāh.96 Sūrat ash-Shūrā, verse 11. 45
    • pronounced as “ka”. It originally means “like”. It is affixed to the word ُِ‫مثْل‬ ‫ِ ه‬ ِ“mithli”, meaning “like”. The last letter suffixed on the word “mithli” is the ‫ه‬“hā’” with a kasrah, so it is actually pronounced “he”. It is a third personmasculine pronoun meaning “him”, and it refers to Allāh. The last word in theverse is ٌُ ‫شي‬ ‫َ ْء‬ “shay’ ”, which means “thing”. It is a general, indefinite termreferring to all of the creations.It is easily noticed that Allāh revealed the word “mithli” in this verse, with theaddition of revealing the “kāf”. The negation of this combination emphaticallydenies any likeness to Him. If the “kāf” were removed: ‫َ ِ له َ ْ ء‬ ٌُ ‫لَْيسُمثُْ ُُشي‬it would still mean that nothing is like Him. However, Allāh revealed the “kāf”added to the “mithli”, and this emphasizes the meaning that nothing is similar toHim. Furthermore, the term ٌ ‫شي‬ ‫ء‬ ُْ َ “shay’ ” is indefinite, and whenever anindefinite noun is presented in a negative context, then the meaning is an all-inclusive negation. In other words, look at the difference between saying, “He isnot like a thing”, and “He is not like the thing”. The first of these two is moreinclusive, because the term “thing” is indefinite. From this, we can know thatAllāh is clear of having or being a body, and is clear of organs, motion, places,directions, and change. According to the judgment of the mind, attributes such asthose would draw similarities between Allāh and His creatures.Many other verses negate likeness between Allāh and His creations, like97: ﴾ٌُ ‫﴿ َملُْيَكنُلَّهُكفواُأَح‬ ‫ً َد‬ َ‫و‬This means: “There is no one equal to Him.” َِ ﴾‫﴿هلُتَعلَمُلَهَُسيًّا‬ ْ َْThis means: [Posing the rhetorical question,] “Do you know of anything similar97 Sūrat al-Ikhlāŝ, verse 4. 46
    • to Him?”98However, ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َis the most explicit verse in the Qur’ān that clears Allāh from resembling Hiscreations. Whoever is lost in the ocean of confusion from the prevalent ignoranceamong today’s Muslims, let this verse be his plank of wood for staying afloat.Never liken Allāh to His creations, no matter how many verses a Wahhābi maybring to you to convince you that Allāh is like a body.We say that it is not permissible to interpret any text in a way that attributesbodily characteristics to Allāh, because doing that will make the verses of theQur’ān contradictory, which is impossible. For the Wahhābis, this contradictionis minute, acceptable, and insignificant, because they do not believe that logic isassociated with belief. The Priority of the Muĥkam Verses over the MutashābihAs mentioned, ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َis a muĥkam verse, and again, a muĥkam verse is a verse that can only have oneinterpretation according to the Arabic language. It is important to know the meritAllāh gave to the muĥkam verses. Allāh told us99: ‫ِ ُآي ٌ ُّ َ َ ٌ َّ ُّ ِ ِ َ َ َ ِ ات‬ ﴾ٌُ َ‫﴿منْه َُاتُحمْكماتُهنُأمُٱلكتَابُوأخرُمتَشاِب‬This means: “Within the Book are muĥkam verses. They are the base of thebook, and other verses are susceptible to more than one meaning(mutashābih).”The mutashābih verses are not the base of the Book, but the Wahhābis act as ifthey are, which shows that they do not understand the true meaning of this verse,98 Sūrat Maryam, verse 65.99 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 7. 47
    • or the true meaning of: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َThe true Sunni Muslims follow the rule of Allāh that proves that the muĥkamverses are the base of the book. They base their belief on: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َbecause it is a muĥkam verse. Then, when encountering attributes of Allāh like“al-Yad”, “al-ˇAyn”, “al-Wajh”, “al-Istiwā’”, etc, whose literal meanings wouldliken Allāh to the creations, they interpret them in a way that does not give Allāha body or an attribute of a body, because these words can have more than onemeaning, as will be seen in the second chapter, if Allāh willed. This is thestraight and sound way, which stations the muĥkam verses as the base of theBook. ***EXTRA DETAIL***The Wahhābiyyah have tricks to avoid being cornered by this verse. Amongthem is that they say, “When reciting this verse, you should not stop there, rather,you must continue and read the rest of the verse: ِ ِ َّ ﴾‫﴿وهوُٱلسميعُٱلبَصري‬ َ َThis means: “And He is the one who hears and sees.”From there they will accuse you of distorting the meaning of the verse by saying,“Just as it is valid that He hears and sees while nothing is like Him, it is validthat He has a face and hands while nothing is like Him.” The answer for this is intwo steps. The first is to prove the validity of reciting: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َand stopping there. That is achieved in two ways: The first is the fact that if onelooked into the book of the Qur’ān; he would find a sign over top of the verseproving that the reciter is allowed to stop there. If the Wahhābi says, “That is forthe recitation, not the meaning,” respond by saying, “Would it be valid for therecitation to give an invalid meaning?” The second way to thwart the Wahhābi’sattempt to dodge this verse’s ruling is to say to him, “Even if we recited the 48
    • saying: ﴾‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيءٌُوهوُٱلسميعُٱلبَصري‬ ِ ِ َّ َ َ َْ ِ َِ َMeaning, “Nothing is whatsoever like Him, and He hears and sees,” that isnot the beginning of the verse, so what made it permissible for you to start at: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َwhen it is in itself the continuation of previous statements? Why have you notrecited the entire verse from its beginning to its end?” If he says: “Because this isthe part of the verse related to our topic.” We answer: “For the same reason wehave recited the amount that we have recited.”The second step is to clarify that the hearing and sight of Allāh are not by eyesand ears, have no beginning or end, and are not restricted to time, direction,volume, or light, and thus do not resemble the hearing and sight of the creatures.The scholars said that this was the benefit of being mentioned after theconfirmation that He does not resemble anything. In other words, Allāh told us inHis book: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َthen, after knowing that He does not resemble anything, we are informed that: ِ ِ َّ ﴾‫﴿وهوُٱلسميعُٱلبَصري‬ َ َThis means: “He is the one Who hears and sees,” so that we would know thatHis hearing and sight are different from that of the creations.This is the key for answering their question to us, “Why is it valid for you to saythat Allāh has hearing, sight, knowledge and power, but you prevent us fromsaying that He has hands, fingers, face and eyes?” You can respond by sayingthat hearing, sight, knowledge and power do not necessitate a body. They aremeanings that do not dictate composition and physical structure. As for theirclaim of a face and hands, etc.: If they say that they are real, literal face and hands, then they have likened Allāh to the creation, because real, literal face and hands require composition and physical structure. If they say that they are not literal, 49
    • then they have made ta’wīl. If they say that they do not know the meanings of face and hands in reference to Allāh, then we ask them how they could translate something without knowing its meaning. If they say that they translated the Arabic terms into their English counterparts, we tell them that the Arabic terms have many possible meanings, so the intended meanings must be translated according to the context and not the mere word by its face value. If they choose to use only the Arabic words, such as al-Wajh and al- Yad, without confirming any specific meanings for them except that they are attributes of Allāh and that Allāh knows about them, then they have complied with us.The origin of their twisted understanding of the verse: ﴾‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيءٌُوهوُٱ َُّميعُٱلبَصري‬ ِ ِ ‫لس‬ َ َ َْ ِ َِ َis taken from their grandfather, Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah al-Ĥarrāniyy, whoconfessed that he likens Allāh to the creation when he said in his book Bughyahal-Murtād100:ُ‫قالُتعاىلُ﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيءٌ﴾ُفنزهُ﴿وهوُٱلسميعُٱلبَصري﴾ُيشبهُوهيُأعظم‬ ِ ِ َّ َ َ َْ ِ َِ َ ‫آيةُأنزلتُيفُالتنزيهُومعُذلكُملُختلُعنُالتشبيه‬This means: “The Exalted said: ﴾ٌ ‫ ﴿لَيْس ُكمثِْه ُشي‬and thereby He was exalted ‫َ ِ لِ َ ء‬ ْ َ ِ ‫ ﴿وهو ُٱلسميع ُٱلب‬and thus He was likened. This is thefrom resemblance; ﴾‫َصري‬ ِ َّ َ َgreatest verse revealed in clearing Allāh from resembling the creation, anddespite that, it was not devoid of resembling Him to others.” The reality of IbnTaymiyah’s claim is that the Qur’ān contradicts itself.100 Bughyah al-Murtād fī al-Radd ˇalā al-Mutafalsifah wa-al-Qarāmiťah wa-l-Bāťinīyah, page 464; Maktabah al-ˇUlūm wa-l-Ĥikam, Third Edition 2001. 50
    • *** Proof from the Ĥadīth that Refutes the Wahhābi CreedAs for the honorable sayings of the Prophet of Allāh , we recite the ĥadīth101: ُُ‫كانُاهلل َملُيَكنُشيءٌُغْي ر‬ ‫َ ه‬ ْ ‫َ َ ُو‬This means: “Allāh existed (eternally), and there was nothing other thanHim.” This is a very basic and easy-to-understand proof. It shows that Allāh waseternally alone. There was no ˇArsh, sky, body, place, direction, light, darkness,nor anything else.If a Wahhābi insists on his bad belief, mention this ĥadīth and then ask, butwithout the intention to make him say blasphemy, “Is a place something otherthan Allāh?” He can give three possible responses: He may totally ignore your question, and instead of answering, he would ask you a different question, or he may change the subject. If he does either of those, do not answer his question, nor follow him into another subject. Stick to the ĥadīth and do not let him get away with not answering the question. If he refuses to answer the question, it is because he knows what you are trying to do, and he does not want to be cornered. If he says that the place is Allāh, which we do not expect him to say, then he committed pure, explicit and blatant blasphemy. If he says that the place is something other than Allāh, then say, “Allāh existed without anything, and you agree that the place is something other than Him, so by this ĥadīth, Allāh existed without a place.” If the Wahhābi says, “Well, Allāh is now in a place,” then he likened Allāh to the creations, attributing change to Him. Places are not eternal, because Allāh is the only eternal One.Because of the clarity of this refutation, Ibn Taymiyah went to claim theexistence of the types of things with Allāh eternally. He said in his book Minhājas-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah:101 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6982. 51
    • ُ‫وإنُجاز أن يكون نوع الحوادث دائما لم يزل،ُفإنُاألزلُليسُهوُعبارةُعن‬ ً ُ‫شيءُحمددُبلُماُمنُوقتُيقدرُإالُوقبلهُوقتُءاخر‬This means: “…Although it is valid that the creations in their kind would beeverlasting, beginningless, for eternity is not an expression of somethingspecific. Instead, there is no moment of time, except that before it there wasanother moment… ” Does not Ibn Taymiyah know that time is a creation ofAllāh, and hence was preceded by nonexistence? If that expression is not clearenough, then here is his statement from his book called “Muwāfaqatu Ŝaĥīĥ al-Manqūl li-Ŝarīĥ al-Maˇqūl”102: ُ‫فإنُاألزيلُهوُنوعُاحلادثُالُعنيُاحلادث‬This means: “Because the eternal one is the type of the creation, not the createdthing itself.” What led Ibn Taymiyah to say these things is the fact that he wantsto confirm a place and direction for Allāh, no matter what the cost. Thus, if itwere said that attributing a place to Allāh means that Allāh changed, he wouldrespond by saying, “No, actually the place as a type of thing is beginningless,and so Allāh was always in a place.” This creed of Ibn Taymiyah is a shamefulexposure and a confirmation of his belief that something existed with Allāheternally, which is shirk.Also, the Wahhābis believe that Allāh moves from one place to another, butmotion is not eternal. It comes into existence (has a beginning) after it was non-existent. So, how can the Wahhābis confirm that Allāh literally descends andascends, when the Prophet  told us that Allāh is eternal? According to theWahhābis, Allāh acquired attributes, which negates being eternal. How is itknown that we are created, and not eternal? It is because we change and develop.Changing and developing are signs of the existence of the mighty Creator; theLord Who creates and gives us the attributes that we did not have before. This iswhy Abū Ĥanīfah said in al-Fiqh al-Akbar: ُ‫التغريُواالختالفُُيدثُعندُاملخلوقني‬This means: “Changes and variations occur on the creations (only).” Allāh is not102 Muwāfaqatu Ŝaĥīĥ al-Manqūl li-Ŝarīĥ al-Maˇqūl, page 228. 52
    • a creation, so no one gives Him attributes. Ahlu-s-Sunnah agreed that He doesnot give Himself attributes, because whatever Allāh creates is a creation, and Hedoes not have a created attribute. Allāh is not like us. He is the One Who changesthings, but He does not change. He is eternal. This ĥadīth is also an explicit onewhose meaning cannot be played with. Use it against them and stick to it. Do notlet them lead you away from it, as the more devious among them mayintentionally try. If you use it properly, there would be no way around it. Scholarly Texts Refuting the Wahhābi CreedAfter creating the creations, Allāh did not acquire one of their attributes, likebeing in a physical direction in comparison to them. Nor did he lose any of Hisattributes, like eternally existing without changing. None of the creations becameattributes of Allāh. After creating places and directions, He did not take them asattributes for Himself. He is not attributed with a created attribute; an attributethat did not exist, and then came into existence. This is why ať-Ťaĥāwiyy103, atrue Salafiyy, in his book famous as the ˇAqīdah of ať-Ťaĥāwiyy, said: ِ ِ ُ.‫ماُزالُبصفاتِهُقدُيًاُقبلُخلقه،ُملُيزددُبكوهنمُشيئًاُملُيكنُقبلَهمُمنُصفتِه‬ َ ْ َْ َ ُ‫كماُكانُبصفاتِهُأزليًّا،ُكذلكُالُيزالُعليهاُأبديًّا‬ َ َ‫و‬This means: “With His attributes, He never ceased to be without beginningbefore His creation. He did not acquire any attribute that did not exist beforethem, and just as He with His attributes is without a beginning, likewise He withHis attributes will always be everlasting.” The Validity of the ConsensusA good thing about ať-Ťaĥāwiyy’s book is that it conveys the consensus;agreement (al-Ijmāˇ)104 of the Muslim scholars about the matters of Belief.103 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Abū Jaˇfar Aĥmad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Salāmah IbnSalamah Ibn ˇAbdil-Malik Ibn Salāmah Ibn Sulaym Ibn Sulaymān Ibn Janāb al-Azdiyy ať-Ťaĥāwiyy, (229 – 321 AH). Among his teachers was: Yūnus IbnˇAbdil-Aˇlā, Abū Ibrāhīm al-Mizziyy, and al-Qāďī Aĥmad Ibn Abī ˇImrān.Among his students was: al-Ĥāfiđħ Abu-l-Qāsim ať-Ťabarāniyy, al-Ĥāfiđħ AbūBakr al-Muqrī’ and al-Ĥāfiđħ Muĥammad Ibn al-Muđħaffar.104 Ijmāˇ “consensus” is the unanimous agreement among the mujtahids in anyera about the judgment of a particular case. Once established, no one has the 53
    • Unfortunate for Wahhābis, they believe that all of the scholars can agree uponsomething and still be wrong, so they care not that this book conveys theconsensus. The authentic saying of the Prophet 105: ٍ ُ‫ماُكانُهللُليجمعُأمةُحممدُعلىُضاللة‬This means: “Allāh will not let (the scholars of) the Nation of Muhammadagree on a misguidance.” The Wahhābis restrict this ĥadīth to the Companions,may Allāh accept their deeds and grant them high status. To that, tell them thatthey are making ta’wīl. This ĥadīth guarantees protection for the Ummah(Nation) in general, which follows its guided scholars. If the scholars wouldagree upon a mistake, this would mislead the entire nation. Such was the fate ofBanū Isrā’īl (the Children of Israel), whose scholars contravened the Islāmiclaws revealed to Prophet Mūsā (Moses), and thus strayed the entire nation. TheNation of Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus) also deviated. The nation of Muĥammad will notdeviate entirely; instead, most of them will always have the proper belief.Another issue of consensus conveyed by ať-Ťaĥāwiyy is, “Allāh is exaltedbeyond limits, extremes, limbs, organs and instruments. The six directions(above, below, right, left, in front of, behind) do not contain (i.e. pertain to) Him,as is the case of the created things.” A Documentation of the Salaf’s BeliefYet another benefit is that this book was written during the time of the Salaf.When ať-Ťaĥāwiyy wrote this book, no one objected to it. The scholars of theSalaf were generally the best in Islām, and not one came to him telling him thathis book contained lies or mistakes against the correct Muslim belief. On thecontrary, this book became very, very famous, was memorized, and then narratedgeneration after generation, without anyone discrediting it - until today, 1,100years later. The Wahhābis do not agree with everything that he conveyed, asexplicitly stated by the now deceased Wahhābi leader, [ˇAbdul-ˇAzīz IbnˇAbdillāh] Ibn Bāz, in his corrupted explanation of ať-Ťaĥāwiyy’s book106. Sinceright to later disagree with it.105 Narrated by al-Ĥākim in al-Mustadrak, Ĥadīth No. 8545, 8546, 8664, and8665; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2167; Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No.26682; al-Muˇjam al-Kabīr by ať-Ťabarāniyy, Ĥadīth No. 2171.106 Ibn Bāz said the following in his book “Taˇlīqāt al-Bāziyyah ˇala-l-ˇAqīdah 54
    • they do not agree with him, then they admit that they do not believe whatMuslims believe, because the Muslims believed in what he documented beforehe even wrote it. If they say that they do agree with him, then they agreed withus, and the argument is closed.He also conveyed, “Whoever ascribes to Allāh an attribute with a meaningamong the meanings pertaining to mankind has blasphemed.” If the Wahhābisare truly Salafiyy, then why do they not agree with this belief that wasdocumented by the Salaf, agreed on by them, and thus passed on? It is becausethey take what they want and leave what they want. If the Salaf believed that theone who ascribes a corporeal (bodily) meaning to Allāh is a kāfir (non-Muslim),then how do these so-called Salafiyyah consider themselves Muslims, since theysay, “The meaning is the same, but the degree is different”? They mean that themeaning of hand and face and eyes is the same when attributed to Allāh, but it isa different kind of hand, face and eye. By this, they attribute the meaning thatrelates to humans to Allāh, and as just mentioned, for that, the Salaf made takfīr(judged one as a non-Muslim).Be careful, they truly say this statement: “The meaning is the same, but thedegree is different”. This statement is blasphemous. If they say that the meaningsof “al-Yad”, “al-ˇAyn” and “al-Wajh” (the Arabic terms) are not the same whenattributed to Allāh, then they agreed with us. If they say that the meanings ofthose terms are not the same when attributed to Allāh, then what happened totaking them literally?” In other words, we are saying that the literal meaning isthe meaning that refers to the creations, so when they use the literal meanings ofať-Ťaĥāwiyyah” (comment #3) concerning the statement of ať-Ťaĥāwiyy: “Allāhis exalted beyond limits, extremes, limbs…”: …By hudood (limits) the author means such as known by humans since no one except Allāh Almighty knows his limits…Those among the pious predecessors who spoke of a limit with regard to His attribute of istawa, meant a limit known to Allāh only and not known by people. As for the extremes, limbs, the organs and the instruments…Allāh has the attributes of face, hand and foot etc…No one except Allāh knows how they are…Similarly, his saying ‘The six directions do not surround Him like all other innovations’ means the six created directions…He is above this world and surrounding it...Therefore according to Ibn Bāz, Allāh is an existent thing that has limbs andlimits and that He surrounds this world like a basketball surrounds the air insideof it. 55
    • these terms, they are using the creation’s meaning; the bodily meaning 107. ***EXTRA DETAIL***It is important to know the difference between “agreement in expression” and“agreement in meaning”. Similarity between two things does not always takeplace by merely using the same expression. For example, we say that Allāhexists and the creatures exist, but this agreement in expression does notnecessitate that He resembles the creations, since His existence is without abody, soul, time or place. Thus, if they ask us, “What made it acceptable for youto say that His hearing, sight and speech are different from the creations?” Werespond by saying, as previously mentioned, “It is true that the expression is thesame, but the meaning is different, for His sight is without pupils, His hearing iswithout ears, and His Speech is without letters, words or sounds.”We oppose the Wahhābis, not because they confirm “Yad”, “ˇAyn” and “Wajh”to Allāh, but because they do not accept for someone to deny that Allāh hashands or a face according to the apparent meanings. They say, “We must takethose attributes as they are, without looking for other linguistic meanings.” We,Ahlu-s-Sunnah, say, “We must believe in the attributes that are mentioned in theQur’ān and the Sunnah, but any attribute that would apparently imply a physicalmeaning is not taken by its apparent meaning.” Therefore, if one of them were tosay that Allāh has hands, face and eyes that are neither organs nor pieces, and arenot dimensional or physical, then if this is truly his understanding, he then agreedwith us, except in the expression. Upon that, we only object to his usage ofEnglish words that delude people to think that Allāh has organs. We then advisehim to stick to the Arabic words, and to explain to the people that those Arabicwords as attributes of Allāh are not to be taken by their apparent meanings. *** Important Information and AdviceThus far, we have covered the blasphemous, twisted and devious beliefs of theWahhābis, their reasoning, or (twisted) logic behind it, and some basic reasons107 Just as the logical person says that the coffee cup is different from thedrinking glass, it is with this “relative difference” that the Wahhābi says that“Allāh is different from the creation.” In other words, the Wahhābi truly believesthat “Allāh is similar to the creation, just He is not identical.” For them, thedifference is like the difference between the coffee cup and the drinking glass –relative; without any doubt this is a blasphemous conviction. 56
    • why they are in error. To recap and summarize: they believe that Allāh has abody because they take some verses and ĥadīths literally. They will usually denythat they believe that Allāh has a body, but you may find some who are illenough to admit it.Their belief is invalid, incorrect, and unsound for many reasons. It does not makesense (but they do not care), it makes the verses of The Qur’ān contradict eachother (as will be elaborated on, if Allāh willed), it is against the explicit muĥkamsayings of The Prophet (ĥadīth can be muĥkam and mutashābih also), and it isagainst the agreement of the scholars. Before looking at some of the texts thatthese very misguided people use to fool the Muslims, let us go over someimportant information and advice: The Meaning of Kufr and Some of its DetailsSuch a bad belief is undoubtedly blasphemous, but what is blasphemy?Blasphemy is kufr, the opposite of īmān (faith or belief), that which cancels andnullifies the validity of one’s Islām. A blasphemer is a kāfir, and a kāfir is not aMuslim. Kufr is the worst sin that the slaves of Allāh commit, and it can becommitted without knowing. Being ignorant that something makes a person ablasphemer and takes him out of Islām does not protect him from becoming ablasphemer, or else Jews, Christians, Hindus, and others would not beblasphemers. Had ignorance been an excuse, it would be better than knowledge,because then people would choose ignorance so that they would be excused.Also, an intention is not needed to commit blasphemy. That is why The Prophet said108: ُ‫إِنُالعْبدُلَيَتَكلَّمُبِالكلِمةُالُيَرىُِباُبَأْساُيَهويُِباُيفُالنَّارُسْبعِنيُخريفا‬ ًَِ َ َ ِ ِْ ً ِ َ َ َ ََ ّThis means: “Surely the slave of Allāh will utter the word. He does not seeanything wrong with it. Because of it, he will fall for 70 autumns 109 intoHellfire.” The depth of 70 years into Hellfire is the bottom of Hell, a place thatno Muslim will reach. Therefore, the Prophet  was talking about how someone108 Narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy in as-Sunan al-Kubrā, Ĥadīth No. 16154; ŜaĥīĥMuslim, Ĥadīth No. 2988; Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6112 & 6113; al-Muwaťťa’ Mālik, Ĥadīth No.1849; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2314.109 i.e. 70 years. 57
    • committed blasphemy because of something he said, but without realizing that heeven did anything wrong. Even a new Muslim who acquired a bad belief in Allāhwould not be excused from kufr. This is so because the correct belief and sayingthe Shahādah are the minimum requirements for becoming a Muslim. In otherwords, just saying the Shahādah by itself is not enough to make a person aMuslim, if that utterance is not associated with the proper belief. This is why theProphet said110: ِ ُ‫جُمنُالنّارُمنُقالُالُإلهُإالُاهللُويفُقلبهُوزنُذرةُمنُإُيان‬‫خير‬ َThis means: “Whoever says, “No one is God but Allāh111” will exit Hellfire,as long as there is a particle’s weight of faith in his heart.” Also, believingwithout uttering the Shahādah does not validate ones Islām, or else the Prophet’suncle, Abū Ťālib, would have been a Muslim, because he knew that his nephew,Muĥammad, was truthful, but he refused to utter the Shahādah.There is absolutely no excuse for having a bad belief in Allāh, His Messenger ,or His Religion. People with bad beliefs in Allāh, like “Five Percenters”, the so-called Nation of Islām, and the Wahhābis fell into kufr. Some groups have badbeliefs in The Messenger of Allāh , like the Aĥmadiyyah who deny thatMuĥammad is the last to receive the status of prophethood. Some people claimIslām, but disbelieve in its exclusiveness; that Islām is the only valid religion,like those who misunderstood some Qur’ānic verses and believed that the Jews’and Christians’ religions will be accepted by Allāh on the Day of Judgment.When it comes to these essentials of the belief, there is no excuse for not havingthem. One must have those most basic issues intact to be a Muslim. As for otherissues, like believing in the Angels, the Day of Judgment, Paradise, Hellfire, theobligation of the five prayers, etc. if someone becomes a Muslim and has not yetbelieved in these things because he has not heard about them, his Islām is stillvalid.A Muslim who commits kufr leaves Islām and becomes a kāfir. This terribleaction is ar-Riddah (apostasy), and because of it, all good deeds are erased, as110 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 4312; Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 44;Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2593.111 This means, “Whoever says no one is God but Allāh and Muĥammad is theMessenger of Allāh.” 58
    • we are told112: ‫َ َ ْ ْ ب إل ِ َد َ َ َ َ َ َ ِ ِ َِ ِ َ خل ِ ِين‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿ومنُيَكفرُُِٱ ُُِيَانُفَق ُُْحبِطُعملهُوهوُيفُٱآلخرةُمنُٱ َُاسر‬This means: “Whoever commits blasphemy and rejects belief has wasted hisdeeds and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.”As for the bad deeds, they are not erased by apostasy. Anyone with a bad beliefin Allāh because of a Wahhābi influence, or any belief like it, like some peoplewho believe that Allāh is a light, must say the Shahādah again with the intentionto leave that blasphemy and never return to it. Anyone who repeated theirblasphemous sayings must do the same to clear himself of their poison. Utteringthe Shahādah is to say: “No one is God except Allāh and Muĥammad is TheMessenger of Allāh.” This can be said in any language, and no witness orshower is needed. One should be keen to say it properly, by clearly pronouncingthe “h” in the name of Allāh, and also pronouncing the name of ProphetMuĥammad  correctly. Whoever cannot pronounce the name of Allāh cantranslate it, and whoever cannot pronounce the name of Muĥammad can call himby his other title: Abu-l-Qāsim [abulcau`sim], like to say: “No deity is worthyof worship except God, and Muĥammad (or Abu-l-Qāsim113) is the messenger ofGod. If someone says the Shahādah while believing something that contradictsits basic meaning, then what he uttered did not make him a Muslim. Judging Someone as a Kāfir (Takfīr)Do not let your kinship or friendship bond you to these people, just as those whoare deep into the so-called Salafi cult will shun others very swiftly. Do notcompromise the validity of your belief because of your relationship with aWahhābi. Some people refuse to call a person a kāfir, claiming that judgingothers is forbidden, which is not true. We do judge- by the rules of Allāh. Askthe one who claims that judging is forbidden, “How do you judge a person whoutters the Shahādah?” He would obviously judge such a person as a Muslim.How would he judge the one who cheats, lies, or steals?He would judge that person as a cheater, liar, or thief. Then why would thisperson refuse to judge the one who blasphemes as a blasphemer? We follow the112 Sūrat al-Mā’idah, verse 5.113 This has been stated by Shaykh Yūsuf Ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ardabīliyy ash-Shāfiˇiyyin his book al-Anwār li-Aˇmāl al-Abrār, vol. 3, page 291 and others. 59
    • saying of ˇUmar Ibnu-l-Khaťťāb, that we judge the people according to what isapparent from them. If they show goodness then we treat them as such, and ifthey show wickedness then we treat them as such. Do not be reluctant to confirmthat he is a kāfir if you witness him uttering blasphemous things. Some peopleare reluctant because of the ĥadīth114: ُ‫منُقالُألخيهُياُكافرُفقدُباءُِباُأحدمهاُإنُكانُكماُقال‬ ُ‫ُوإالُرجعتُعليه‬This means: “Whoever says to his brother, ‘O, kāfir’, then one of those twowould truly be inflicted with being a kāfir’. Either it is as he said, or else itcomes back to him.”This means that if a person calls someone else a kāfir’, then he had better becorrect, or else he will become a kāfir’ for labeling a Muslim with kufr withoutevidence115. It means that if the person is correct in calling another person akāfir’, then it is as he said - that person is a kāfir’, but if he is incorrect, then thatjudgment of kufr comes back to him, and he falls into kufr. The Prophet did notsay that it cannot be known if a person committed kufr or not. He did not say thatit is not permissible to judge a person as a kāfir unless that person testifies forhimself that he is a kāfir. Nor is it mentioned by the scholars of Ahlu-s-Sunnahthat a non-scholarly Muslim cannot know how to identify blasphemy. The personwho says these things speaks from his own opinions about the rules of Allāh. Infact, Allāh told us116:114 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 60.115 Sometimes a person labels a Muslim as a kāfir unrightfully, but would not bejudged as a kāfir himself, which is the case of a person who is confused andthinks that a major sin is kufr when it is not. For example, if someone believesthat drinking alcohol is blasphemy, so he judges the Muslim who drinks alcoholas a blasphemer, he does not blaspheme for that because of his confusion, but heis sinful for calling that Muslim a blasphemer and for not learning the obligatoryknowledge of the Religion. The judgment mentioned in the ĥadīth pertains to theone who judges a person as a kāfir without any reason or evidence, and not outof confusion.116 Sūrat at-Tawbah, verse 74. 60
    • ﴾ُْ ‫﴿ُيلِفونُبِ ُُماُقَ ُواُولَقدُقَالواُكلِمةُٱلكفر َكفرواُبَعدُإِسالمه‬ ‫َ َ َ ْ ِ ُوَ َ ْ َ ْ ِ ِ م‬ ِ ْ َ َ ‫َْ َ اهلل َ ال‬This means: “They swear by God (that) they did not say it, and by God, they(actually) did say the word of blasphemy and blasphemed after their state ofIslām.”If a person commits kufr, he is a kāfir, with no doubt about it. So, if someoneknows a person who committed kufr, but still treats him as a Muslim; makes himbelieve that he is still a Muslim, then that someone fell into kufr himself117. Kufris a great reality that many people unknowingly fall into everyday. Learningabout it is an obligation. Kufr is the sin that will put a person in Hellfire foreverif he dies without clearing himself from it.If someone says, “this verse was revealed about the hypocrites who used topretend to be Muslims, so it does not pertain to the Muslims,” respond by saying,“Before it became clear that those people were hypocrites, how were theytreated, as Muslims or not?” Indeed they were treated according to what theyshowed outwardly. Therefore, any person who outwardly shows Islām, and thenshows blasphemy is judged as a blasphemer. Having the Correct IntentionAmong the most important things of which to be mindful is having the correctintention. Let the one who debates with deviant people keep the pure intention.Do not debate with the mere intention of arguing, nor just to show that you areright and the other person is wrong, or to show off your knowledge. Instead,debate with the intention to show the truth. Our Prophet  did not debate unlessit was to show the truth, nor did he ever lose a debate. Imām ash-Shāfiˇiyy saidthat he never debated with someone unless it was to show the truth. If youbelieve that the deviant person will not accept what you are saying, and will onlycontinue committing blasphemy, then it is not permissible to keep debating withhim. However, it is permissible to continue if you need to protect the people whoare around, and to show the truth to those who are listening. Do not leave him totalk to the people and spread his blasphemy among them if you are able to117 Imām an-Nawawiyy said in ar-Rawďah, vol 7, page 290: “The one who doesnot charge with blasphemy the one who takes a religion other than Islām (e.g. aChristian or a fire-worshipper) or he doubts in that person being a blasphemer orhe considers his religion to be valid then he is a blasphemer, even if he showsIslām outwardly and even if he believes in Islām.” 61
    • protect them from him. Refrain from Purposely Leading a Person to Say KufrAlso, refrain from asking questions that lead the deviant person to commit kufr.For instance, do not ask a Wahhābi, “Do you believe that Allāh has a real face?”or “Do you believe that Allāh is in a place above His ˇArsh?” The Wahhābi willpredictably answer, “Yes” to those questions, and then commit blasphemy as aresult of that answer; because he is admitting that he believes in blasphemy. Ifyou provoke, lead, cause or make someone commit blasphemy, you will fall intoit yourself118. The evidence that this is forbidden is the verse 119: ﴾ُِ ‫﴿والُتَعاونواُعلَىُٱ ُِِمْثُوٱلعدو‬ ‫َ َ َ َ إل ِْ ُ ْ َان‬ َThis means: “Do not assist each other in sins and transgression.” If Allāhforbade us from assisting in sins, then more so it is forbidden to assist in theworst of sins, which is blasphemy.This is a grave mistake made by many debaters. Intending to make theiropponents commit to bad sayings, they purposely make their opponents utterblasphemous words. It is done to expose the contradictions and inconsistencies,but sadly, these people fall into blasphemy while wanting to do something good.As such, if you talk to a Christian, do not ask, “Do you believe that Jesus is theson of God?” Do not ask the atheist, “Do you deny the existence of God?” Whenthese people answer “yes” to these questions, which would be the expectedanswer, then the one who posed the question also blasphemes. Whoever tempts,prompts, or encourages a blasphemer to confess to his blasphemy also falls intoblasphemy. Avoiding this sin requires you to be clever, quick and thoughtful.The one who is able to refute a deviant person without asking him such questionsis much more effective and skilled than someone who cannot do that, andmoreover is safe by protecting himself from blasphemy.The evidence that the one who encourages another to blaspheme shares their sinof blasphemy is the ĥadīth120 that in reference to wine, the Messenger of Allāh118 Al-Iˇlām bi Qawāťiˇi-l-Islām, page 355 by Aĥmad Ibn Ĥajar al-Haytamiyy.119 Sūrat al-Mā’idah, verse 2.120 Al-Mustadrak, Ĥadīth No. 2282; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 1295;Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 3674; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3380; al-Muˇjam al-Awsať, Ĥadīth No. 4102; and others. 62
    • damned whoever squeezes the grapes, whoever drinks the wine, whoeverdelivers it, the one to whom it is delivered, whoever pours it, whoever sells it,whoever consumes its price, whoever buys it, and he for whom it is purchased.They all share in the sin. There are similar narrations about the people whoparticipate in usurious gain (ribā). Furthermore, the scholars of the four schools,as well as other schools, have confirmed and agreed that it is blasphemous toknowingly aid any person commit blasphemy. Consequently, helping someoneblaspheme is blasphemy. So fear Allāh, and do not think that this matter is lightor less than blasphemy. The one who engages in a debate must learn the proofsand strategies explained by the scholars, learn the Islāmic rules pertaining todebate, and avoid sinful matters, such as missing the prayers and askingblasphemous questions. Think First and Hold Your TongueAlso, do not forget to maintain good manners and very importantly, to stay calm.Do not let your frustration show, and do not let it lead you to shouting, etc. Allāhadvised us121: َُُ‫﴿ادعُإِىلُسبِيلُربِّكُبِاحلِكمةُوٱملوعظَةُٱ َُسن‬ ‫ْ َ ٰ َ ِ َ َ ْ ْ َ ِ ُ ْ ِ ِ حل َ ة‬ ِ َ ‫َ َ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ْ َن‬ ﴾ُ ‫ُوجادهلمُبِالَّيتُهيُأَحس‬This means: “Call to the path (i.e., the Religion) of your Lord with wisdomand good admonishment, and debate them with what is better.” This verse isyet more evidence that it is permissible to debate in the Religion if there is abenefit.Furthermore, whoever wants to present the proof needs to think and to recognizehis limitations. Efforts to show the truth can be wasted because of not thinkingahead and not knowing when to speak and when to be silent. Do not bring up adetail without having further evidence or references for support. The Wahhābiwill ask for proof, and you will have backed yourself into a corner. On the otherhand, do not be afraid to ask a Wahhābi for his proof. Do not forget that theburden of presenting evidence is on the one who makes the claim, as the Prophet said122:121 Sūrat an-Naĥl, verse 125.122 Narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy in as-Sunan al-Kubrā, Ĥadīth No. 20990 and 63
    • ‫َّعي‬ ‫البيِّنةُعلىُاملد‬This means: “The evidence is upon the claimer.” With this simple rule, you caneasily corner a person who tries to avoid an issue. If a misguided person is askedto prove his claim, he may reply, “Prove me wrong.” Do not fulfill his request.This is an attempt to avoid the question. Tell him, “The burden of proof is uponwhoever made the claim, so do not ask me to prove that you are wrong. Provethat you are correct. I have not made a claim yet. I have only asked for yourproof.” This is one of the most important rules of debate and it is extremelyeffective in refuting Wahhābis, because it makes them run around in circles likeheadless chickens. The most frequent response we get from Wahhābis when weask, “What is your proof?”, or “Who said that?” is everything except the answer.Nevertheless, be careful. Do not think that every Wahhābi will always bestunned by this. The Importance of Focusing on the BeliefMany ignorant people say, “Why are you arguing over the belief? That is sobasic! There are Muslims who are dying because of the blasphemers! TheMuslims are not unified, we need unity! Stop wasting your time on these smallissues!” To that, refer to the Messenger of Allāh  when he said123: ُ‫أفضلُاألعمالُإُيانُالُشكُفيه‬This means: “The best of deeds is (the correct) belief (in Allāh and Hismessenger) without a doubt in it.” Belief is higher in status than prayer,fasting, charity, and even unity, which will not exist when the beliefs of thepeople clash.This belief is the worst of their transgressions and deviance, because it pertainsto the belief in Allāh. If a person does not have the correct belief, then he is not aMuslim. The first thing to address with these people is their belief. We singlethem out because they imitate Muslims very closely, and then teach kufr. Thereare other deviant ideas that they propagate. Among them is the false notion thateverything innovated in Islām is bad, despite that they give religious speechesothers.123 Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 14975; Sunan ad-Dārimiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2739;Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 2526; Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhariyy, Chapter of Tawĥīd. 64
    • with microphones, teach religious classes in schools and universities (instead ofin the mosques and houses), and have calculated the prayer times for years inadvance instead observing them every day or every few days. This topic will berevisited in the appendices of the book, God willing. They are known for theirextremist ways of making optional (Sunnah) deeds into obligations, such asobligating women to cover their faces. They also deem lawful things unlawful byunrightfully restricting them to certain times, such as making the duff(tambourine) forbidden on a day that is not a holiday or wedding. They are alsoamong the terrorists who are giving the Muslims a bad reputation these days.They prohibit traveling to visit the Prophet’s  grave, and other matters.Whoever thinks that these mistakes are simple then let him think again. Theseexamples are only a handful of their mistakes. By this sick misinterpretation ofthe religion, they accuse Muslims of kufr, deviance, and sins, which causestribulation and results in teaching people incorrect rules.It would be appropriate to clarify a fallacy presented by some who claim ourReligion. It is not valid for someone to claim the need for striving for absoluteunity with all factions ascribed to Islām, for that does not comply with thereligious texts. The Messenger of Allāh  said124: ُ‫منُرأىُمنكمُمنكراُفليغريهُبيدهُفإنُملُيستطعُفبلسانه‬ ُ...‫ُفإنُملُيستطعُفبقلبه‬This means: “Any one of you who saw something forbidden, then let himchange it by his hand, if unable, then by his tongue, if unable, then with hisheart (he must hate it)…” The point of evidence is that if we were to unite withall factions, we would either be silent about their deviance, or warn from it andforbid it. If we are silent about their deviance and invalid creeds, then we haveabandoned the ĥadīth of the Prophet, and the Prophet warned us from beingsilent in the face of evil and deviance when he said 125: ُ‫إنُالنّاسُإذاُرأواُاملنكرُفلمُيغريوهُأوشكُأنُيعمهمُاهللُبعقاب‬124 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Īmān, Ĥadīth No. 49.125 Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 4338; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 3057;Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 1. 65
    • This means: “Surely, if the people saw the forbidden and they did not changeit, Allāh is about to include them in a general punishment from Him.” If weare forbidding them and warning against them, then we are not uniting withthem, instead, we would be calling them to join us, agree with us, and to leaveout everything that opposes what we are upon.Thus, it is clear that claiming that all factions should unite and put theirdifferences aside is invalid, unless it means for them to unite under the Sunnicreed and leave all other deviant creeds. The only correct way is to call to thetruth and oppose whatever opposes the truth, and Allāh knows best. Who are the Real Salaf?The Salaf (predecessors, forerunners, pioneers) is the first three generations ofMuslims, as narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy126: ُ‫خريُالنّاسُقرِّنُِمْثُّالذينُيلوهنمُِمْثُّالذينُيلوهنم‬This means: “The best of the people are from my century, then those whocome after them, then those who come after them.” They are the Muslims ofthe first three hundred years, starting from the migration (hijrah) of the Prophetfrom Makkah to al-Madīnah. In general, the Muslims of the Salaf are better thanthose who came after them. We say “in general”, because it is possible to findsomeone from the khalaf (era after the Salaf) who is better than an individualfrom the Salaf. It was the time of the four pious, rightly guided caliphs: AbūBakr, ˇUmar, ˇUthmān, and ˇAliyy. Add to that list al-Ĥasan and ˇUmar IbnˇAbdul-ˇAzīz (may Allāh accept their deeds). The schools of fiqh wereestablished, and four remain since then- the followers of the great Salafiyymujtahids, Abū Ĥanīfah, Mālik, ash-Shāfiˇiyy, and Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal. Thebooks of ĥadīth were compiled during this time. It was the time of the greatestscholars of ĥadīth, such as the authors of the six most relied upon books: al-Bukhāriyy, Muslim, at-Tirmidhiyy127, Abū Dāwūd128, an-Nasā’iyy129 and Ibn126 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 3057.127 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Muĥammad Ibn ˇĪsā Ibn Sūrah Ibn Mūsā as-Sulamiyy at-Tirmidhiyy (210 – 279 AH).128 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān Ibn Ashˇath Ibn Isĥāq al-Azdiyy as-Sijistāniyy (202 – 275 AH).129 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Abu ˇAbdir-Raĥmān Aĥmad Ibn Shuˇayb Ibn ˇAliyy al- 66
    • Mājah130. Also during this time, the great scholars of ˇaqīdah emerged, Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy and Abū Manŝūr al-Māturīdiyy. The Muslims were regardedas the people of knowledge and piety. Because of the work that the great scholarsof the Salaf did, the Muslims after them had facilitated ease in terms of learningIslām. Chapter Two A Refutation of their Misunderstanding of the Honorable TextsIt is vital to speak about some texts that the Wahhābis use, because many peoplesee the invalidity of their belief, but feel compelled to follow them because theydo not want to reject the Islāmic texts. Many people know that likening Allāh toHis creatures is not sound or correct, but when shown verses and ĥadīth, theyfeel that they must accept what the Wahhābis say. Then they make themselvesbelieve that the Wahhābis’ belief in Allāh does not liken Him the creations, thusrejecting sound reasoning. Some people feel like they are rejecting the Islāmictexts if they reject what the Wahhābis say, but this is not the case. Rejecting theirclaims is not rejecting the Islāmic texts, it is simply rejecting the Wahhābimisunderstanding of those texts. Translating the Qur’ānBeware of their so-called Qur’ānic translation, “The Noble Qur’ān”. It should becalled, “the Wahhābi mistranslation of The Qur’ān”. In it, they attribute organsto Allāh by translating the verses literally, and supporting their mistranslationswith mistranslated ĥadīth and terrible footnotes. They even explicitly attributemore than one shape to Allāh. Of course, they believe it is the best translationavailable.We point out the fact that translating the text of the Qur’ān and presenting thattranslated text as a representation of the Qur’ān is an innovation. The scholarsdid not encourage it. Ahlu-s-Sunnah wa-l-Jamāˇah did not translate the Qur’ān;they explained it, and what a difference between explaining and translating thereKhurasāniyy an-Nasā’iyy (215 – 302 AH).130 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Muĥammad Ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Qazwīniyy (209 – 273AH). 67
    • is. They wrote books of tafsīr (interpretation) in which they explained each wordor group of words in the verses. These books of tafsīr sometimes became as vastas four volumes or more. Some people are so deprived of the true teachings ofAhlu-s-Sunnah that they actually believe that their translation is infallible; neverthinking that there could be mistakes in it. If they were asked, “What are youreading?” they would say, “The Qur’ān.” It is truly and merely a translation ofthe Qur’ān. Instead of giving word for word translations, the scholars gavedetailed tafsīr (interpretation; explanation), leaving the text of the Qur’ān inArabic. Allāh told us in many places in the Qur’ān that the Qur’ān is in Arabic,such as131: ﴾‫﴿إِنَّاُجعلْنَاهُق رآنًاُعربِيًّا‬ ََ ْ َ َThis means: “Surely We (Allāh) have made it an Arabic Qur’ān.” Instead oftranslating the Qur’ān into different languages, the Muslims learned Arabic.Like the rest of the religious knowledge, tafsīr must be acquired from a teacher.Even an Arab is forbidden from making tafsīr without first learning its rulesfrom the mufassirūn (interpreters). There are many good books of tafsīr, like thebooks of Abū Ĥayyān al-Andalusiyy132 and al-Qurťubiyy133. To the contrary,there are also bad books of tafsīr, such as Tafsīr az-Zamakhshariyy (al-Kashshāf)and Tafsīr al-Jalālayn134, despite its fame among laymen, because it ascribes thedesire of fornication to Prophet Yūsuf, mentions the false claim that the Devilpossessed the Prophet and put words on his tongue and other blasphemousmatters. There are also other books of tafsīr that require the attention of aproficient scholar to clarify any weak ĥadīths or expressions therein like theTafsīr of an-Nasafiyy135.131 Sūrat az-Zukhruf, verse 3.132 Al-Imām al-Mufassir Abū Ĥayyān Muĥammad Ibn Yūsuf Ibn ˇAliyy IbnĤayyan al-Andalusiyy an-Naĥwiyy (745 AH).133 Al-Imām al-Mufassir Abū Bakr ˇAbdullāh Ibn al-Ĥasan Ibn Aĥmad al-Anŝāriyy al-Andalusiyy al-Mālikiyy al-Qurťubiyy (711 AH).134 One of the authors of this book is al-Ĥāfiđħ Jalālu-d-Dīn as-Siyūťiyy.However, we do not confirm that he authored those blasphemous statements thatexist in this book. In fact some scholars have stated that this book has beentampered with.135 Al-Imām al-Mufassir Abū Ĥafŝ ˇUmar Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Aĥmad Ibn 68
    • There are rules and ways of making tafsīr, so the Qur’ān is not left to beinterpreted by any unqualified person. Hence, know that when we use the term“interpretation”, it is not meant to refer to merely reading the Qur’ān, especiallynot a translation, and to produce a meaning from one’s own whim or conjecture,like the Christians who actually have no science for interpreting their book. Theinterpretations of their preachers are random and not based on any specific rules.Mistranslating the Qur’ān and the ĥadīth is an evil innovation. Learn fromknowledgeable, trustworthy teachers, not translations. And with that, it isimportant to understand that it is not a condition to know Arabic to learn themeanings of the Qur’ān. The condition is to learn the meanings from a teacherwho learned those meanings from a teacher.Remember, we understand the texts in accordance with the verse136: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َMeaning: “Nothing resembles Allāh in anyway.”By following this method, we avoid both mental and textual contradictions. Theyunderstand the texts according to the verse137: َٰ َ َ ۡ ِ ۡ َ ۡ ََ ُ َ ۡ َّ ﴾٥ ‫﴿ٱلرحمَٰن َع ٱلعرش ٱستوى‬which they believe is the proof that Allāh is secluded in a place above the ˇArsh.Its meaning will be addressed in detail in what follows, God willing. By that,they fell into many contradictions, both mental and textual. The Wahhābis Take Advantage of the IgnorantA person not very knowledgeable about the matters of the creed, like a newMuslim, is easy prey for them. They fill him with their bad beliefs by showingtheir so-called proof. He may become consumed before he knows it, confidentthat he has learned Islām. Also, they take advantage of whoever is ignorant ofArabic by showing their so-called proofs. In addition, whoever lacks intelligencewould be easy to convince. They feed on the ignorant. They may start with truth,Luqmān an-Nasafiyy al-Ĥanafiyy as-Samarqandiyy (537 AH).136 Sūrat ash-Shūrā, verse 11.137 Sūrat Ťāhā, verse 5. 69
    • such as to say, “No one deserves to be worshiped except Allāh alone!Muĥammad  is His slave and Messenger! Jesus is the slave of Allāh and HisMessenger...” Then, they disclose their dark side by adding, “We must believethat Allāh rose above His ˇArsh, and that Allāh settled Himself on the ˇArsh, andthat Allāh has two real hands…” In this way, they overtook many. It isimperative to critically analyze what they say in order to understand theircontradictions.Conversely, in the Muslim countries, they are known and cautioned against inthe lessons, books, and Jumuˇah speeches. There, they are minorities, so it is notas easy for them to spread their beliefs. As such, they believe that most of TheMuslims are misguided people.It is as if they confirm that the belief does not make sense. They all but stop shortof saying, “Yes, it is a contradiction to say that nothing is like Allāh whiledescribing Him with the attributes of bodies, however it is confirmed in theQur’ān and by The Prophet , so no matter what reasoning dictates, we doverify these bodily attributes for Allāh.” In their minds, the Qur’ān confirmsbodily attributes for Allāh, so they believe that they should confirm bodilyattributes for Allāh, thereby disregarding the mental judgment. One may considerthis stance as something like patriotism. They are proud to say that no matterwhat is rational or logical, they believe in the Qur’ān, however, they missed apoint: the correct belief does not defy logic, so there is no need to abandon it. The Wahhābis Show Outward Adherence to the SunnahThey also snag people by their manners and appearance. They outwardly showthe religious rituals and signs. They grow nice beards, trim their mustaches, wearnice fragrances, and usually dress with Muslim clothing. Ibn Mājah reports thatthe Prophet  said138:ُ‫يكونُدعاةُعلىُأبوابُجهنمُمنُأجاِبمُإليهاُقذفوهُفيها،ُهمُقومُمنُجلدتنا‬ ُ‫يتكلمونُبألسنتنا،ُفالزمُمجاعةُاملسلمني‬This means: “There will be preachers at the gates of Hell. They will throw138 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3979. 70
    • whoever responds to them into it. They are people who resemble us andspeak with our tongues. Adhere to the Jamāˇah of the Muslims…”They say that cutting the beard is sinful, and although some mujtahids did saythat, they unrightfully deny the validity of the saying of the mujtahids who said itis only disliked and not sinful to cut the beard. They believe that wearing thepants below the ankles is a major sin, while the truth is that it is not sinful ifsomeone wears his pants below his ankles without arrogance or vanity. Some ofthe mean and ignorant ones will not return the greetings of the Muslim whosepants are below his ankles.They falsely believe that it is obligatory for women to wear black or navy blue,and to wear over-garments. The truth is that when the Prophet was asked if thewoman could pray with a scarf and a shirt without a garment from the waistdown (izār), he said139: ُ‫إذاُكانُالد عُسابغاُيغطيُظهورُقدميها‬ ‫ّر‬This means: “If the shirt was flowing and covered the top of her feet.” AbūDāwūd as-Sijistāniyy narrated this, and it proves that she does not have to wearan over-garment, which is the garment worn over the shirt and the rest of herclothes. The Wahhabis also believe that the women must cover their faces.However, there is more than one hadith that confirms that women were in thepresence of the Prophet with their faces uncovered, and he did not object to themor forbid them from that.They make the lines of their congregational prayers very straight. Their displayof the Sunnah may contribute to their stubbornness. In their minds, can they seethemselves misguided while bearing a big prostration mark, a long beard, andhaving two wives?However, a person with the correct belief will not accept their claims, because heknows that Allāh is not similar to His creations, even if the Wahhābi has a hugebeard and may have memorized many chapters of the Qur’ān. The Muslimwould say to himself, “I don’t know Arabic, but I know the rule. The verse or thehadith would not contradict the rule.” The Muslim is confident about the rule,because the rule makes sense: Nothing is like Allāh. Nothing resembles Him. Noone has His Attributes. He does not have the attributes of anyone else. Allāh isdifferent from whatever you can imagine. This is how a person protects himself139 Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 640. 71
    • from likening Allāh to the creations. The many verses and ĥadīth they producemight seem overwhelming to a weak or doubtful person, nevertheless if youlearn the correct tafsīr (interpretation) of each and every one of those texts,you’ll see that those people are very, very, very misguided.After mentioning this, keep two important facts in mind: A good outside appearance does not necessitate a good heart with the correct belief. Do not let looks fool you, and do not judge every person with a big beard and cut pants walking with a veiled woman in black as a Wahhabi.Those are recommended acts for the Muslim. Use your mind and seek the truthwith the sincere intention of seeking the blessings and acceptance of Allāh(liwajhi-llāh). The Truth about the Ĥadīth of the Female SlaveThere is good reason for starting with Imām Muslim’s narration of Ĥadīth al-Jāriyah; the Ĥadīth of the Female Slave. They use it very much to convincepeople that Allāh is bound to a place. Understanding why it is not proof for theirclaims is a matter of critical importance. Whoever misunderstands and thinksthat the Prophet  likened Allāh to His creations falls into kufr (blasphemy). The Story Behind the ĤadīthAccording to the narration of Imām Muslim, a man had a female slave takingcare of his flock, when a wolf attacked and ate a sheep. When he found out, hefelt that she was negligent, so he hit her in the face. Then he regretted that andwent to the Prophet and asked him, “O, Messenger of Allāh, should I set herfree?” The Prophet  said, “Bring her to me,” so he brought her to him, andaccording to Imām Muslim, the Prophet  asked her140: ُُ‫ُّماءُقالُمنُأناُقالتُأنتُرسولُاهلل‬ ‫قالُأينُاهللُقالتُيفُالس‬ ‫قالُأعتقهاُفإهناُمؤمنة‬140 Narrated by Muslim in his Ŝaĥīĥ, Chapter on the Prohibition of Speakingwhile Praying, Ĥadīth No. 537. 72
    • “Ayna-llāh?” She said, “Fi-s-Samā’.” He said, “Who am I?” She said, “You arethe Messenger of Allāh.” He said, “Free her, for she is a believer.”The explanation of the untranslated terms will come, if Allāh willed.If a person does not understand the correct creed or the rules of interpreting theIslāmic texts, he would take this ĥadīth literally and confirm the created attributeof being in the sky to Allāh. Centuries ago, Ahlu-s-Sunnah established the correctexplanation of this narration, and there are several reasons why it is not proof fortheir claims. If Allāh willed, we will only mention a few. The Wahhābi Misunderstanding of the ĤadīthMay Allāh protect us as we scrutinize their understanding of this ĥadīth. Theyclaim it to be proof that Allāh exists in a place, saying that the Prophet  askedthe girl, “Where is Allāh?” - inquiring about a location. Thus, they deduce thatAllāh must be in a place, and that it must be permissible to inquire about Hislocation. Then they interpret her reply to mean, “In the sky”. So, theyfurthermore say that since he said, “Free her, for she is a believer,” then Allāhmust be in the sky. This understanding likens Allāh to the creations, and whoevertakes the literal understanding has fallen into kufr. The Arabic Terms Have More Than One MeaningA smart and honest person should do at least one of two things if presented withthis ĥadīth: Reject the meaning that confines Allāh to a space and limits Him likea body, without rejecting the ĥadīth itself (in its Arabic text), and if a littleshaken by it, then go to a knowledgeable person and ask about it. A blindfollower, an idle person who does not want to investigate, and a weak-mindedperson will not ask , he will simply accept what they say, breeching the correctbelief. May Allāh strengthen our (correct) beliefs and our intellects.The truth is that in this ĥadīth, The Prophet  was asking the girl about herbelief in Allāh, and not about a place for Him, and she expressed that Allāh hasthe highest status.This ĥadīth does not prove their claim because its words can have more than onemeaning (mutashābih). The word “ayna” does not only ask about the makān(place), but also the makānah (rank; status). This is proven by various sources,including sayings of Companions, and Muslim scholars. The line of poetry: ‫أينُالثّرىُمنُالثّرياُوأينُمعاويةُمنُعلي‬ ُّ 73
    • literally says, “Where is the soil compared to Pleiades, and where is Muˇāwiyahcompared to ˇAliyy?” The locations of Muˇāwiyah and ˇAliyy are not actuallysought, although “ayna” is used. It compares the high status of ˇAliyy, the rightlyguided Caliph, (which is high like the stars) to the status of Muˇāwiyah Ibn AbīSufyān, who was unjust and committed major sins by rebelling against the rightlyguided Caliph.The terms “fi-s-Samā’” can also have more than one meaning. Besides “in thesky”, it may signify having a high status. For example, in front of the Prophet ,an-Nābighah, the Companion, said: ُ‫بلغناُالسماء‬ ّThis means: “We reached the sky,” as narrated by Ibn ˇAbdil-Barr. He meantthat by the blessing of Islām, Allāh raised their ranks. *** EXTRA DETAIL***We do not object to saying that “ayna” asks about the “makān”, but know that“makān” does not only mean, “place”, it also means “makānah (status)”. So if aWahhābi brings a small, reliable Arabic dictionary, in which not all of thedefinitions are mentioned, do not feel cornered if he says that “ayna” asks aboutthe “makān” (and he will say, “which means the place”). We agree, but makāncan also mean “makānah (status)”. Hence, the Wahhābi has no proof. If he asksfor proof that “makān” can mean “the status (makānah)”, then refer to thenarration in which al-ˇAbbās said “O Allāh, the people are directing theirsupplication to you by me because of my MAKĀN to your prophet.141” ‫ِ ك‬ َّ َ َّ َّ َُُ ِّ‫اللهمُإنُالقومُتَوجهواُيبُإلَيكُملكاِّنُمنُنَبي‬ َThis is narrated by al-Bazzār142, and they (the Wahhābis) narrate this ĥadīthwhen attempting to discredit tawassul by the Prophet after his death.Truly, al-ˇAbbās was referring to his status of being the Prophet’s  companionand uncle, and not to the place he was in, because even blasphemers stood there.141 Fatĥ al-Bārī, vol. 2, page 588.142 Al-Imām al-Ĥāfiđħ Abū Bakr Aĥmad Ibn ˇAmr Ibn ˇAbdil-Khāliq al-Baŝriyyal-Bazzār (210 – 272 AH). 74
    • As such, the word “ayna” does ask about the “makān”, which can mean “place”or “status”. ***And so, this ĥadīth neither proves that Allāh is in a place, nor that it ispermissible to ask about a place for Him. It is permissible to ask “ayna-llāh?” inArabic, if the person means, “What do you believe about the status of Allāh?”but one cannot ask, “Where is Allāh?” or “What place is Allāh in?” because thisis implying that Allāh is in a place, which is blasphemy. Everyone must becertain with no doubt that Allāh exists without a place, and that it is blasphemyeven to imply that He is in a place.Our point is to show that there are two possible meanings for the terms of thisĥadīth. One is the rejected literal meaning, which contradicts: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َMeaning: “Nothing resembles Allāh.”The other interpretation is that the Prophet  asked her about her belief in Allāh,and her reply meant that Allāh has the greatest status and highest majesty. This isthe acceptable interpretation, because it corresponds with the Arabic languageand the religious rules. Furthermore, it complies with other texts, including othernarrations of this very ĥadīth. Different Versions (Riwāyāt) of the ĤadīthKnow that in many cases, a ĥadīth would have several narrations. This isbecause the Prophet  did not obligate his companions to memorize everythinghe said, so they would often convey the meanings of what he said, and as aresult, the expressions of one ĥadīth would vary from one narrator to another.Take an example from the previously mentioned ĥadīth143: ‫ه‬ ُ‫كانُاهللُ ملُيَكنُشيءٌُغري‬ ْ ‫َ و‬This means: “Allāh existed, and there was nothing other than Him.” Al-143 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6982. 75
    • Ĥāfiđħ144 Abū Bakr al-Bayhaqiyy narrated the same ĥadīth, but with differentwording: ُُ‫كانُاهللُقبلُكلُشيء‬ ّ َThis means: “Allāh existed before everything.” These are examples of oneĥadīth having different narrations. This ĥadīth of the female slave does not provetheir claims because it has more than one narration, each with different wording:Let us look at the narration of the great Salafiyy Mujtahid, Imām Mālik Ibn Anas,which is stronger than Imām Muslim’s narration. In his book called al-Muwaťťa’,Mālik narrated that the Messenger of Allāh  asked the girl145: ُ‫قالُأتشهدينُأنُالُإلهُإالُاهللُقالتُنعم‬ ُ‫ُقالُأتشهدينُأِّنُرسولُاهللُقالتُنعم‬“Do you testify that no one is God except Allāh?” She said, “Yes.” He said,“Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allāh?” She said, “Yes.”As we can see, this narration does not ask about a place for Allāh. In it, TheProphet  asked the girl about her belief in Allāh. Since this narration asksabout her belief, then the narration of Muslim should also be interpreted to meanthat she was asked about her belief and not about a place for Allāh, because theyare merely different narrations of the same ĥadīth. It would only be ludicrous tointerpret the narration of Imām Muslim by the literal meaning, for then it wouldnot comply with a stronger narration, the narration of Mālik. We do not interprettwo different narrations of the same ĥadīth so that they would conflict with eachother; we interpret them to comply with each other.144 Ĥāfiđħ refers to the top scholars of ĥadīth who are qualified to grade thelevels of the narrations. These scholars are higher than muĥaddiths. Someonewho memorized the Qur’ān is also called a ĥāfiđħ, but this does not make him ascholar.145 Al-Muwaťťa’ Mālik, Ĥadīth No. 1512; Sunan ad-Dārimiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2348;Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 15316; Muŝannaf ˇAbdur-Razzāq, Ĥadīth No.16814. 76
    • It is not Sufficient to Say “In the Sky!”A third reason this ĥadīth does not prove their claim is the fact that the Wahhābiunderstanding of it contradicts a basic, fundamental rule that all Muslims know:A person’s Islām is confirmed upon uttering the Shahādah. According to theWahhābis, The Prophet  taught us this rule, but neglected it himself, sinceaccording to them he judged her as a Muslim just because she said, “in the sky.”Furthermore, if it is enough to say “in the sky” to be judged as a believer, thenthe Wahhābis should consider the Jews and Christians believers, but they do not.Therefore, the narration of Mālik clarifies what The Prophet  was asking, andthe narration of Muslim is understood according to Mālik’s narration, in whichshe actually was asked about the Shahādah, and that complies with the basics ofthe religion. For this reason, an-Nawawiyy said when explaining the narration ofMuslim,“In the ĥadīth is evidence that the blasphemer does not become a believer exceptby confessing about (the oneness of) Allāh, and the message of the Messenger ofAllāh, may Allāh raise his rank and protect him from what he feared for hisnation, and in it is evidence that whoever confesses about the two shahādahs andbelieves in that with certainty, that this is sufficient for the validity of his beliefand (the validity of him) being among the People of the Qiblah and (the peopleof ) Paradise...” Muslim’s Narration does not Support ThemIf they say that this ĥadīth is narrated by Muslim, whose book is the second mostauthentic book of ĥadīth, we agree (according to most scholars), but this factdoes not benefit the Wahhābi. Firstly, not every hadith narrated by Muslim isstrong. To think that there is not a single weak ĥadīth in the book of Muslimwhatsoever is evidence of one’s ignorance in the science of ĥadīth. It isconfirmed in even the smallest books of ĥadīth terminology that there are ĥadīthfor which Imām Muslim has been criticized, which is one of the reasons that hisbook is the second strongest book of ĥadīth narration. Furthermore, Muslim didnot explain this ĥadīth of the slave woman; he only narrated it. Narrating andexplaining are two different issues not to be confused. As a blow below the belt,the Wahhābis may claim that because of their prestige, the narrations of al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim are enough without taking other books of ĥadīth intoconsideration. This is utter stupidity and foolishness. It is not the way of Ahlu-s-Sunnah to reject any authentic text from the Prophet , and the fact is that theauthentic ĥadīth are spread throughout hundreds of books. 77
    • Thus, when a ĥāfiđħ judges a ĥadīth as authentic, that is according to his ownresearch. Some scholars said that Muslim’s narration is weak; a specific type ofweakness called “shudhūdh” (oddness). This is when a ĥadīth seems to beauthentic, but it opposes other authentic narrations from those who are strongerin memorization or more numerous. In this case, the preserved narration wouldbe the narration of Mālik: ُ‫قالُأتشهدينُأنُالُإلهُإالُاهللُقالتُنعم‬ ‫ُقالُأتشهدينُأِّنُرسولُاهللُقالتُنعم‬This means: “He said, ‘Do you testify that no one is God except Allāh?’ shesaid, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allāh?’She said, ‘Yes’.”Other scholars refrained from applying any version of the ĥadīth because of adifferent type of weakness called “iďťirāb (disorder; inconsistency)”. This iswhen the differences in the versions of one ĥadīth do not comply with each otherand there is no way to give priority to one over the other. They said that thedifferent narrations of this ĥadīth have too great of a discrepancy in their textsand chains; One narration says “ayna-llāh.” One narration says “Do you testifythat no one is God but Allāh?” One says that the female slave was mute andcould not speak at all, and another narration says, “Who is your Lord?” Abū Ĥanīfah even narrates a version of the ĥadīth in which the story iscompletely different: A man’s mother died and left in her will for a slave to befreed on her behalf, so the man told the Prophet that he only had that particularslave woman, and asked the Prophet if freeing her was sufficient to fulfill hismother’s will.There are also inconsistencies in the chains of this ĥadīth. Hence, this ĥadīth isunreliable in the issues of belief, and among a small number of ĥadīth for whichImām Muslim was criticized. This Ĥadīth is not a Proof in the Issue of BeliefAdditionally, unless narrated through many, many different routes (mutawātir bythe statement) the scholars do not claim that the Prophet  said those exactwords to the very letter. The Qur’ān is an example. Its wording can be tracedback to the Prophet  through so many chains that we can confirm that theProphet  recited those exact words to the very letter (while believing that the 78
    • Qur’ān he conveyed was not his own wording, but was the wording revealedunto him). In such a case, they would say that the Prophet  used those verywords. If not narrated like that, they do not give a 100% guarantee that theProphet  used those exact words. This ĥadīth of the slave woman is notmutawātir, and is not even mashhūr (narrated from at least three people). Someof the very stern scholars of ˇaqīdah said that a strong narration from the route ofonly one trustworthy person is unreliable in belief issues; three trustworthynarrators are needed.The Prophet  could not have used all of the terms in all of the narrations, beingonly one incident. So, according to the scholars who did accept the ĥadīth, theProphet  asked her something, and the sum of all the different narrationsshows that he was not asking her about a place, rather he was asking her abouther belief in Allāh. They put all of the different narrations together and came upwith a common meaning, like Imām al-Bayhaqiyy. Parenthetically, the narrationin which she was mute and raised her finger is weak, but can be interpreted tomean that Allāh is one, or that He has the high majesty. Some of the Wahhabisclaim that Muslim narrated that the female slave pointed up and said, “In thesky.” Saying “fi-s-Samā’” is one narration, and raising the finger (and not sayinganything at all) is another.The fact that they do not teach people about the narration of Mālik, and do notinterpret the narration of Muslim to comply with the narration of Mālik is anindication that they are misguided, since they pick and choose which narrationsthey want, and hide the others. A Scholarly ClarificationAmong the trustworthy, reliable scholars who explained this hadith, is Imām an-Nawawiyy, in his very famous explanation of Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim. Among what he saidabout this ĥadīth is146:This ĥadīth is among the ĥadīth of attributes, and there are two methods inexplaining it... One is to believe in it without delving into its meaning,confirming: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َ146 Sharĥ Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, vol. 5, pages 26-27. 79
    • and that He is clear of the attributes of the creations. The second (method) is tomake ta’wīl in a way that befits Him. So whoever takes by that (second method)says that what is meant is to subject her to a test: Is she a monotheist whoconfesses that the Creator, Manager, and doer (of whatever He willed) is indeedAllāh alone, the one whom if the invoker supplicates to Him he directs himself tothe sky, just as the one who prays directs himself towards the Kaˇbah - and thatis not because He is limited to the sky, nor is He limited to the direction of theKaˇbah, rather the sky is the Qiblah of those who supplicate, just as the Kaˇbahis the Qiblah of those who pray - or is she an idol worshipper, among the paganswho worship the idols that are in their presence?147 So when she said: ‫يفُالسماء‬ ّwhich literally means “in the sky”; he knew that she was a monotheist, and notan idol worshipper. Al-Qāďī ˇIyāď148 said, “There is no difference between theMuslims altogether; the scholar of fiqh, the scholar of ĥadīth, the scholar ofbelief, the skillful debater, and the common Muslim, that the outward meaningsof what is narrated in mentioning Allāh the exalted being in the sky, like Hissaying149: ِ ِ َّ ِ َّ ِ ‫ء‬ ﴾َُ ‫﴿ َُأَمنتمُمنُيفُٱلسماءُأَنُخيْسفُبِكمُٱ َُر‬ ْ ْ ‫أل‬ َ َ َand texts like it, are not by their literal meanings, rather they are all given ta’wīlaccording to all of the Muslims.”An-Nawawiyy mentioned something very beneficial, “…not because He islimited to the sky, just as He is not limited to the direction of the Kaˇbah…” TheWahhābis say that we hold our hands to the sky when supplicating, becauseAllāh is above us. Truly, it is not proof. If lifting the hands to the sky proves thatAllāh is above us, then facing the Kaˇbah would prove that Allāh is in Makkah,147 This means that they do not direct themselves to the sky because their idolsare in front of them.148 Al-Ĥāfiđħ Abu-l-Faďl ˇIyāď Ibn Mūsā Ibn ˇIyāď Ibn ˇAmr al-Yaĥŝubiyy al-Andalusiyy al-Mālikiyy (476 – 575 AH).149 Sūrat al-Mulk, verse 16 (which literally translates as, “Do you feel securefrom who is in the sky that he would not make the ground split from beneathyou?”) 80
    • which they do not believe. Nor do not say that the saying of Allāh in theQur’ān150: ﴾ُ ِ ‫﴿بَْي‬ ‫يت‬ َ“My house,” referring to the Kaˇbah, means the place where Allāh resides. Welift our hands to the sky because the sky is the Qiblah (the thing that is faced; thereference point for facing a direction) for the supplication, just as we face theKaˇbah in prayer because the Kaˇbah is the Qiblah for the prayer. Besides that,Muslim narrated that on occasions, the Prophet  made supplication with hispalms facing the ground.As we can see, an-Nawawiyy conveyed that the Muslims do not accept the literalmeaning of texts like this ĥadīth. So do the Wahhābis know better than an-Nawawiyy? Do they claim to know better about the hadith than the scholars ofĥadīth? Can they produce the name of a reliable scholar who said that an-Nawawiyy was wrong other than al-Albāniyy, who truly is not a scholar? If theysay that it is possible that an-Nawawiyy could be wrong, their famous movewhen shown what the scholars said, tell them that it is also possible that they canbe wrong, which in fact they are. The Wahhābi’s Ta’wīl for the ĤadīthThey moreover claim to take the literal meaning of Imām Muslim’s narration, yetthey claim that Allāh is high above His ˇArsh, above the sky. How then, can theygo by the apparent meaning of this ĥadīth which literally says that Allāh is in thesky? In their English translations of this ĥadīth, they say that the Prophet asked her, “Where is Allāh?” and she replied, “He is above the heavens,” whichis ta’wīl on their part. The word: ‫“ يف‬fī” literally means “in”, although it couldmean ‫ˇ“ على‬alā” (on, over, upon)”. The word ‫“ السماء‬as-Samā’” literally means“the sky”. The term mentioned in Muslim’s narration is singular: ‫السماء‬ (sky;heaven), not plural ‫السماوات‬ (skies; heavens). If they take the literal meaning,they have to say that Allāh is in the sky, but they believe that Allāh is above thesky. If they want to say that it means that Allāh is above the sky, then they are150 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 125. 81
    • not taking the literal meaning (ta’wīl), and cannot accuse us of anything when wedo not take the literal meaning. Similar TextsIn the Wahhābi mistranslation of the Qur’ān, they do the same for theaforementioned verse in the chapter of al-Mulk, 16: ﴾ُِ ‫﴿ َُأَمنتمُمنُيفُٱلسم‬ ‫ء ِ َّ ِ َّ َ اء‬They say that the aforementioned verse means, “Do you feel secure from the Onewho is above the heavens?” They then show a new Muslim or a Muslim whodoes not know Arabic, and try to convince him to believe that Allāh is above theseven skies, limited to a place. However, the literal translation of the verse says,“Do you feel secure from who is in the sky?” The word: ‫من‬ “man” (who;whoever) can be singular or plural. If used in the singular context to refer toAllāh, it means the One with the highest status. If used in the plural context, thenit refers to the angels who live in the sky, and on occasions have come down bythe order of Allāh to inflict the punishment on the transgressors.This ĥadīth of the female slave, this verse in the chapter of al-Mulk, and othertexts like them, are reasons why some of the Wahhābis said that Allāh exists inthe sky. Among those ĥadīth is151: ُ‫ارمحواُمنُيفُاألَرُْيَرمحْكمُمنُيفُالسماء‬ َّ َ َْ ْ َ ْThis means: “Be merciful to whoever is on earth, and whoever is in the skywill be merciful to you.” This actually refers to the angels, as proven by anothernarration of the same ĥadīth, with the terms152: ُ‫أهلُالسماء‬ َّMeaning: “the people of the sky.” They would say that Allāh is in the sky, He151 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 1924; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 4941.152 Narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ ˇAbdur-Raĥīm al-ˇIrāqiyy in Amāliyy, Session 86, page77; Al-Mustadrak, Ĥadīth No. 7356. 82
    • ascends up, and sits on the ˇArsh, mounts it, or establishes Himself on it. Theywould say that He is above the ˇArsh and He descends down to the sky at nighttime. They do not usually say that He sits on the ˇArsh in America (although IbnTaymiyah said that Allāh sits), but our brothers from overseas report that they do.Here, they say, “He is above the ˇArsh” (in a physical direction), as if He ishovering above it. They then tell people not to try to imagine how He is abovethe ˇArsh. Allāh is glorified from what they attribute to Him.Remember that it is not a condition to mention the aforementioned points ofrefutation against them in the order presented in the book. You may find yourselfin a position where it is better to mention Imām Mālik’s narration beforementioning that the terms of the ĥadīth can have more than one meaning. Nor isit a condition to mention every single point you know. Sometimes it is enough tomention one detail.In closing this section, it would be worthwhile to mention some verses of theQur’ān. In the chapter of az-Zumar, Allāh said153: ْْ ‫َ ِ َ ِ ُّ ِ َ َ َ ِ َّ َ َ ِ َ َ ِ أل‬ ُُِ ‫﴿ونفخُيفُٱلصورُفَصعِقُمنُيفُٱلسماواتُومنُيفُٱ َُر‬ ُ﴾ُ ‫ُإِ َُُّمنُشاءَُٱ‬ ‫ال َ َ هلل‬This means: “The Horn will be blown, and whoever is in the skies or onEarth will faint, except those whom Allāh willed.”Fainting does not befit Allāh. If the Wahhābi says, “It means that those whomAllāh did not will to faint will not faint, so Allāh will not faint while He is in thesky when the horn blows,” we say, “Allāh does not will for Himself to beprotected; He is not a subject of His own will, the creations are subjects of Hiswill.”154In the chapter of al-Ambiyā’, Allāh said155:153 Sūrat az-Zumar, verse 68.154 It is likely that the Wahhābis will not understand this point. The clarificationof this is that the scholars said that Allāh’s existence is not the trace ofsomeone’s will – not His own nor anyone else’s. So it is not valid to relate HisWill to Himself; it is only valid to relate it to the creation.155 Sūrat al-Ambiyā’, verse 104. 83
    • ﴾ُِ ‫﴿يَومُنَطْويُٱلسماءَُكطَيُٱلسجلُلِلكت‬ ‫ْ َ ِ َّ َ َ ِّ ِّ ِ ِّ ْ ب‬This means: “The Day when We (Allāh) will fold the sky like books…”According to their belief, Allāh will be smashed by the folding of the sky,because the skies are solid entities, not merely air, gas and clouds. They are verysmooth, wide, and dense, with angels at their entrances.Once, a new Muslim was shaken by this ĥadīth. He had never heard about itbefore, but he knew that Allāh is not like His creations in any way. Knowing thisrule and hearing this ĥadīth explained by a Wahhābi raised questions in his mind,because of the contradiction. He asked about it and learned many reasons why itdoes not mean what those liars say. The Truth About Istiwā’If not for Ĥadīth al-Jāriyah, this verse156: َٰ َ َ ۡ ِ ۡ َ ۡ ََ ُ َ ۡ َّ ﴾٥ ‫﴿ ٱلرحمَٰن َع ٱلعرش ٱستوى‬would be their first reference. It is their favorite verse. They claim it to be proofthat Allāh is above His ˇArsh, or that He sits upon it. Let us take a closer look atthis honorable verse that is clear of their incorrect interpretation: The Tafsīr of the Verse and How to Refute the Wahhābis Who Misinterpret ItThe word: ‫َّ ْ ٰن‬ ﴾ُ َ‫﴿الرمح‬“Ar-Raĥmān” is a name of Allāh. Al-Bayhaqiyy157 explained it as “the One withabundant mercy for believers and blasphemers in this life, but His mercy isreserved for believers in the Hereafter.”156 Sūrat Ťāhā, verse 5.157 Al-Bayhaqiyy conveyed this explanation from al-Ĥāfiđħ Abū Sulaymān al-Khaťťābiyy in al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 70. 84
    • The word: ﴾‫﴿علَى‬ َ“ˇalā” is what in English would be a preposition. It may mean “on”, “over (bystatus or by place)”, “according to”, and more.The word: ِ َْ ﴾‫﴿ٱلعرش‬“The ˇArsh” literally means “the throne”, but is not really a chair; it is the ceilingof Paradise and the largest of creations- held up by four enormous andpraiseworthy angels. On The Day of Judgment, eight angels will carry it.The word: ﴾‫﴿ٱستَ وى‬ َْٰ“Istawā” has many, many meanings. It is a past verb that refers to the eternalattribute of Allāh called al-Istiwā’. It has a befitting meaning, and Allāh knowsits reality. One of its linguistic meanings is “sat”, which does not befit Allāh, andthis is why some Wahhābis said “Allāh sits on His Throne.158” Al-Qāmūs, thefamous dictionary by Majdu-d-Dīn al-Fayrūz’ābādiyy159, lists 15 meanings for it.Because of this dictionary, every Arabic dictionary was called “qāmūs”. More158 Dr. Muhammad Naim Yasin says: “...For this reason, it was reported frommany Salaf scholars (this is a lie) who, when asked about the manner in whichAllah is seated on the throne, said: ‘The sitting (Istiwā’) is known, the mannerunknown’…Allah descends, hears, sees, speaks, or sits upon the Throne...”(Source: Book of Eman, According to the Classical Works of Ibn Taymiyah,page 28, Al-Firdous Ltd, London 2003).The major Wahhābi Muĥammad Ibn Ŝāliĥ Ibn al-ˇUthaymīn in a booklet entitled“The Muslim Belief” (translated by Dr. Maneh al-Johani) said: “His ‘settling onthe throne’ means that He is sitting in person on His throne in a way that isbecoming to His majesty and greatness. Nobody except He knows exactly howHe is sitting.” – All of this is pure unadulterated blasphemy.159 Majdu-d-Dīn Muhammad Ibn Yaˇqub al-Fayrūz’ābādiyy (817 AH). 85
    • meanings will be mentioned as we go along, if Allāh willed.There are two methods of interpreting texts like this, as an-Nawawiyy mentionedabout the ĥadīth of the female slave: One is to believe in it without assigning anyparticular meaning to it. Do not seek its specific meaning. Following thismethod, we simply take the position that it has a befitting meaning that complieswith the rules of the Religion, without the need of contravening the Arabiclanguage, and Allāh and His Messenger  know about it. We confirm that itsmeaning is becoming without stipulating what that meaning is, and we merelysay, “Allāh is attributed with istawā.” This is actually the general way of theSalaf, and the meaning of ash-Shāfiˇiyy’s saying, “I believe in what came fromAllāh according to the meaning that Allāh willed and I believe in what camefrom the Messenger of Allāh according to the meaning that the Messenger ofAllāh meant.” So let the Wahhābis follow it.Do not be fooled by the misquoted translations produced by Wahhābis. Theybring mistranslated quotes from the Imāms about this issue, claiming that theysaid, “We believe that Allāh rose above His ˇArsh,” while truly they only said,“We believe in Istiwā’.” They DID NOT say, “We believe that istawā means thatAllāh rose above His ˇArsh.” Nor did they say, “We believe that istawā meansthat Allāh sat…” They said, “Istawā without a how”, not “He sat without ahow.” They said, “The meaning of istawā is not like what is imagined,” and not,“It is impossible to say how Allāh mounted the ˇArsh.” For that reason, if aWahhābi brings a mistranslation similar to what is mentioned, and attributes it toa reliable scholar, tell him, “Do not bring your translation of what a scholar saidwhen he used a word that can have 15 meanings.” Tell him to bring the explicitevidence that those scholars said istawā when attributed to Allāh means “roseabove” or “sat.” In other words, tell him to bring the proof that those scholarsassigned a particular definition to “istawā” over another, and do not accept asimple translation that, of course, is by a Wahhābi. If the Wahhābi brings somestatements from some of the old, reliable scholars, like Mujāhid the student ofˇAbdullāh Ibn ˇAbbās and al-Farrā’160, claiming that those scholars said it means“rose above” by using such words as ‫ارتفع‬ or ‫عال‬ then know that even thosewords still can have the meaning of highness in status and majesty, not onlyhighness in place.That is assuming that the narrations are authentic. Do not be shaken by this,160 Al-Lughawiyy Abū Zakariyyā Yaĥyā Ibn Ziyād al-Farrā’ al-Aslamiyy al-Kūfiyy (144 – 207 AH). 86
    • because it is known that there are two types of highness: physical, which isimpossible to be an attribute of Allāh, and majestic, which is permissible. Thus,had they used words that attribute “highness” to Allāh that is not evidence thatAllāh is in a place. Furthermore, had they intended by those expressions thatAllāh exists in a physical location, they would be rejected by virtue of thedefinitive evidence that Allāh does not resemble His creation.The other method is to look into the Arabic language and select what is befittingto Allāh. For example, do not use “he sat (jalasa)”, because that implies thatAllāh has a body. Do not use “to become upright (iˇtadala)”, for that would likenAllāh to the plants that stand tall on their stalks, as Allāh told us about thecrops161: ﴾ُِ‫﴿فَاستَ وىُعلَىُسوق‬ ِ ‫َْٰ َ ٰ ه‬This means: “It stood upright on its stalk.”Do not use the meaning “to ripen (nāďija)”, for that would liken Allāh to thefruits, nor “to become complete (tamma)”, for that would liken Him to the menwho reach the prime of their strength, as Allāh told us about Prophet Mūsā162: ِ ﴾‫﴿ولَماُبَلَغُأَش َّهُوٱستَ وىُآتَيْ نَاهُحكماُوعلْما‬ ٰ َ ْ ُ ‫َ َّ َ د‬ ً َ ًْ َThis means: “When he reached the prime of his strength and was complete,We granted him prophethood and knowledge.”Do not use “to dwell in a place or to be firmly established upon something(istaqarra)”, or else He would be similar to the Ark. Allāh told us in His bookabout that Ark163: ‫ُ ْ َ ْ َ جل ِ ي‬ ﴾ُِّ ‫﴿وٱستَ وتُعلَىُٱ ُود‬ َThis means: “It settled upon (the peak of) Mt. Jūdiyy.”None of these meanings befit Allāh, even though they are linguistically161 Sūrat al-Fatĥ, verse 29.162 Sūrat al-Qaŝaŝ, verse 14.163 Sūrat Hud, verse 44. 87
    • applicable to “istawā”, and there are many more meanings.One of the meanings of “istawā” is: ‫( قَهر‬to subdue). If a Wahhābi says that this َdoes not befit Allāh, because it implies that Allāh did not have control over theˇArsh, and then conquered it, we say, “Then do not say it means He rose abovethe ˇArsh, because it implies that He was not above it and then He became aboveit.”Then we add, “What shows that the word ‘qahara’ is attributable to Allāh, areHis two names, ‫ القاهر‬and ‫ القهار‬which are mentioned in the Qur’ān and ĥadīth, ّand derive from qahara. The correct explanation is that when the ˇArsh wascreated, it was subjugated by Allāh’s power. There is no implication of struggle.”In this verse, Allāh informed us that He subdues the ˇArsh, the largest ofcreations, and subsequently controls everything else. ***EXTRA DETAIL***Their claim that the meaning “subjugation” for “istawā” is unfounded in theArabic language is easily countered by the statements of many linguists, such asar-Rāghib al-Aŝbahāniyy164 in his famous book Mufradāt al-Qur’ān165, where hesaid: ‫ومّتُعديُب[على]ُاقتضىُاالستيالء‬ ّThis means: “Whenever it (istawā) is made transitive by (the preposition) “ˇalā”,it has the meaning of subjugation.” Yes, even scholars from the Salaf havedocumented that, such as the Mujtahid and Ĥāfiđħ, Abū Jaˇfar Muĥammad IbnJarīr ať-Ťabariyy166 in his book of tafsīr, where he said, “In the speech of theArabs, al-Istiwā’ is used to have different meanings…” then he said after listingseveral: ُ‫ومنهاُاالحتيازُواالستيالء‬164 Abu-l-Qāsim al-Ĥusayn Ibn Muĥammad ar-Rāghib al-Aŝbahāniyy (502 AH.)165 Mufradāt fī Ghabrībi-l-Qur’ān, page 251.166 Al-Imām al-Mujtahid Abū Jaˇfar Muĥammad Ibn Jarīr ať-Ťabariyy (224 –310 AH). 88
    • This means: “Among those meanings is ‘to take possession’ and ‘subjugation’.”This is enough to counter a Wahhābi who says that Muĥammad Ibn Ziyād Ibn al-Aˇrābiyy167 was asked if he knows about “istawā” having the meaning of“istawlā” (subjugation), and he said, “I do not know it”. The scholars have arule: ُ‫منُحفظُحجةُعلىُمنُملُُيفظ‬This means: “The one who knows or memorizes something is given priority overhe who does not.” If they produce another narration in which he said, “The Arabsdo not say that a person conquered something: ُ‫استوىلُعلىُالشيء‬unless he had an opponent…,” respond by saying, “this narration contradicts thefirst, because he is confirming that he knows the meaning.” If they say, “At firsthe did not know it, but then he learned it”, respond by saying, “Then it is alsopossible that he did not know that they use subjugation without a reference toany previous struggle or the existence of an opponent.” What proves that theydid use the meaning of subjugation without the existence of a struggle or anopponent is the famous verse of Arabic poetry: ‫منُغريُسيفُودمُمهراق‬ ُ‫قدُاستوىُبشرُعلىُالعراق‬This means: “Bishr conquered ˇIrāq without a sword and without blood spill.” Ifthey say that the poet who said this line is unknown, we respond by saying thatseveral scholars, such as al-Ĥāfiđħ az-Zabīdiyy168 al-Ĥanafiyy169 and IbnKathīr170171 (whom they consider an authority) have confirmed him to be al-167 Al-Lughawiyy Muĥammad Ibn Ziyād Ibn al-Aˇrābiyy al-Hāshimiyy (150 –231 AH).168 Tāj al-ˇArūs, vol. 38, page 331.169 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Lughawiyy Muĥammad Murtađā Ibn Muĥammad Ibn al-Ĥusayniyy az-Zabīdiyy al-Ĥanafiyy (1145 – 1205 AH).170 Ismāˇīl Ibn ˇUmar Ibn Kathīr al-Qurashiyy (701 – 774 AH).171 In his history book called al-Bidāyah wa-n-Nihāyah, vol 12, page 241. 89
    • Akhťal172, the Christian Arab poet. Additionally, anyone who has properlystudied Arabic knows that there are many lines of poetry used as references inthe Arabic language, despite that their authors are unknown. The condition is thatthey are confirmed to be from the period of those whose speech is used asreference and evidence in the Arabic language. If they say, “But he was aChristian, so how can you use his speech as evidence?” The simple answer isthat it is not a condition for the poet to be a Muslim. The condition is that hecame from the period of those whose speech is used as reference for the rules ofthe language. Many lines of poetry that were said by the idol worshippers werequoted by Ibn ˇAbbās when he would interpret verses of the Qur’ān.” ***The Wahhābi might ask, “Why is the Istiwā’ over the ˇArsh specificallymentioned if Allāh did not rise over it? What is the benefit of specifying that Hesubdues and controls the ˇArsh in particular - since He has power over allthings?”, The response is: To point out the status of the ˇArsh, just as He said inthe Qur’ān173: ‫َ َ َ ُّ َ ْ ِ َ ِ م‬ ﴾ُِ ‫﴿وهوُربُٱلعرشُٱلعظي‬This means: “He is the Lord of the great ˇArsh,” and this does not negate thefact that He is the Lord of all things.What further validates this meaning of istawā are the verses that come beforeand after the verse in question. Allāh said in the Qur’ān: ِ َّ ُ ‫أل‬ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِّ ‫ْن ِ ال‬ ُ﴾‫﴿تَُزي ًُُِّمَّنُخلَقُٱ َُرُْوٱلسماواتُٱلعلَى‬ ۡ ََ َٰ َ َ ۡ ِ ۡ َ ُ َ ۡ َّ ُ﴾٥ ‫﴿ ٱلرحمَٰن َع ٱلعرش ٱستوى‬ ِ َ َ ِ ْ ‫َ ِ َّ َ َ َ َ ِ أل‬ ﴾ُٰ ‫﴿لَهُماُيفُٱلسماواتُوماُيفُٱ َُرُْوماُبَْي نَ هماُوماُْحتُٱلثَّر‬ ‫َ َ َ َْ َ َى‬The first verse, which is the fourth in the chapter of Ťāhā, contains the meaningthat Allāh created the Earth and the heavens, and the third of the three verses,which is the sixth verse in the chapter, contains the meaning that Allāh owns the172 Ghiyāth Ibn Ghawth al-Akhťal (90 AH).173 Sūrat at-Tawbah, verse 129. 90
    • heavens and the earth and all that is in between them. Since the Qur’ān is themost eloquent speech, then by virtue of the context, it is more likely that themeaning of the fifth verse is that Allāh controls and subdues the ˇArsh. This is sobecause Allāh confirms in the fourth verse that He is the Creator, and in the sixththat He is the Owner, so which meaning for the fifth verse is more harmonious,that He sits or rises, or that He subdues and controls? ‫َ ِظ‬One of the meanings of “istawā” is ُ ‫( حف‬to preserve; to protect) from which the َname of Allāh ‫“ احلفيظ‬al-Ĥafīđħ” is derived. If interpreted by this, it means thatAllāh preserves the ˇArsh and keeps it high above Paradise. If not for Allāh’spreservation of the ˇArsh, it would fall and destroy what is beneath it.Assigning a particular meaning is the way of the Khalaf, the scholars after theSalaf. Lots of deviation emerged in the later generations, as well as weakness inthe pure Arabic language, so there was a necessity to specify meanings for thoseverses. The scholars of the Salaf occasionally assigned particular meanings to themutashābih verses, but it was not their routine. We must rely on the scholars forthe correct understanding, and not on our imaginations. Similar Texts Used by WahhābisThe Wahhābis do not stop there. They believe that since Allāh attributed al-Istiwā’ to Himself more than once in the Qur’ān, this emphasizes the meaningthat Allāh is above in a place, We simply tell them that they are wrong. If theysay that Allāh said174: ِ ْ َ َ ‫ِمْث ْ َى‬ ﴾‫﴿ َُُّٱستَ و ُُٰعلَىُٱلعرش‬we say it does not mean that He is in a place. We combat their misinterpretationwith the verse175: ﴾ُْ ‫﴿وهوُمعكمُأَيْنُماُكنت‬ ‫َ َ ََ ْ َ َ م‬Literally, it means “He is with you wherever you are.” They do not take thisliterally because it contradicts their belief that Allāh is above us. If they say the174 Sūrat ar-Raˇd, verse 2.175 Sūrat al-Ĥadīd, verse 4. 91
    • verse176: ﴾ُِ ‫﴿ َُُّٱستَ و ُُٰإِىلُٱلسم‬ ‫َّ َ آء‬ ‫ِمْث ْ َى‬then we counter with the verse 177: ‫ِّ َ ْ ٍ ُِّ ط‬ ﴾ٌُ ‫﴿أَالُإِنَّهُبِكلُشيءُحمي‬This literally means: “Does not Allāh surround everything?” They also do nottake this verse literally.If they believe that Allāh revealed istawā many times to highlight that He is in aplace above us, then they should believe that He is everywhere, since there ismore than one verse with this literal meaning. Ironically, they make ta’wīl,denying that Allāh is everywhere. They say it means that He knows everything,which is true. We prevail by saying, “If it is permissible to say that He is noteverywhere by His self, rather by His knowledge, then it is permissible to saythat He is not positioned above in a place by His self, but by His majesty.If they say, “Had Allāh willed for a meaning other than being above the throne,He would have used such an expression to clarify that, so do not say it meansthat Allāh subjugated the throne,” We respond by saying, “You have fallen intowhat you are trying to escape, because according to your method, you cannot saythat it means that Allāh is above the throne, because that is not the expressionmentioned; rather, the mentioned expression is merely ‘istawā’.” ***EXTRA DETAIL***The Wahhābiyyah have attributed time to Allāh, which is one of the greatestindications that they believe that He has created attributes. Among what they useto ascribe time to Him is the verse 178: ‫َّ َ ُاهلل ل ِ َ َ َّ َ َ ِ ُ أل ْ َ ِ ِ ِ ام‬ ٍُُ َّ‫﴿إِنُربَّكم ُُٱَُّذيُخلَقُٱلسماواتُوٱ َُرُْيفُستَّةُأَي‬ َ ﴾ُِ ‫ُِمْثَُّٱستَ وىُعلَىُٱلعر‬ ‫ْ َ ٰ َ َ ْش‬176 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 29.177 Sūrat Fuŝŝilat, verse 54.178 Sūrat al-Aˇrāf, verse 54. 92
    • which they say means, “Surely, your Lord created the skies and the Earth in sixdays, then He rose above the throne.” They explain by saying, “The word ُّ ‫ِمْث‬means, “then”, which expresses “delay”; the occurrence of something after theoccurrence of something else by considerable time (tarākhī)”. We answer bysaying, “thumma” originally means, “then”, but it can also mean “and” and thusdoes not give the meaning of delay and time. Allāh told us in the Qur’ān179: ﴾‫﴿خلَقكمُمنُنَّفسُواحدةٍُِمْثَُّجعلُمْن هاُزوجها‬ ِ ِ َ َ ْ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ٍ ْ ِّ َ َThis means: “He created you from one soul and He created from that soul itsspouse.”This verse is reference to the creation of Ādam, his wife and their progeny. Iftaken literally it would mean, “He created you from one soul, then He createdfrom that soul its spouse”, which would imply that his children were createdbefore their mother. This meaning is impossible, since it is known that Hisspouse was created before his progeny. Likewise, it is known that Allāh did notphysically rise above the ˇArsh at a time after the creation of the skies and Earth,and had they had a proper creed about the eternal Creator, they would not havesaid such a thing. The true meaning is, “Surely your Lord created the skiesand the Earth in six days, and He istawā ˇala-l-ˇArsh;” according to theaforementioned possibilities previously mentioned180. *** The Saying of Imām MālikTo close this section, know that these people refer to an unconfirmed narrationfrom Imām Mālik. They say that he said, “Istawā is known but the ‘how’ is not.”This narration is discredited by two narrations from al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Bayhaqiyy, one179 Sūrat az-Zumar, verse 6.180 Al-Ustādh Abū Manŝūr al-Baghdādiyy said in his book Uŝūlu-d-Dīn, insummary: “Our colleagues differed regarding this verse. Some said that it isamong the verses that are Mutashābihāt whose meaning is not known by otherthan Allāh, and this is the saying of Mālik. Others said that Istawā is somethingthat Allāh did to the ˇArsh that He called Istawā, and this is the saying of Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy. Others again said that Istawā means that He is attributedwith aboveness over the ˇArsh in status, not physical aboveness…” 93
    • in al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt181, and the other in al-Iˇtiqād182.In the former, he narrates from the route of ˇAbdullāh Ibn Wahb that he said,“We were with Mālik Ibn Anas when a man came in and said, ‘O Abā ˇAbdillāh, 183 ٰ َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ ٰ ْ َّ ﴾‫﴿الرمحَنُعلَىُٱلعرشُٱستَ وى‬how did He Istiwā’? ’, Then Mālik lowered his head and was overtaken by sweat,then he raised his head and said, 184 ٰ َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ ٰ ْ َّ ﴾‫﴿الرمحَنُعلَىُٱلعرشُٱستَ وى‬just as he attributed to Himself; how is not said, and how is inapplicable (ˇanhumarfūˇ). You are a person of wickedness and a perpetrator of innovation. Gethim out of here!’, so the man was put out.”In the latter, al-Bayhaqiyy narrates from the route of Yaĥyā Ibn Yaĥyā that hesaid, “We were with Mālik Ibn Anas when a man came and said, ‘O AbāˇAbdillāh, ٰ َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ ٰ ْ َّ ﴾‫﴿الرمحَنُعلَىُٱلعرشُٱستَ وى‬How did He istawā?’ So Mālik lowered his head, then started sweating, and thensaid, ‘Istawā is not unknown, ‘how’ is not rational (ghayru maˇqūl), believing init is obligatory, asking about it is an innovation, and I only see you as aninnovator.’ Then he ordered for the man to be put out.”Remember, there is a great difference between saying, “We do not know howAllāh is”, and saying “Allāh has no ‘how’”.It is important to know that some people use this type of expression to mean,“the reality”. Thus they would say, “I do not know how Allāh is.” What theymean is that they do not know His reality. According to this meaning, it is not181 Al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 408.182 Al-Iˇtiqād ˇalā Madhhab as-Salaf Ahli-s-Sunnah wa-l-Jamāˇah, page 43.183 This means he recited the verse.184 He also recited the verse. 94
    • blasphemy. As for those Wahhābis, they say that they do not know how his twohands are, and how He puts His foot in Hell, and how He goes up and down inthe sky, and this is blasphemy. The Truth About the Ĥadīth of An-NuzūlAn appropriate third reference would be the ĥadīth of an-Nuzūl, one narration ofwhich is185: ُّ ِ َّ َ ِ ‫يَْنزلُربّناُإىلُالسماءُالدنْيا‬This literally says, “Our Lord descends to the lowest sky.”According to the Arabic language, “nuzūl” would literally be movement fromone place to a lower one. If a Wahhābi says, “Allāh descends, but not with adescent of motion,” tell him, “But you said you take the literal meaning.” Also,mention that such a saying is fabricated. Yes the scholars said that the nuzūl ofAllāh is not motion, and that His nuzūl is not like the descent of the creatures, butwhat is meant is that they were not specifying a meaning for nuzūl, as mentionednumerous times already. So the difference between what the scholars said, andsaying, “Allāh descends, but not with a descent of motion,” is that the scholarsdid not translate the term into another language, which necessitates specifying ameaning. The Explanation of Ibn ĤajarIf they say, “But al-Bukhāriyy narrated this ĥadīth, and his book of ĥadīth isknown to be the most authentic,” we say, “Yes, but he did not explain it.” Again,there is a difference between narrating a ĥadīth to illustrate its authenticity, andexplaining the correct meaning of the ĥadīth. If they want to refer to the scholarswho explained it, then let us refer to the great scholar, Aĥmad Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy, Amīru-l-Mu’minīn fi-l-Ĥadīth (The prince of the Muslims in thescience of ĥadīth), also known as “The Seal of the Ĥuffāđħ”. His is the mostfamous of the explanations of al-Bukhāriyy’s book. Here are some statementsgiven when speaking about this ĥadīth in his sharĥ (explanation) called Fatĥu-l-Bārī186:185 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 1094;186 Fatĥu-l-Bārī, vol. 3, page 36-37. 95
    • This ĥadīth is used as proof by those who confirm a direction to Allāh, claiming it is the direction of above, and the majority has rejected that, because such a saying leads to (attributing) containment to Allāh, and Allāh is exalted from that. There are different sayings about the meaning of “an-Nuzūl”. Among them are those who carry it on its apparent and literal meaning, and those are the Mushabbihah (those who liken Allāh to the creations), and Allāh is exalted from their sayings,”...“and among them are those who kept it as it was narrated, believing in it without specifying a meaning, while clearing Allāh from manner of being and resemblance, and those are the majority of the Salaf,”... “And among them are those who interpreted it in a befitting way that complies with the speech of the Arabs,”... “Ibnu-l-ˇArabiyy187 said, ‘...as for his  saying “yanzilu” (which literally means “he descends”), it refers to His doings 188 and not His self; it refers to Allāh’s angel that descends with His order and prohibition. Nuzūl, just as it exists in bodies, also has an allegorical meaning, so if you carry the ĥadīth by the physical meaning, then it is the attribute of the dispatched angel, and if you carry it by the allegorical meaning, then it would be called a nuzūl from one rank to another rank, and that is correct Arabic.’, The summary is that he (Ibnu-l-ˇArabiyy) explained it in two ways: either that the meaning of “yanzilu” is that He descends His order, or His angel with His order, or else that it is figurative, with the meaning of kindness189 towards those who supplicate, and the answering of their supplication, and the like. Abū Bakr Ibn Fūrak190 said that some shaykhs have narrated it with a ďammah191 on the beginning192, while omitting the direct object, i.e. descends an angel, and what strengthens that is what was narrated by an-Nasā’iyy193,187 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Qāďī Abū Bakr Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh Ibn Muĥammad Ibnal-ˇArabiyy al-Andalusiyy al-Ishbīliyy al-Mālikiyy (468 – 543 AH).188 His act of creating.189 i.e. mercy; Allāh is not attributed with emotions.190 Al-Imām Shaykhu-l-Mutakallimīn Abū Bakr Muĥammad Ibn al-Ĥasan IbnFūrak al-Aŝbahāniyy (406 AH).191 The “u” sound.192 So that it reads “yunzilu” instead of “yanzilu”.193 Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 17446; al-Muˇjam al-Kabīr, Ĥadīth No. 8391; 96
    • َّ ُ‫إنُاهللُُيهلُحّتُُيضىُشطرُالليلُِمْثُيأمرُمنادياُيقولُهلُمنُداع‬ ُ‫فيستجابُله‬ [This means: “After the middle of the night passes, certainly Allāh orders someone to (descend and) call out Is there anyone making supplication, so that it would be answered for him?”] Al-Qurťubiyy said, ‘This lifts any ambiguity’.”... “Al-Bayďāwiyy said, “Since it is confirmed by the definite evidences that He, the glorified, is cleared of bodily characteristics and containment, then the transfer from one location to a lower location is impossible to be attributed to Him...”According to this, the word “malak (angel)” is omitted, and omission (hadhf) issomething extremely prevalent in the Arabic language. Thus, the meaning wouldbe, “(By His order) Our Lord descends (an angel) to the lowest sky.” Theomission of the word malak (angel) is like the verse from the Qur’ān194: ‫َ ْ ِ َْ ة‬ ﴾َُ‫﴿وسئَلُٱلقري‬ َThis means: “Ask the village.” The word “people (of)” is deliberately omitted,because that is valid in Arabic. It is also like saying, “The general bombed untilnightfall.” This does not necessitate that the general did it himself, nor is thatwhich was bombed mentioned. Ibn Ĥajar also mentioned another narration ofthis ĥadīth, and the scholars like al-Ĥāfiđħ al-ˇIrāqiyy195 mentioned that the bestway to interpret a ĥadīth is by another ĥadīth He said: ‫وخريُماُفسرتهُبالوارد‬This means: “The best of what you used to interpret it (the ĥadīth) was by thatwhich was narrated (i.e., another ĥadīth).”Sunan al-Kubrā by an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 9889.194 Sūrat Yūsuf, verse 82.195 Al-Ĥāfiđħ Zaynu-d-Dīn ˇAbdur-Raĥīm Ibn al-Ĥusayn Ibn ˇAbdir-Raĥmān al-Kurdiyy al-ˇIrāqiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy (725 – 806 AH). 97
    • And what would those people say about the ĥadīth narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy196: ‫ينزلُعيسىُابنُمرميُمنُالسماء‬This means: “Jesus the Son of Mary descends from the sky.” Since the descentof Prophet ˇĪsā (Jesus) is literal - coming from a higher place to a lower one, thenthe Nuzūl of Allāh cannot be the movement from a higher place to a lower one. The Sayings of the Prophet do not Lead to Irrational MattersFurthermore, if they say that Allāh descends during the last third of the night,and ascends during the day, then we easily refute them by saying that it is alwaysnighttime somewhere, and it is always daytime somewhere. If Allāh descends tothe lowest sky during the last third of the night, He would have to be above in theother part of the world. Then, when the night falls on that part of the world, Hewould have to be above in that first part of the world. Not just that, but after thelast third of the night lapses in one area, it will shortly become the last third ofthe night in another, which means that according to them, Allāh would be goingup and down relentlessly. Such a contradiction is the result of this bad belief. Tothat they say with disgust, “May Allāh protect us, you are using your mind.” A Similar TextFor extra benefit, let us mention 22nd verse of the chapter of al-Fajr: ﴾‫﴿وجآءَُربُّكُوٱمللَكُص ًّاُص ًّا‬ ‫َف َف‬ ُ َ َ ََ َThis means: “[The signs of the power of] your Lord will come and the angelswill be standing row after row.” Literally, it says “And your Lord willcome…” It does not mean that Allāh is a body who will move from one place toanother, as the Wahhābis think. Imām Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal gave this ta’wīl, asauthenticated by Imām al-Bayhaqiyy in his book Manāqib Aĥmad197. The Truth About the Ascension of the Good WordsA great sign of their ignorance is their reference to Sūrat Fāťir, verse 10:196 Al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 535.197 Al-Bidāyah wa-n-Nihāyah by Ibn Kathīr, vol. 10, page 327. 98
    • ﴾ُ ِّ‫﴿إِلَْيهُيَصعدُالكلِمُالطَّي‬ ‫ب‬ َ َْ ِThey say that this verse proves that Allāh exists above, because the verse literallysays, “The good words ascend to Him.” They say that ِ ُ‫إِلَْي‬ ‫ه‬ means “to (the placeof) Allāh”, and the word ُ ‫ يَصع‬means “they ascend”, so that the verse means “To ‫ْ َد‬Him ascend the good words”. Refuting this claim is easier than it looks. The Correct Meaning of the VerseThe correct meaning of the verse is, “The good words are taken up to the sky, anhonorable place, by the angels who recorded them, as a sign of their acceptabilityto Allāh.” The Wahhābis may deny this interpretation because of their ignorance,but we verify it by referring to another verse 198: ‫َ َ ّ َ ِ ٌ َ َّ َ ْ ِ ن‬ ﴾ُِ ‫﴿وقَالُإِِّنُذاهبُإِىلُرّبُسيَ هدي‬Literally, this verse means that Prophet Ibrāhīm  said, “I am going to my Lord,He will guide me.” He did not mean that He was going to the place of Allāh,because he was going to the land of ash-Shām, the land of the Prophets(ˇalayhimu-s-Salām), and an honorable place on Earth. If Allāh exists in a placeabove us, then that great Prophet  would not say that he was going to Allāh ifhe was not going up. What he meant, is that he was going to the place honoredby his Lord. Hence, just as in this verse: ُ﴾ُِّ‫﴿إِىلُر‬ ‫َّب‬“(to my Lord)” means “to (the place honored by) my Lord”, the word: ِ ُ﴾ُ َ‫﴿إِل‬ ‫يه‬“(to Him)” means “to (the place honored by) Him (Allāh)”. So, we say that thisverse means that the good words that are uttered are copied by the angels andtaken up to the sky by them, which is a place honored by Allāh.198 Sūrat aŝ-Ŝāffāt, verse 99. 99
    • The Implications of the Literal MeaningFurthermore, the Wahhābis do not really take the literal meaning of the verse.They also say that it means the angels copy the good words down and then takethem to the sky. However, the apparent meaning of the verse does not say thatthe angels copy the good words. So, by its literal meaning, they have to say thatthe words go up (by themselves), but words cannot go up by themselves, sincewords are not entities with dimensions. If they say that a ĥadīth says the angelswrite down the good words (which is true), and they understand the verse inconjunction with the ĥadīth, then we say, “There is also another ĥadīth199: ُ‫أنتُالظاهرُفليسُفوقكُشيءُوأنتُالباطنُفليسُدونكُشيء‬Meaning, ‘O Allāh, you are the One whose existence is obvious, and there isnothing above you, and you are the One who cannot be reached bydelusions, and there is nothing below you,’ so understand the verse accordingto this ĥadīth also.” A Similar TextSimilar to the aforementioned texts, is the famous ĥadīth of the Prophet’s ascent to the seven heavens, and what is above them (and since Allāh is notsimilar to the Prophet, He did not ascend above the seven heavens). In it, ProphetMūsā  said to our Prophet : ُ‫ارجعُإىلُربّك‬This literally means: “Go back to your Lord.” The proper meaning is, “Go backto the honorable place where you heard the Eternal Kalām (The Speech) ofyour Lord.” Allāh is not Attributed with a ShinThe Wahhābis refer to the verse:199 Al-Asmā’ wa aŝ-Ŝifāt, page 506; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Dhikr, Ĥadīth No.2713. 100
    • ُ﴾ٍُ ‫﴿يَومُيكشفُعنُس‬ ‫َ ْ َ َ َ اق‬to claim that Allāh has a shin. They say that this verse means “The Day whenAllāh will expose His shin” or “The Day when the shin will be laid bare.” Theysay that because of the word: ُ﴾ٍُ ‫﴿س‬ ‫َ اق‬“sāq”, which literally refers to the organ between the knee and the foot and iscomposed of skin and bone. We say that the “sāq” mentioned in this verse is noteven an attribute of Allāh. The verse does not say “the sāq of Allāh.” It refers tothe hardship of The Day of Judgment, as mentioned by many scholars, like AbūĤayyān al-Andalusiyy in his famous tafsīr of the Qur’ān called al-Baĥru-l-Muĥīť. Ibn Ĥajar also confirms this meaning from Ibn ˇAbbās; that heinterpreted the verse to refer to the severity (shiddah) of the situation of that day.If a battle reached a very fierce point, it is said in Arabic: ُ‫كشفتُاحلربُعنُساق‬“The battle exposed a sāq”. We say as Ibn ˇAbbās said, that the verse refers tothe Day when the justice and wrath of Allāh will be obvious, and many peoplewill suffer from His punishment. In English, the word “shin” does not have thefigurative usages as the word “sāq”. Allāh is not Attributed with a FaceThe Wahhābis also believe that Allāh is attributed with a real and literal facebecause of the word “wajh”, which He said He is attributed with. We agree thatal-Wajh is an attribute of Allāh, but we do not agree that Allāh has a face. Wesay that the Wajh of Allāh is His eternal and everlasting attribute that is notsimilar to the attributes of the creations. We do not say that the Wajh of Allāh isa face, because the literal meaning of “face” refers to the front part of the head,extending from the normal hairline to the chinbone and from the base of the earto the base of the other ear. Actually, in light of certain verses, we laugh at theWahhābis. 101
    • Verses Mentioning the Attribute of WajhFor example, look at the saying of Allāh in the chapter of al-Qaŝaŝ200: ‫ُّ َ ٍ َ ٌ َ ْ َ ه‬ ُ﴾ُ ‫﴿كلُشىءُهالِكُإِالَُّوجه‬The literal meaning of this verse says, “Everything will be destroyed except Hisface”. It is very easy to see that we should not take the literal meaning of thisverse. If the Wahhābis insist on this, then they must say that His (according tothem) eyes, hands, fingers, shin, and foot will be destroyed. If they do not saythat, then they are negating the literal meaning, and thus contradictingthemselves.Furthermore, we point out the fact that this verse has the word ُ ﴾ ُ ‫﴿ك‬ ‫ل‬ ُّ“kull” in it, which literally means “every” or “all”. They like this word, and thinkit can only mean “every”. In view of that, according to their own method, theyare forced to say that everything other than the face of Allāh will be destroyed.One interpretation of this verse is the ta’wīl of al-Bukhāriyy. In his chapter oftafsīr, in the section pertaining to this chapter of al-Qur’ān, he said “IllāWajhah” means “Illā Mulkah”; what would literally be interpreted as “Except forHis face” means “Except for His Dominion (supreme ownership).” Oneinterpretation of this verse, also mentioned by al-Bukhāriyy, is that everythingdone without seeking the blessings of Allāh alone is not accepted (rewarded).This is a valid interpretation that conforms to the Arabic language, like theverse201: ﴾ُٰ َ‫﴿إِالَُّٱبْتِغَاءَُوجهُربِّهُٱألَعل‬ ‫َ ِْ َ ِ ْ ى‬This means: “Except to be done for the Wajh (acceptance) of his Lord.” Thereare also other interpretations for the verse.200 Sūrat al-Qaŝaŝ, verse 88.201 Sūrat al-Layl, verse 20. 102
    • We also look at the verse 202: ِ ﴾ُ ‫﴿فَأَيْنَماُت ولُّواُفَثَمُوجه‬ ‫َ َ َّ َ ْ ُٱهلل‬It literally says, “Wherever you turn yourselves, there is the face of Allāh,”which contradicts their established belief because it implies that Allāh has a facethat is everywhere, which they do not believe. For example, they do not believethat if you turn yourself towards the bathroom, Allāh’s “face” is in that direction.They believe that Allāh has a real face that is with Him, and that He is physicallyabove the ˇArsh. One of the meanings of Wajh is “Qiblah (that which is faced).”This verse is actually a proof that it is permissible to pray an optional prayerwithout facing the Kaˇbah, while traveling and riding on an animal, and withother conditions that need to be satisfied, as mentioned by Mujāhid the student ofIbn ˇAbbās.Allāh is not attributed with a face, He is attributed with Wajh, and He knows itsreality. The word can have more than one meaning, so it is safe not to specify ameaning, or else to interpret it according to the context of the statement. Allāh is not Attributed with a HandTo briefly clear Allāh from the organs known as hands, check the definitionslisted for the term “yad”, like hand (an organ), power, authority, assistance,possession, favor, etc. These are not even half of the definitions. Some befitAllāh, like power, and some do not, like hand (as an organ). Ibn Ĥajar lists over20 meanings in his explanation of al-Bukhāriyy, and references many of themwith verses of the Qur’ān and Arabic expressions or lines of poetry. We will skipthe references only for the sake of brevity. He cited: the organ, power,ownership, covenant, submission, endowment, dominion, lowness; humiliation,authority, obedience, protection, the handle of a sword, the bird’s wing, duration(of time), beginning, cash, ability, a group, a path, dispersion, and more.In Sūrat al-Mā’idah, Allāh revealed it to mean “dhirāˇ (arm)”203: ﴾ُِ ِ‫﴿فَٱغسلواُوجوهكمُوَُيْديَكمُإِىلُٱملراف‬ ‫َق‬ ِ‫أ‬ َ َ ِْ202 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 15.203 Sūrat al-Mā’idah, verse 6. 103
    • This means: “Wash your faces and hands (i.e. arms) up to the elbow.” The Saying of Abū ĤanīfahThe saying of Abū Ĥanīfah, the most explicit of the Four Imāms in clearingAllāh from tashbīh (likeness to the creation): “It is not said that the Yad of Allāhis His power, nor His endowment, because in saying that, there is negation of Hisattribute, and that is the saying of the Muˇtazilah. Rather, His Yad is His attributeand it has no how.” is used by the Wahhābis. They say that he said that Allāh’shand is not power, is not favor, etc.; meaning that he is saying that it is an actualhand. The true meaning of the statement, is that Allāh’s attribute of Yad is notalways interpreted as power in every context, nor is it always interpreted asendowment in every context, etc.In one verse, Allāh said 204 ِِ َ ِ ﴾‫﴿يَدُٱهللُفَوقُأَيْديهم‬ ْThis literally says “The hand of Allāh is above their hands.” It truly means thattheir allegiance to the Prophet is accepted by Him, not that Allāh put His hand ontop of the Muslim’s hands, which is physical contact.In one ĥadīth: ُ‫يدُاهللُمعُاجلماعة‬This literally says, “The hand of Allāh is with the Jamāˇah.” The Jamāˇah is onEarth, but they believe that Allāh is above the sky. The correct meaning is thatthe support of Allāh is with the Jamāˇah.From these, it is clear that the literal meaning of Yad is not intended. In manylanguages, including English, this figurative usage is common. Allāh is not Attributed with Two HandsIn the chapter of Ŝād, Allāh said205:204 Sūrat al-Fatĥ, verse 10.205 Sūrat Ŝād, verse 75. 104
    • ﴾َُّ ‫﴿يَِٰإبْلِيسُماُمنَ عكُأَنُتَسجدُملاُخلَقتُبِيَد‬ ‫ْ َ َ ْ َى‬ َََ َThis means: “O Iblīs, what prevented you from prostrating to what I (Allāh)created biyadayy?”The word: ﴾َُّ ‫﴿بِيَد‬ ‫َى‬“biyadayy” literally means “with my two hands”, however, it may also haveother meanings. Some scholars said that it was mentioned that Ādam was created“biyadayh” (with His yadayn) as an expression drawing attention to his specialhonor. Because to the contrary, Iblīs was created by Allāh, but it is notmentioned that he was created “biyadayy”. We are not allowed to say it means“two hands”, because that would be explicitly comparing Allāh to the humans.Ibn Ĥajar narrates from some of the scholars: This (verse) was put forth to facilitate an understanding 206, for it is known that whoever takes care of something and has interest in it attends to it with both hands. It is thus understood from that, that the heed given to the creation of Ādam was more perfect207 than that of other creations.206 This means to make something closer to a person’s understanding.207 Perfection as an attribute of the creatures has levels. Thus, it is possible forone creature to be more perfect than another. For example, beauty is an attributeof perfection for creatures, and it varies between them. Likewise is said aboutbodily strength and intelligence. However, when speaking about Allāh’s act ofcreating, it is not said to be more perfect in reference to one thing or another.Allāh created all things perfectly, meaning that they all existed in accordancewith His will, whether they were big or small, strong or weak, ugly or beautiful.This is the meaning of the verse: ‫ِ ْ َ َ َّ َ ٍ َ َ ه‬ ﴾ُ ‫﴿الَّذىُأَحسنُكلُشىءُخلَق‬Meaning, “The one who perfected everything He created.” (Sūrat as-Sajdah,verse 7.) 105
    • The fact is that the dual form of a word does not always denote a pair. Anexample is the saying in al-Ĥajj: ‫لبيكُاللهمُلبيك‬ ّ“Labbayk Allāhumma labbayk”, meaning, “O Allāh, I am quick in responding toyour order in al-Ĥajj”, or “I obey you one time after another, O Allāh”.Sometimes the dual form of the Arabic word may refer to importance ofsomething, swiftness to act, or the reoccurrence of something (more than twice),like the verse in the chapter of al-Mulk208: ‫ْ ِ ِ َ َ َ َّ ني‬ ﴾ُِ ْ َ‫﴿ِمْثَُّٱرجعُٱلبَصرُكرت‬This literally means, “look twice”, (using the dual form) but actually means“Look time and time again (at the creation of Allāh).”Because the Wahhābis believe that this verse is very clear evidence that Allāhhas two real hands, and what has been presented surely is not convincing forthem, we smack them with a clear refutation by citing the verse 209: ٍ ﴾ُ ‫﴿وٱلسمآءَُبَنَ ْي نَ هاُبِأَيي‬ ‫َ ْد‬ َ َّ َThis means: “Allāh created the sky with great power.” Literally it says: “Allāhbuilt the sky with (more than two) hands.” The plural form (ayd) is used, not thesingular form (yad), nor the dual form (yadān). In Arabic, the plural form of theword is for counting items from three to ten.One ĥadīth or verse would literally say that He has one hand. Another would saytwo, and another would literally say three or more, so why did they not say thatHe has six or more hands? Is it that they have the belief of the Hindus and do notwant to confess? The correct belief is that Allāh is attributed with al-Yad, and itdoes not resemble anything, it is not an organ and Allāh knows its reality.May Allāh bless Abu-l-Ĥasan al-Ashˇariyy, whom the scholars followed in208 Sūrat al-Mulk, verse 4.209 Sūrat adh-Dhāriyāt, verse 47. 106
    • defending the belief of the Muslims. Let us end this section with210: ‫ِ َ َر‬ ِ ْ َ ْ َ ََ ْ ََ ِ َِ ﴾ُ ٰ‫﴿وٱذْكرُعبَٰدنَآُإِبْ ٰرهيمُوإِسحٰقُويَعقوبُأوىلُٱألَيْدىُوٱألَبْص‬ ْ َIt literally says, “Remember Our (Allāh’s) slaves, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,who had hands and vision.” In the Wahhābi mistranslation, they make ta’wīl andsay that it means they had strength and religious understanding. So, they maketa’wīl for creations that really have hands, but for Allāh, supremely exaltedbeyond the descriptions of men, they insist on the literal meanings. Allāh is not Attributed with an EyeThe word “ˇayn” can connote “eye”, “evil eye”, “spring of water”, “self”,“individuality”… and much more. For example, take the term “farď ˇayn(personal obligation)”. Learning the matters of belief is a personal obligation. InSūrat al-Ghāshiyah, ˇayn refers to a spring of water, one in Paradise and one inHell: ﴾َُ‫﴿تسقىُمنُعنيُءَانِي‬ ‫ْ َ ِ ْ ٍَْ ة‬ ٍand ُ﴾ٌَ‫﴿فِيهاُعنيُجاري‬ ُ ِ َ ٌْ َ َ ‫ة‬Prophet Nūĥ’s  Ark was sailing by the guidance of Allāh211: ُ﴾‫﴿جترىُبِأَعينِنَا‬ ْ ِLiterally, it means, “running by Our eyes”. There is no proof that Allāh has eyesin the ĥadīth212:210 Sūrat Ŝād, verse 45.211 Sūrat al-Qamar, verse 14.212 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Book of al-Fitan, Ĥadīth No. 169; Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No.23171; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 4320; Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No.6972. 107
    • ُ‫وإنُربّكمُليسُبأعور‬This means: “Your Lord is not one-eyed.” The Wahhābis use this to say thatAllāh has two eyes. This ĥadīth is in reference to the one eyed imposter who willclaim to be God. The Prophet informed us that this ugly ascription is not anattribute of the true God. ConclusionBy now, the reader can clearly see the deviance of the so-called Salafis. Let usclose with several additional examples. Several Wahhābis have made ta’wīl forthe ĥadīth213: ‫فليسُدونكُشيء‬This means: “…there is nothing below You,” and explained it as, “…there isnothing close to You.”Upon such a silly ta’wīl, produce the 19th verse of al-ˇAlaq: َِ ْ ْ ﴾‫﴿وٱسجدُوٱقْ تب‬ َ َIt literally means, “Prostrate and draw nearer (to Allāh).” This will be like asmack to the face that will lead them to make another ta’wīl, for this verseliterally implies that Allāh is below us, because prostration requires going downto the floor. They explain by saying that the closeness to Allāh is by obedience,which is true. They made this ta’wīl to avoid an obvious contradiction, althoughthere is also a ĥadīth from Imām Muslim214: ‫أقربُماُيكونُالعبدُإىلُربّهُوهوُساجدُفأكثرواُمنُالدعاءُفيه‬“The slave would be closest to Allāh while prostrating, so make lots of213 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Dhikr, Ĥadīth No. 2713; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, ĤadīthNo. 5051; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 3831; Muŝannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah,Ĥadīth No. 4223; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 3400.214 Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 1137; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 875;Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Prayer, Ĥadīth No. 482. 108
    • supplication while prostrating...” So stand back and watch the Wahhābi eat hisown words about denying ta’wīl. If it is permissible to say that closeness to Himis by obedience, then it is permissible to say that His highness is by Majesty.In another verse, Allāh tells us215: ْ ْ َ ِ ٰ َ َّ ﴾ُِ ‫﴿اهللُنورُٱلسمٰوتُوٱألَر‬This means: “Allāh is the guide of the people of the skies (the angels) and thepeople of the earth to the light of belief.” It literally says, “Allāh is the light ofthe Heavens and Earth.” The Wahhābis do not usually say that Allāh is a light,which is an illumination. If they can use the figurative meanings, how do theymake it forbidden for us? What are their criteria for taking one mutashābih textliterally and another figuratively? All of it is from Allāh and His Messenger .Clear evidence that they believe that Allāh is a bodily structure is they say thatAllāh will cast a shadow. The ĥadīth truly refers to the shade of the ˇArsh. ُ‫ظلّه‬This means: “Đħilluhu (His shadow)”, as mentioned in theĥadīth216, is the honorable shadow that is owned by Allāh, and the only shadeavailable on the Day of Judgment, when the sun will descend as close as a milefrom the heads of the people. What helps to clarify this meaning is the likes ofthe saying of Allāh217: ﴾‫﴿بَْييت‬“baytī (My house),” referring to the honorable Kaˇbah that is owned by Allāh,and218 ُ﴾‫﴿روحى‬215 Sūrat an-Nūr, verse 35.216 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2391.217 Sūrat al-Baqarah, verse 125.218 Sūrat al-Ĥijr, verse 19. 109
    • “rūĥī (My soul),” referring to the honorable soul of Ādam owned by Allāh. TheKaˇbah and the soul of Ādam should not be associated with the self of Allāh. It isas Allāh reported in the Qur’ān, that Ŝāliĥ, the Messenger of Allāh , said219: ِ ﴾ُ َ‫﴿نَاقَة‬ ‫ُٱهلل‬This means: “(Be aware of) the Camel of Allāh,” which expresses the status ofthat camel, and does not mean that the camel is an attribute of Allāh. If theshadow is an attribute of Allāh, then the camel, the Kaˇbah, and the soul wouldall have to be attributes of His, something they do not say. All of these areexamples of “relation by ownership and honor”, called in Arabic: “iďāfatu milkwa tashrīf.” Not to mention that there is another version of the ĥadīth from theroute of Salmān that explicitly mentions the ˇArsh220: ُ‫ُُعرشه‬ ‫سبعةُيظلهمُاهللُيفُظل‬ ّThis means: “There are seven types of people whom Allāh will shade in theshadow of His ˇArsh.”From another mutashābih ĥadīth, they say that Allāh will put His foot inHellfire: ‫حّتُيضعُربُالعزةُقدمه‬ ّThere is a lot to be said about this ĥadīth, but it is solid enough to produce theverse221: ِ ِ ُ﴾‫﴿لَوُكانُهٰؤآلء َُاهلَةًُماُوردوها‬ َ َ َ َّ ‫َ َ َ ُء‬This means: “Had those (idols) been worthy of worship, they would not enterHell.”Allāh the exalted has ordered for the idols to be thrown in Hell with those who219 Sūrat ash-Shams, verse 13.220 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2391.221 Sūrat al-Ambiyā’, verse 99. 110
    • worshipped them. This verse proves that Allāh, the only one who deservesworship, does not enter the Hellfire, because the one who deserves worship doesnot enter Hell.The true meaning of the ĥadīth was explained by an-Nawawiyy as Allāh puttinga group of people in Hell. He said, This ĥadīth is among the famous ĥadīth of attributes, and the difference between the scholars in reference to the two ways of explaining it has already been mentioned repeatedly: The first is the way of most of the Salaf, and some of the scholars of belief, that its meaning should not be spoken about, rather that we believe that it is true according to what Allāh willed, that it has a befitting meaning, and that the apparent meaning is not intended. The second, which is the saying of most of the scholars of belief, is that it is interpreted according to what is befitting, and according to that, they have differed about the meaning of this ĥadīth. It was said that what is meant by the term: ‫( قدم‬qadam; which literally means foot), in this case is: ‫( متقدم‬mutaqaddam; that which is advanced; brought to the forefront), which is commonly used in the language. And so the meaning would be: ‘until Allāh the exalted puts in it (i.e. Hell) those whom He has put forward for it among the people of torture’...After all of this explanation, the Wahhābis will say that we have done nothingexcept “explain the meanings away”. Upon hearing the proper meanings of thetexts, they say, “you have emptied out the meanings.” They justify their ownta’wīl by saying that they only give the proper tafsīr (interpretation). We say tothem, “Then we have also given the tafsīr”. This double standard is due toarrogance and lack of intelligence.Take heed, O seeker of truth, and benefit from what the great scholar, al-ĤāfiđħIbnu-l-Jawziyy222 said about some of the people who likened Allāh to thecreations centuries before the Wahhābiyyah, in his book called Akhbāru-ŝ-Ŝifātwhich until now is still a manuscript:222 Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Mufassir Abu-l-Faraj ˇAbdur-Raĥmān Ibn ˇAliyy IbnMuĥammad Ibn ˇAliyy Ibnu-l-Jawziyy al-Bakriyy al-Baghdādiyy al-Ĥambaliyy(551 – 630 AH). 111
    • When a group of the ignorant knew about this book of mine, they were not pleased, because they were used to the speech of their leaders who attribute a body to Allāh, and they said, “This is not the madhhab!” I said, “This is not YOUR madhhab nor the madhhab of your shaykhs whom you have imitated, for I have cleared the madhhab of Imām Aĥmad and denied the lies that have been transmitted”... “And I saw some of our colleagues talking about the matters of the creed inappropriately. Three people were authorized to author: Abū ˇAbdillāh Ibn Ĥāmid, his companion al-Qāďī [Abū Yaˇlā], and Ibnu-z-Zāghūniyy. They wrote books by which the madhhab was defamed, and took the attributes by a physical meaning. They heard that Allāh created Ādam with his image223, and so they confirmed an image, a face, two eyes, a mouth, a uvula, molars, a direction - which is the clouds - two hands, fingers, a pinky, a thumb, a chest, a thigh, two shins and two feet, and then said that they never heard about Allāh having a head224. They said that He touches and is touched, comes close to the slave in person, and some of them said that He breathes. Then they appease the common people with their saying: “it is not like what we can conceive”. They took by the apparent meanings of the names and attributes of Allāh, and then innovatively called those (apparent meanings) “the attributes of Allāh”- with no mental or textual evidence. They paid no attention to the texts that detour away from the apparent meanings to the meanings that are necessary for Allāh, nor to the knowledge of what the apparent meanings imply, which is the attributes of the creations. They were not convinced about saying “His act of creating225”; rather they said it is the attribute of His self. Then upon confirming these attributes, they said, ‘We do not carry these attributes according to other meanings that are dictated by the language, like to say that yad means power or punishment, or that the majī’ and the ityān226 mean grace and mercy, or that the sāq means hardship, rather we take them by their apparent meanings.’ And the apparent meanings are what are known to be the223 This either means that Allāh created Ādam with an honorable image, or thatAllāh created Ādam with Ādam’s image, which is the image given to all thehumans after him.224 Meaning that they know of no narration from the Prophet about that, so theydo not confirm it.225 Like what was said about the ĥadīth of an-Nuzūl.226 Which both literally mean ‘coming’. 112
    • attributes of the humans. An issue is taken literally if that (literal meaning) were possible, so if there is an indication to do otherwise, then it is taken figuratively. They are stubbornly adherent to likening Allāh to the creations, and some of the laymen have followed them. I have exposed the follower and the followed. I said to them, “You are the people who convey, and you have a following, and your imām is the great imām, Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal, and he used to say while being under the whip, “How would I say that which was not said?” And so beware of innovating into my madhhab that which is not a part of it...” Three Easy Ways to Smash a WahhābiMay Allāh have mercy upon you. Throughout the book, several strategies andarguments were presented for defense and offense; however, here are three casesalthough already mentioned in the book in one way or another - that if usedproperly, one should be able to use any one of them to silence a Wahhābi swiftlyand easily:The first is that we ask the Wahhābi what he says about the verse 227: ﴾‫﴿وهوُمعكمُأَيْنُماُكْنتم‬ ََ ََ َ َThis literally means, “He is with you wherever you are”. He will either take itliterally or not. If he takes it literally, He has fallen into explicit contradiction oftheir creed, for they confirm the direction of highness for Allāh, believingwithout evidence that highness of place confirms highness of status228. If he saysthat it means that Allāh knows about everything everywhere, then say, “Just asyou saw it fit to interpret the verse in a way that is different from the apparentmeaning so to save yourself from contradiction, we also make ta’wīl for everyverse and ĥadīth that literally implies that Allāh is in the direction of the sky,because that is necessary for escaping contradiction.” However, the differencebetween us and them is that we escape all contradictions, while they are stuckwith contradicting the verse 229: ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َ227 Sūrat al-Ĥadīd, verse 4.228 Disproving this.229 Sūrat ash-Shūrā, verse 11. 113
    • This means: “Nothing resembles Him in any way.”It may be said to him, “What made it permissible for you to make ta’wīl andmade it forbidden for us?” It may also be said to him, “Based on what rule didyou make ta’wīl for one verse and leave it for the other verse?” This deed of theWahhābiyyah is called in Arabic “taĥakkum”; being arbitrary, or in other words,saying something without evidence. Do not let him move to another subject untilhe answers the question or submits to Ahlu-s-Sunnah.The second case is to refer immediately to the aforementioned ĥadīth known as“the ĥadīth of ˇImrān Ibn al-Ĥuŝayn”230: ُُ‫كان َملُيَكنُشيءٌُغري‬ ‫َ َ ُاهللُو ْ َ َ ه‬This means: “Allāh existed and there was nothing other than Him.” From thegreat strength of the evidence in this ĥadīth, you may even refer to it before youmention any verse from the Qur’ān. This ĥadīth is a very mighty weapon againstthem. The way to use this ĥadīth has already been explained in the section“Proof from the Ĥadīth that Refutes the Wahhābi Creed”, so review it there.If the Wahhābi says that he does not know the ĥadīth, tell him that his ignorancedoes not change the fact that the ĥadīth exists, and do not let him move toanother point. If he claims that it is weak, tell him that it is actually ŝaĥīĥ,narrated in al-Bukhāriyy, and add that he should not talk without knowledge. Outof desperation, he may claim that this ĥadīth does not prove that Allāh existswithout a place or direction. If so, tell him that it is not permissible to shut offyour mind on purpose. The ĥadīth is as clear as daybreak in negating theexistence of anything with Allāh eternally, and that includes places anddirections.The third way is to ask the Wahhābi, “Must the Muslim creed be built uponsomething definitive231 or speculative232?” If he says speculative, and he mostlikely will not say that, then his ignorance and stupidity will be obvious to230 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6982, 7418, 3191; Ŝaĥīĥ Ibn Ĥibbān, ĤadīthNo. 6140, 6142; Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 19876; Sharĥ Muskili-l-Āthār,Ĥadīth No. 5629, 5630; Muˇjam al-Kabīr, Ĥadīth No. 498; Ĥilyatu-l-Awliyā’,page 260; al-Iˇtiqād al-Bayhaqiyy, page 92; Sunan al-Bayhaqiyy, Ĥadīth No.17702;231 Meaning: something definite and absolute.232 Meaning: something that could possibly be true or not be true. 114
    • anyone with mental discrimination. If he says that the creed of the Muslims mustbe built upon something definitive and not speculative, then we agree, but thensay to him, “How many meanings can istawā have?” If he says that it can haveonly one meaning, then he is either a ruthless liar or a pathetic ignoramus. If heconfesses that it can have many possible meanings, then for him to choose“rising above” is a speculation on his part. The secret of using this point is inclarifying that speculation comes into play when there is more than onepossibility for something. The rule the scholars used was233: ‫إذاُثبتُاالحتمالُسقطُالقطعُيفُاالستدالل‬This means: “If more than one possibility is confirmed, then the certainty of theevidence is dropped”.For this reason, the real Salaf used to say “Istawā, as He ascribed to Himself,”because that is definitive. They did not choose one meaning over another,because that would be speculative, and they definitely did not say, “rose above asHe ascribed to Himself.” As for the verse234: ُ﴾ٌ‫﴿لَْيسُكمثْلِهُشيء‬ َْ ِ َِ َThis means: “Nothing resembles Him in any way.”It can only have one meaning, so it is definitive and thus the creed is built uponit. ***233 Al-Baĥru-l-Muĥīť fi Uŝūli-l-Fiqh, vol. 3, page 152 by al-Imām, al-ˇAllāmah,al-Muĥaqqiq, Badru-d-Dīn Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh az-Zarkashiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy (794 AH).234 Sūrat ash-Shūrā, verse 11. 115
    • Appendix A: The Speech of AllāhThe Speech of Allāh is an eternal and everlasting attribute of Allāh, as previouslymentioned. It is not of a sound, letter, or language. With this attribute, Allāhorders, forbids, promises, threatens, informs, and questions, but without Hisspeech being made of parts. It is one eternal and everlasting speech that does notchange. It is not carried by the air, it does not take up time, nor can it beimagined. It is wrong to believe that His speech is of parts; that at one time Heorders, then His speech changes so that He forbids at another time, etc. Rather,the change occurs in the creations; He would create in His slave theunderstanding of an order, and in another slave the understanding of a question,etc. The evidence from the Book of Allāh that He is not attributed with parts isthe verse235: ِِ ِ ِ ﴾‫﴿وجعلواُلَهُمنُعبَادهُجزءًا‬ ْ ْ ََ َThis means: “They made Him from the parts of His slaves.”This attribute of Allāh is confirmed in the Qur’ān and the ĥadīth. It wasestablished from the Messenger of Allāh that he said236: ُ‫ماُمنكمُمنُأحدُإالُسيكلمهُربّهُيومُالقيامةُليسُبينهُوبينهُترمجان‬This means: “There is not one of you except that his Lord will speak to himon the Day of Judgment; there will be no interpreter between them.”Whoever denies the Speech of Allāh has attributed imperfection to Allāh and hasblasphemed. Likewise is the judgment of the one who likens this attribute to thespeech of the creatures. Most of the debates in the early days were about theissue of the Speech of Allāh.The belief of those who liken Allāh to the creations is that Allāh has speech, butthat His speech is similar to the speech of the creation, although they will not sayit like that237. They believe that Allāh speaks Arabic, but that His speech is235 Sūrat az-Zukhruf, verse 15.236 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 7074; Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 185;237 They will not blatantly say that his speech is like the speech of creations. Butthey say that He speaks Arabic, and they say other things that imply that Hisspeech is created. 116
    • eternal, which as usual, is a contradictory matter. The 82nd Verse of Sūrat Yāsīn ﴾‫﴿إَِّنَآُأَمرهُإِذَآُأَرادُشْيئًاُأَنُيَقولُلَهُكنُفَيَكون‬ َ َ ََ ْ َّThis means: “Surely, His Command, if He willed for something, He says to it,‘Be,’ and it shall be.”What lead those who liken Allāh to the creations to believe that Allāh speaksArabic is this verse, and other verses like it. They would say that Allāh said: ﴾‫﴿يَقولُلَهُكنُفَيَكون‬ َclaiming that it means that He utters the word: ﴾‫( ﴿كن‬kun), which is a commandmeaning “be; exist”. They would add to that, that since Allāh is eternal then Hisutterance must be eternal; so they considered an expression that has a beginningand an end-since it starts with a particular letter and sound and ends with a letterand sound- as eternal and everlasting. The scholars have given very convincingrefutations against this blasphemous creed:They said that the term: ﴾‫ ﴿كن‬is Arabic, and Allāh existed before the Arabiclanguage and before all other types of things existed, so the result of their claimis that Allāh was silent and then started speaking, which is impossible since thatis the attribute of the creatures, as well as an imperfection.Their claim that Allāh always utters these two letters before the creation of everyindividual thing also leads to saying that Allāh addresses things that do not exist.In other words, according to them, when He gives the command to exist, whowas being addressed? The thing did not yet exist so as to receive the address. Ifthey claim that He addresses it after it existed, then respond by saying, “it ismeaningless to say He created something that already exists”; meaning that theyclaim that Allāh says ﴾‫ ﴿كن‬whenever He willed to create something, so if He isaddressing something that already exists, then there is no benefit in ordering it toexist.Furthermore, their claim implies that Allāh does not say anything other than﴾‫ ﴿كن‬because He would be addressing every distinct thing that comes intoexistence, but at every single moment, countless things simultaneously come into 117
    • existence, whether bodies, sounds, motions, thoughts or otherwise.Additionally, their belief leads to say that Allāh creates the creations by acreation, which is the utterance of ﴾‫ .﴿كن‬Based on this creed, that a creation,which is the utterance of ﴾‫ ﴿كن‬was the reason for the creation of other things,that creation must have been preceded by the utterance of ﴾‫ ﴿كن‬and since it iscreated, it would also have to be preceded by the utterance of ﴾‫ .﴿كن‬The beliefof Ahlu-s-Sunnah is that Allāh creates with His eternal will and power, inaccordance with His eternal knowledge.Ahlu-s-Sunnah said that if it were valid that Allāh would speak with words andsounds, then it would be valid that He would have any attribute of the creations,because whatever resembles something is subject to whatever its similar issubject. For that reason, people believe that any particular book could burn, sincebooks burn, and that any house could be demolished, because houses can bedemolished. Anything that speaks with letters and words and sounds could haveorgans, and anything with organs can be destroyed.What, then, is the correct meaning of the verse? Ahlu-s-Sunnah had twointerpretations of this verse, both of which comply with the judgment of thesound mind and the texts of the Religion. The first interpretation is that: ﴾‫﴿إَِّنَآُأَمرهُإِذَآُأَرادُشْيئًاُأَنُيَقولُلَهُكنُفَيَكون‬ َ َ ََ ْ َّThis means: “That Allāh creates without effort, difficulty, or prevention.”This means that the things He willed to create come into existence swiftly andeasily without being delayed from their destined times of existence 238. Thesecond interpretation is that things come into existence in accordance withAllāh’s eternal judgment. His judgment is His command, and His command isHis eternal speech, not an Arabic expression. The word in the Qur’ān: ﴾‫﴿كن‬facilitates an understanding, and refers to the eternal Speech of Allāh, just as theword: ‫ اهلل‬itself facilitates an understanding and refers to the eternal self whomwe worship. The first interpretation was given by Imām Abū Manŝūr al-Māturīdiyy himself, and the second was mentioned by the Ashˇariyyah like al-238 Sharĥ Lumaˇ al-Adillah, page 71, by ash-Shaykh Sharafu-d-Dīn Ibn at-Tillamsāniyy; Tasfīr an-Nasafiyy, vol. 2, page 408. 118
    • Bayhaqiyy. The Meaning of the Word al-Qur’ānIt is very important to know that the term “al-Qur’ān” has two usages. The firstis the eternal and everlasting speech, which is an attribute of Allāh. It has nobeginning and no end, as mentioned previously. According to this meaning, thefirst thing that may come to mind when hearing the word “al-Qur’ān”, which isthe Book of Allāh, is not intended.The second meaning for “al-Qur’ān” is the expressions revealed to Muĥammad,may peace be upon him, which are created. The pages on which thoseexpressions are written are created, the ink used to write them is created, thetongues that recite them are created, the hearts that memorize those expressionsare created, etc. The term: “al-Qur’ān” is synonymous to the term: “the Speechof Allāh”, because “the Speech of Allāh” also has these two meanings: theeternal and everlasting attribute of Allāh, and the revealed expressions.Because of this interchangeable word usage and meaning, the people who likenAllāh to the creations got confused and misunderstood the statement of thescholars, “al-Qur’ān is the Speech of Allāh and it is not created.” They thoughtthat the scholars meant that the revealed expressions are the eternal Speech ofAllāh and that those revealed expressions are not created, which is ablasphemous, illogical understanding, because it attributes eternity to the createdthing. Had they adhered to the saying of al-Junayd al-Baghdādiyy239 they wouldhave been safe: “at-Tawĥīd (monotheism) is distinguishing the eternal from theevent.240”The scholars of the Salaf said that it is forbidden to say, “The Qur’ān is created”,for fear of someone misunderstanding and believing that the attribute of Allāh iscreated. They also forbade people from saying, “The Qur’ān is not created”, forfear of someone believing that the revealed expressions are eternal. They said,“The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allāh and it is not created”, a statement that isclearer than the previous two.They said that when clarifying this issue to people to mention these details. Sowhen we quote verses of the Qur’ān and say, “Allāh said”, it is not with themeaning that Allāh speaks Arabic, but meaning that those expressions are not the239 Al-Junayd Ibn Muĥammad Ibn al-Junayd al-Baghdādiyy (298 AH).240 Fatĥ al-Bārī, vol. 13, page 357. 119
    • work of a creature; no human, angel, or jinn authored the Qur’ān, rather it is arevelation that refers to the eternal Speech of Allāh, clarifying for the creaturesAllāh’s orders, prohibitions, promise, and threat. 120
    • Appendix B: The Truth about InnovationsOne of the greatest tribulations these people have brought upon the Muslims istheir misunderstanding of innovations. Linguistically, “bidˇah (innovation)”means, “that which was done without a previous example”. There is no dispraisein the word itself. Religiously, a bidˇah is something not revealed explicitly inthe Qur’ān or the Sunnah.In this issue, the Wahhābi’s mistake lies in believing that anything not done bythe Prophet  is sinful, because it is an innovation. The truth is that any newissue must be checked to see if it complies with or contradicts the rules of theReligion. Not Every Innovation is MisguidanceBecause of a ĥadīth, they claim to shun any innovated matter- but we knowbetter241: ُ‫كلُبدعةُضاللة‬ ّ ‫و‬Literally, the ĥadīth says, “Every innovation is misguidance.” This is the basis oftheir deviance in this issue, so may the ĥadīth be cleared of their falsehood. Thisĥadīth is strong, but their interpretation is invalid. The true meaning of the ĥadīthis, “Every innovation (which does not comply with the rules of the Religion)is misguidance.”The Wahhābis would deny this interpretation with disgust, relying on the word:‫كل‬ُ kull (every; each; all). We say that the terms of this ĥadīth are “ˇāmmّmakhŝūŝ”; general wording with specific meaning 242. The support for our claimis abundant and clear:One ĥadīth243: ‫كلُعنيُزانية‬ ّ ‫و‬241 Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 1578.242 Sharĥ Saĥīĥ Muslim by an-Nawawiyy, vol. 6, page 154.243 Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2786. 121
    • This literally means, “Every eye is a fornicator.” Despite the general wording,the Prophets, pious people, blind men, and children are not included, so it has aspecific meaning. It truly means, “Most eyes glance with the forbidden look;the look that leads to fornication”. This verse from the Qur’ān should convincethe doubtful244: ٍ ﴾‫﴿تدمرُكلُشىء‬ َ َّ ِّ َThis literally means “It destroyed everything”, but truly it means, “The winddestroyed most of the things in that area.” The violent wind that destroyed thetribe of ˇĀd blew on them for seven nights and eight days consecutively.Certainly, this verse does not mean that the wind destroyed everything, for thatwould include the Heavens and Earth entirely. Therefore, despite the generalwording of the verse, the intended meaning is specific. Proof from the Ĥadīth about Good InnovationsA Wahhābi may acknowledge these general expressions with specific meanings,but deny that the ĥadīth of innovations is one of them, because his heart is firmlyopposed to the idea of good innovations. We further substantiate ourinterpretation of the ĥadīth with another ĥadīth about innovations245: ُ‫منُسنُيفُاإلسالمُسنّةُحسنةُفلهُأجرهاُوأجرُمنُعملُِبا‬ َّThis means: “Whoever starts a good Sunnah in Islām has its reward, and thereward of whoever works according to it…” This ĥadīth is an explicit prooffor good innovations. Imām Muslim narrated this ĥadīth and because of it, weunderstand the ĥadīth which literally says that every innovation is misguidanceto be of general wording with a specific meaning. This is because it is impossiblefor two authentic sayings of the Prophet to contradict each other.Of course, the Wahhābis have their routines for evading the ruling contained inthis ĥadīth. Some of them say that it is specifically for the Companions. Otherssay that it refers to the one who revives a Sunnah of the Prophet . Both claimsare easily countered. Definitely, this ĥadīth is not restricted to the Companions,244 Sūrat al-Aĥqāf, verse 25.245 Saĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of az-Zakāh, Ĥadīth No. 1017; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy,Ĥadīth No. 2675; Sunan an-Nasā’iyy, Ĥadīth No. 2554. 122
    • because the Prophet  gave a general statement that is not restricted: ُ‫منُسنُيفُاإلسالمُسنّةُحسنة‬ َّMeaning, “Whoever starts a good Sunnah…” In addition, it does not refer tothe person who revives a Sunnah of the Prophet , because then he would trulybe restarting; following something the Prophet  already started. Easily seen bythe honest person, this ĥadīth praises whoever innovates something that complieswith the rules of the Religion.Some of the more ignorant Wahhābis will argue that the word “bidˇah” is not inthis ĥadīth. A true but petty argument, for the reference to innovations is stillcontained therein. Because of their blindness, they will not see our point, and stillinsist that this ĥadīth means, “Whoever revives a good Sunnah of the Prophet...” If you meet one of those, then recite the second half of the ĥadīth: ‫ومنُسنُيفُاإلسالمُسنّةُسيئةُكانُعليهُوزرهاُووزرُمنُعملُِبا‬ َّThis means: “And whoever starts an evil Sunnah in Islām, then upon him isits sin and the sin of whoever works according to it…” There is no Sunnah ofthe Prophet  classified as an “evil Sunnah”. According to their method, thesecond half of this ĥadīth would mean, “And whoever revives an evil Sunnah ofthe Prophet …” Hence, the word “Sunnah” in this ĥadīth means “a way”; “apractice”- and not exclusively the Sunnah of the Prophet . This clarifies themeaning of the word “Sunnah” in the first half of the ĥadīth. Other Texts Used by WahhābisBeing very staunch in this issue, they will produce more texts to substantiatetheir claim. Do not be shaken if they recite the ĥadīth of al-Bukhāriyy246: ‫فهوُرد‬ ُ ُ‫منُأحدثُيفُأمرناُهذاُماُليسُمنه‬ ّThen, they will say it means, “Whoever innovates into this affair of ours thatwhich is not from it is rejected”. Actually, this ĥadīth supports what we have246 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 2550. 123
    • already stated, because the meaning is, “Whoever invents something that doesnot comply with (the rules of) this Religion of ours is rejected.” The ĥadīthdoes not say: ‫فهوُرد‬ ُ ُ‫منُأحدثُيفُأمرناُهذا‬ ّ“Whoever innovates into our religion is rejected”, rather, the Prophet  gave aqualifying statement: ‫ماُليسُمنه‬“that which does not comply with it.” So, if the new action complies with therules of the religion, it is not rejected.They may deliver the verse247: ِ ﴾‫﴿اليَومُأَكملتُلَكمُدينَكم‬ َْ ْ َclaiming that it means, “Today I have perfected your Religion for you”. Fromthere, they say that anything coming afterwards would be an unacceptableinnovation. This verse does not support their claim at all. By this interpretation,they imply that the Religion was imperfect until this verse came, and this is nastyblasphemy. Whoever has a sound mind and seeks the truth would then inquireabout our explanation. We say that the verse means, “On the day of this verse’srevelation, the rules of the Religion have been completed.” Out of HisWisdom, Allāh did not reveal all of the rules of the Religion at once, but instages, and all Muslims know this. For example, the obligation of the fiveprayers was not revealed to the Prophet until the event of the night journey andascension up to the skies. The obligation of Praying the Friday prayer and offasting the month of Ramaďān came after the migration from Makkah to al-Madīnah. Even the prohibition of drinking wine was not revealed immediately.This verse came, confirming that the Prophet  received the last of the rules,and he conveyed all of them, even the general rules which the future top scholars(mujtahidūn) would need for deducing the answers for cases not mentioned bythe Prophet . Additionally, this verse was not the last verse to be revealed 248. If247 Sūrat al-Mā’idah, verse 3.248 Al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim narrated from al-Barrā’ Ibn ˇAzib that the last verse 124
    • they claim that anything that comes after this verse is an unwanted innovation,then they say all the verses and ĥadīth that came later are abominable, whichitself is an abominable claim. Statements of Scholars about Good InnovationsWhat has been mentioned is good ammunition and enough to protect a Muslimfrom becoming doubtful about good innovations, but know that they recite othertexts, including reports from the Companions and other scholars. What helps tounderstand many of the texts they would present is to know that when thescholars used the word “bidˇah” without restriction, they meant the badinnovation; in particular they meant the bad beliefs of the deviant factions. Thecontext was understood, so they did not always have to say, “bad bidˇah” - theyjust said, “bidˇah.” However, the sayings of the scholars explicitly mentioninggood innovations are abundant, like the saying of ash-Shāfiˇiyy249:The innovated matters are of two types: The first of them is that which wasinnovated and conflicts with something from the Book, the Sunnah, theconsensus, or what was confirmed from the Companions (athar). This is theinnovation of misguidance. The second is that good thing which was innovatedand does not conflict with anything from the Book, the Sunnah, or the consensus.That is the innovated thing which is not dispraised.An-Nawawiyy documented in his book Tahdhīb al-Asmā’ wa al-Lughāt250: The imām and shaykh whom his greatness, proficiency, mastery in the different types of knowledge, and status of being an imām are agreed upon, Abū Muĥammad ˇAbdul-ˇAzīz Ibn ˇAbdis-Salām251, may Allāh accept his deeds, said towards the end of the book al-Qawāˇid, ‘Therevealed was the 176th verse of Sūrat an-Nisā’. Al-Bukhāriyy also narrated fromIbn ˇAbbās and al-Bayhaqiyy from ˇUmar that the last verse revealed was the278th verse of Sūrat al-Baqarah, which contains the prohibition of ribā. AĥmadIbn Ĥambal, Ibn Mājah and Ibn Marduwayh narrated the same. An-Nasā’iyy, IbnJarīr ať-Ťabariyy and Ibn Marduwayh narrated from Ibn ˇAbbās that the lastverse revealed was the 281 st verse of Sūrat al-Baqarah. Ibn Abī Ĥātim narratedthe same from Saˇīd Ibn Jubayr. (al-Itqān fi ˇUlūm al-Qur’ān, vol. 1, page 56.)249 Manāqib ash-Shāfiˇiyy, vol. 1, page 469 by al-Bayhaqiyy.250 Tahdhīb al-Asmā’ wa al-Lughāt, vol. 3, page 22.251 Famous as: ˇIzzu-d-Dīn Ibn ˇAbdis-Salām ash-Shāfiˇiyy (660 AH). 125
    • innovation is divided into: obligatory, prohibited, recommended, disliked, and permissible. The way to reach that is by applying the innovation to the rules of the religious law. So if it applied to the rules of what necessitates an obligation, it is obligatory, or the rules of prohibition, then it is prohibited, or the recommendation, then it would be recommended, or the disliked, then it would be disliked, or the permissible, then it would permissible.’The statement of Muĥammad Amīn Ibn ˇĀbidīn252, the famous Ĥanafiyy scholarclarifies this quote of Ibn ˇAbdis-Salām253: The innovation could be obligatory, like the preparation of the evidences for refuting the misguided sects, and learning grammar (an- Naĥw) which enables the understanding of the Book and the Sunnah254; or recommended, like the innovation of inns (for students of knowledge and the poor), schools, and every charitable matter that did not exist in the first days (of Islām); or disliked, such as decorating the Mosque; or permissible, such as exaggerating in delicious foods, drinks, and (luxurious) clothing.Among the most devastating references against these people is what Aĥmad IbnTaymiyah said in two of his books255:ُ،‫كلُبدعةُليستُواجبةُوالُمستحبةُفهيُبدعة،ُوهيُضاللةُباتفاقُاملسلمني‬ ‫و‬ ُ‫ومنُقالُيفُبعضُالبدعُإهناُبدعةُحسنةُفإَّناُذلكُإذاُقامُدليلُشرعيُأهنا‬ ُ‫مستحبة‬This means: “Every innovation that is not obligatory or recommended is an evilinnovation and a misguidance by the agreement of the Muslims, and whoeversaid about some innovations that they are good innovations, would be correct252 Muĥammad Amīn Ibn ˇĀbidīn ad-Dimashqiyy (1198 - 1252 AH).253 Raddu-l-Muĥtār, vol. 1, page 376.254 This is in reference to the one who wants to convey the ĥadīth and interpretthe Qur’ān.255 Qawāˇid Jalīlah fi-t-Tawassul wa-l-Wasīlah, page 44; Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā,vol. 1, page 162. 126
    • only if religious evidence stands as a proof that it is recommended.” Here, heexplicitly confirms the existence of good innovations, although he was not asprecise as an-Nawawiyy, ˇIzzu-d-Dīn and Ibn ˇĀbidīn in his categorization. Whatis correct is that if it is not obligatory, recommended or permissible, then it is abad innovation, and that includes the disliked innovations that did not reach thelevel of being forbidden, like writing “S.A.W.” after the Prophet’s name. Amidthe explicit scholarly sayings is that of ˇUmar Ibnu-l-Khaťťāb, “What a goodbidˇah this is,” narrated by Mālik, al-Bukhāriyy, and others256. The Meaning of the Saying of ˇUmar Ibnu-l-KhaťťābˇUmar, may Allāh increase his status, gave this statement after ordering thepeople to pray the tarāwīĥ prayers behind one imām, and then returning on adifferent night to find that the people kept praying as he ordered - something theProphet (ˇalayhis-Salām) never ordered, nor did Abū Bakr. This narration makesthe Wahhābis’ blood boil. They ridiculously say that ˇUmar did not mean thatwhat he did was an innovation. They say that the Prophet  already prayed thetarāwīĥ prayers in congregation, so ˇUmar truly meant, “What a good revival ofthe Sunnah this is”. Clarify for them that the tarāwīĥ prayer is not the innovation,not even praying it in congregation, but the order for all the people to praybehind one imām establishes the innovation.When the Prophet was alive, he did not order it, although some people did it. Hestarted praying at home because he did not want the people to think that it was anobligation. Since then, the people used to pray the tarāwīĥ prayers in scatteredgroups: a person here, a congregation there, another person there… and AbūBakr, after the Prophet’s  death, left it as such. After Abū Bakr, ˇUmar ordereda change- for all the people to gather behind one imām. Since then, the Muslimsworldwide have prayed tarāwīĥ behind one imām. This perfectly discredits theWahhābi belief, for if their understanding of this issue were correct, then ˇUmarwould have said, “I will not order the people to pray behind one imām, I willleave it as the Prophet  left it.” Add to that, that if ˇUmar meant that he revivedthe Sunnah, he would not have used the words: ُ‫نعمتُالبدعة‬“good innovation”, especially after the Prophet (ˇalayhi-s-Salam) already said,256 Al-Muwaťťa’, Ĥadīth No. 252; Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 1906. 127
    • according to the Wahhābis, that every bidˇah is misguidance. So, they claim thatˇUmar meant the linguistic meaning of bidˇah, and they say it means, “torevive”. We tell them that “aĥyā (to revive)” refers to what was already done,like what is mentioned in the ĥadīth257: ِ ‫منُأحياُسنّةُمنُسنّيت‬ َThis means: “Whoever revives a sunnah my of Sunnah...” There is no way toreplace the word “iĥyā’ (revival)” with the word “bidˇah (innovation)”. Thistrick of theirs is a cheap attempt to hide the truth. Do not fall for it.Rather, look at what Ibn Ĥajar said in explanation of ˇUmar’s statement258: The innovation is originally that which is done without a previous example, and in the religious law it is applied to that which is contrary to the Sunnah, and so it would be dispraised. The accuracy of the issue is that if it is from something that is categorized under what is religiously considered good, then it is good, and if it were from something that is categorized under what is religiously considered bad, then it is bad, or else it would be permissible (mubāĥ; not rewardable nor punishable), and it could be divided into the five judgments259. Examples of Good InnovationsThe examples of good innovations are also abundant. One of them is Abū Bakr’sorder to compile the Qur’ān into one muŝĥaf260, upon the suggestion of ˇUmarIbnu-l-Khaťťāb, despite that Abū Bakr explicitly told ˇUmar, “How can you dosomething that the Messenger of Allāh did not do?” ˇUmar said to him, “ByAllāh, it is good.261” A second example is basing the Islāmic calendar on themigration of the Prophet (ˇalayhis-Salām), which was done by ˇUmar, and not257 Sunan Ibn Mājah, Ĥadīth No. 4702.258 Fatĥ al-Bārī, vol. 4, page 253.259 Obligatory, recommended, forbidden, disliked, and permissible.260 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 4702.261 If a Wahhābi says that this is not an innovation because there was a need forits compilation, respond by saying that the need for the issue does not deny thefact that the Prophet did not do it nor ordered for it to be done. 128
    • the Prophet . The people differed about what to use as a reference point for thecalendar. Some said by the birth of the Prophet , some said by his death, somementioned the first reception of the revelation. ˇUmar chose the Hijrah(migration) because of its great importance. ˇUthmān Ibn ˇAffān ordered for anadditional adhān to be called for the Friday prayer. The Companion, Khubayb,prayed two rakˇah(s) before being executed. When the Companions found outabout what he did, they said, “He made a Sunnah for us.” The dots in the Qur’ānwere innovated by the students of the Companions. Even Ibn Taymiyahacknowledges that the dots are an innovation, and he accepts them. He said in hisbook Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā262 ُ‫قيلُيكرهُذلكُألنه بدعةُوقيلُالُيكرهُللحاجةُإليهُوقيلُيكرهُالنقطُدون‬ ُ‫الشكلُلبيانُاإلعرابُوالصحيح أنه ال َأس َه‬This means: “It was said that it is disliked because it is an innovation, it was saidthat it was not disliked because of the need, it was said that the dots are dislikedand not the ĥarakāt because they clarify the syntactical case, and what is correctis that there is nothing wrong with it.” The titles of the sūrahs (chapters) and theother symbols in the Qur’ān, like the signs that show where to stop reciting, areall innovated. The terminologies of the science of hadith, like “ŝaĥīĥ”, “ĥasan”,and “ďaˇīf” are all innovated as well as the jargon of other religious fields.Protect yourself and defend Islām with these facts. The Commemoration of the MawlidNot mentioning the commemoration of the Mawlid (birth) of the Prophet would leave this section incomplete. The Wahhābis find this good Sunnah to bean abhorrent major sin and some claim it to be shirk and kufr. Among theirattacks against it is to say, “The Companions of the Prophet  loved the Prophet more than others, so had the Mawlid been good, they would have been thefirst to do it.” Our response is that there is no rule that says, whatever theCompanions were not the first to think of is rejected. It is true that theCompanions were the best, but this does not mean that any goodness that wouldever cross the minds of men would cross the minds of the Companionsbeforehand. If the Wahhābis are truthful, let them extend this idea to other262 Al-Majmūˇ al-Fatāwā, vol. 3, page 402. 129
    • matters. Let them say, “If putting the dots in the Qur’ān were good, then theCompanions would have done it first.”A proof for the validity of the Mawlid is the previously mentioned ĥadīth of theProphet 263: ٍ ‫ماُكانُاهللُليجمعُأمةُحممدُعلىُضاللة‬This means: “Allāh will not let (the scholars of) Muĥammad’s Nation agreeon a misguidance.”When the Mawlid was first done some 800 years ago, not a scholar objected, northe scholars of the centuries after that, thereby establishing the consensus of itsvalidity. The fact is that the Wahhābis deem it a trifling sin, and some even say itis blasphemous, thereby breeching the consensus, and whoever disagrees withthe consensus has disagreed with the Messenger of Allāh. If they resort to a lieand say that all of those scholars were misguided, and so Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdul-Wahhāb called the people back to the true belief, then we stun them with theĥadīth of al-Bukhāriyy264: ‫الُتزالُطائفةُمنُأميتُظاهرينُعلىُاحلق‬This means: “There will always be a group from my nation which is veryevidently adhering to the truth.” If the Wahhābis were correct, then this hadithwould be wrong, because they claim that centuries passed without a scholarspeaking out against an atrocious corruption that spread throughout all Muslimcountries.Another proof, coming from Ibn Ĥajar as narrated by al-Ĥāfiđħ as-Sakhāwiyy265,is found in the ĥadīth of ˇĀshūrā’, which is the tenth day of the Islāmic month ofMuĥarram.263 Narrated by al-Ĥākim in al-Mustadrak, Ĥadīth No. 8545, 8546, 8664, and8665; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 2167; Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No.26682; al-Muˇjam al-Kabīr by ať-Ťabarāniyy, Ĥadīth No. 2171.264 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6882.265 Al-Ĥāfiđħ Shamsu-d-Dīn Muĥammad Ibn Abdur-Raĥmān Ibn Muĥammad as-Sakhāwiyy (831 – 902 AH). 130
    • The Prophet  recommended for the Muslims to fast on that day every yearbecause that was the day when Mūsā was saved from the Pharaoh, and the daywhen the Ark of Prophet Nūĥ settled on the mountain. Ibn Ĥajar said that thisĥadīth proves that it is permissible to thank Allāh at specific times for anendowment that He gave or for a calamity that He relieved, and the best of all isthe coming of Prophet Muĥammad , more specifically, his birth. When theProphet was asked why he fasts every Monday, he said, “I was born onMonday.266”There is no worship of the Prophet  involved in the Mawlid, as the Wahhābisaccuse the Muslims. They may recite the ĥadīth267: ِ ‫الُتطروِّنُكماُأطرتُالنّصارىُعيسىُابنُمرمي‬This means: “Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians have doneto Jesus the son of Mary,” which does not mean that the Mawlid is forbidden,but that worshipping the Prophet  is forbidden.When left to stand on his last leg, the Wahhābi may ask, “Why would you wantto do something that the Prophet  did not do?” The answer is simply, “To getthe blessings.” The concept that is so hard to get through their skulls is that it isnot forbidden to do something just because the Prophet  did not do it, hencethe saying of the Prophet : ‫منُسنُيفُاإلسالمُسنةُحسنةُفلهُأجرهاُوأجرُمنُعملُِبا‬ ّThis means: “Whoever starts a good Sunnah in Islām has its reward, and thereward of whoever works according to it…”Then how is the Mawlid practiced? It is practiced by reciting the Qur’ān, recitingthe biography of the Prophet , singing words of praise, feeding the Muslims,and other recommended and rewardable worships. The Wahhābis would say thatit is not permissible to gather all of these matters together on one day in the name266 Musnad Aĥmad, Ĥadīth No. 22031; Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Chapter of Fasting, ĤadīthNo. 1162.267 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 3261. 131
    • of commemorating the birth of the Prophet . We emerge triumphant by telling them that they have then discredited their claim of three aspects of Tawĥīd; the Tawĥīd of godhood, the Tawĥīd of lordship and the Tawĥīd of the names and attributes, which is truly a wicked innovation because it is related to belief. Not a soul from the Salaf stated it. Refusing to acknowledge that their division of Tawĥīd is an innovation, when asked for an explicit text from the Qur’ān or the ĥadīth, they say, “We have only gathered the various verses about these issues and put them together.” They are masters of the double standard. Actually, Ahlu-s-Sunnah’s practice of the Mawlid is like the innovation of the Muslims who followed ˇĪsā (Jesus, ). Allāh praised them in the Qur’ān268: ِ ‫َل‬ َ َ َ َ ِ َُِّ‫﴿وجعلنَاُيفُق لوبُٱلَّذينُٱتَّبَ عوهُرأْفَةُورمحَةُورهبَانِيَّةًُٱبْتَدعوهاُماُكتَْب نَٰهاُعَُْيهمُإِال‬ َْ َ َ ْ ََ ً ْ ََ ً َ َ ﴾‫ٱبْتِغَآءَُرضونُاهللُفَماُرعوهاُحقُرعايَتِها‬ َ َ ِ َّ َ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ ِ ْٰ ِ This means: “And in the hearts of those who followed him, We (Allāh) created compassion, mercy, and rahbāniyyah which they innovated. We did not obligate it on them; they only did it seeking the reward of Allāh. Those who came later did not observe it as it should have been observed.” In this verse, we are told that these compassionate and merciful Muslims innovated rahbāniyyah; a practice of leaving the people and the luxuries of this world, even marriage, to dedicate all of their spare time to worship. They were not obligated to do this, but it was rewardable and praiseworthy. What further shows that it was a good innovation is the fact that the people who came afterwards did not practice the rahbāniyyah properly, and those are the Christian monks we know of today. This verse benefits the Nation of Muĥammad and is a proof for good innovations in Islām. If the Wahhābi says that there is no rahbāniyyah in the nation of Muĥammad, tell him that this is not our point; the point is that they did a good innovation. What is strange is that the Wahhābi- Saudi government dedicated an entire week to celebrating the birth of Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdul-Wahhāb269. 268 Sūrat al-Ĥadīd, verse 27. 269 The Wahhābi head, al-ˇUthaymīn was asked: “What is the difference between what is called ‘The week of Shaykh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil Wahhāb’, and the celebration of the Prophetic Mawlid, as the second is condemned, while the first isn’t?” 132
    • Appendix C: Who are the Heads of the Wahhābis?Learn a bit of the biographies of some of their heads, and further see theirmisguidance. While they claim not to follow a madhhab, they follow theexplanations of selected individuals. In essence, they do follow a madhhab;unfortunately it is not a valid one. Aĥmad Ibn TaymiyahTheir grandfather is Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah al-Ĥarrāniyy, from some 700 yearsago. He is their master’s master, and reference for ˇaqīdah (creed). It is importantto know that Ibn Taymiyah was not a Wahhābi. He had many beliefs contrary totheirs.He believed that saying, “O, Muĥammad,” after the Prophet’s  death is good-something that the Wahhābis consider blasphemous. In his book called TheHis response was: The difference between them (according to our knowledge) is from two sides: The first is: the week of Shaykh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb was not done as a means to get closer to Allāh, it is only meant for removing doubts that are in the hearts of some people towards this man, and to show what Allāh has blessed the Muslims through this man. The second is: the week of Shaykh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb does not reoccur and return (every year) as is the case with ˇĪds; it is something that has been clarified to the people, things were written in it, and the truth regarding this man, that was not known before, was shown to many people, then it ended. Source: Majmūˇ Fatāwā wa Rasā’il Shaykh Muĥammad Ŝāliĥ al-ˇUthaymīn, volume 16 - Prayer of the two ˇĪds.In other words, they have covered up their own innovation by stating that theydid not do it out of sincerity to Allāh, but rather, out of seeking a worldly benefit.Furthermore, according to logic of al-ˇUthaymīn, if the Muslims only celebratedthe Prophet’s birth once then it would have been acceptable. 133
    • Good Words270, he narrated that ˇAbdullāh Ibn ˇUmar, the great Companion,said, “O, Muĥammad,” after the death of the Prophet . Thus, according to theWahhābi creed, Ibn Taymiyah is a mushrik. Because of this fact, theWahhābiyyah have published this book of his with this hadith omitted. In thisissue, do not be sidetracked by the Wahhābi saying, “That ĥadīth is weak”.Respond simply by saying, “Whether the ĥadīth is weak or strong is not theissue; the issue is that he put it in a book that he called The Good Words, whichmeans that he considered it good.” Anyway, the scholars considered it acceptableto narrate weak ĥadīths if they were in reference to doing good, optional deeds,but not for confirming rules or matters of the creed. Al-Ĥāfiđħ al-ˇIrāqiyy in hismillennial poem said: ُ‫منُغريُتبينيُلضعفُورأوا‬ ُ‫وسهلواُيفُغريُموضوعُرووا‬ ‫عنُابنُمهديُوغريُواحد‬ ُُ‫بيانهُيفُاحلكمُوالعقائد‬This means: “They (the scholars of ĥadīth) were lenient in more than one areawhen they narrated, without clarifying the weakness in the ĥadīth, but theyconsidered that the level of the ĥadīth must be clarified in reference to rulingsand convictions. This was said by Ibn Mahdiyy and others.”Therefore, whether or not the ĥadīth is weak does not change the fact that heconsidered it good, and thus narrated it in a book that he called “The GoodWords”. This is one of the strongest issues for breaking Wahhābis. Either theyadmit that calling upon someone who died does not necessitate that the caller isworshipping the one who died, or they consider Ibn Taymiyah as a blasphemerfor considering it something good.Nor did Ibn Taymiyah discredit the madhhabs. He claimed to follow themadhhab of Aĥmad Ibn Ĥambal, but to the contrary, he was far from ImāmAĥmad’s path. Whenever a Wahhābi discredits following a madhhab, mentionthis fact. Only their most ignorant followers will deny it. Also, make it clear forthe Wahhābi that this is a single madhhab, since some Wahhābis say you cannotfollow one particular madhhab.How could anyone who understands the Religion deny the validity - in fact thenecessity - of following the schools? It is enough to clarify for whoever deniesthe schools, that he does not have enough knowledge to the deduce rulings that270 Al-Kalim ať-Ťayyib, Ĥadīth No. 235. 134
    • were not explicitly mentioned in the Qur’ān or the ĥadīth, and thus must followsomeone who does, like any one of the Four Imāms, just like the one who doesnot have knowledge of medicine or mechanics must refer to a doctor or amechanic. He does not know enough about what is general in the Book of Allāh,or what is specific, what is abrogating, what is abrogated, what is absolute, whatis restricted, what has more than one meaning, what has only one meaning, thereasons for the revelation of the different verses, etc. How can he then be surethat he can successfully deduce the rulings that he needs by just reading theQur’ān? The same is said about the ĥadīth of the Prophet - or is that Wahhābi thetype of foolish person who thinks it is enough to have (translations of) al-Bukhāriyy and Muslim on his shelf? In order to deduce rulings, one must havevast knowledge of the ĥadīth, their varying narrations, their chains, and thebooks that are not arranged according to the chapters of fiqh, like MusnadAĥmad271, as well as many other issues. The proof that there are cases notexplicitly mentioned and thus are in need of the deduction of qualified, mujtahidscholars is the ĥadīth in which the Prophet asked Muˇādh Ibn Jabal uponsending to him Yemen272:‫كيف تقض إن عرض لك قضاء؟ُقال:ُأقضيُبكتابُاهلل،ُقال:ُيإن لم يكن‬ ‫،ُقال:ُيإن لم يكن ي سنة رسول‬ُ‫ي كتاب اهلل؟ُقال:ُفبسنةُرسولُاهلل‬ ُ:‫ُصدرهُوقال‬ُ‫؟ُقال:ُأجتهدُرأيبُوالُآلو،ُقال:ُفضربُرسولُاهلل‬ ‫اهلل‬ ُُ‫ُلما يرض رسول اهلل‬ُ‫الحمد هلل الذي ويق رسول رسول اهلل‬This means: “How will you rule if a case is presented to you?” He said, “I willrule according to the Book of Allāh.” The Prophet said, “And if it is not in theBook of Allāh?” He said, “Then by the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh.” TheProphet said, “And if it is not in the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh?” Hesaid, “I will deduce the ruling (make ijtihād) to the best of my ability.” Then theMessenger of Allāh hit him on the chest and said, “Praise and thanks be toAllāh, the one who gave success to the messenger of the Messenger of Allāh271 Some books of ĥadīth are not arranged according to the chapters of fiqh, soresearching whatever is narrated about the prayer or Zakāh would not as simpleas looking into the table of contents and turning to the chapter of prayer orZakāh.272 Narrated by ať-Ťabarāniyy in al-Muˇjam al-Kabīr, Ĥadīth No. 362; SunanAbī Dāwūd, Ĥadīth No. 3592; Sunan at-Tirmidhiyy, Ĥadīth No. 1327. 135
    • to do what pleases the Messenger of Allāh.”Ibn Taymiyah also did not discredit good innovations, as presented. He ismisguided because he breeched the consensus in more than 60 cases. He was nota Wahhābi, but he was a Mushabbih (a likener). He has books filled withblasphemy; some of which he took from others before him and some of which heimagined on his own. In the book Kitābu-l-ˇArsh, one of his statements is, “Allāhcould be carried on a mosquito if He willed, so how about a great ˇArsh?” It istrue that he was a scholar, in fact a ĥāfiđħ of ĥadīth. Because of his knowledgeand outward character, he gained the title, “Shaykhu-l-Islām (the shaykh ofIslām)”. However, the scholars who knew of his situation said that hisknowledge exceeded his intelligence; he memorized more than he couldcomprehend.The Wahhābis are very impressed by his misleading title, which he was not theonly one to receive. His title has been given to others, like Imām al-Ashˇariyyand Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy. Moreover, other scholars have other titles. Al-Ghazāliyy273 is “Ĥujjatu-l-Islām (the proof of Islām)”, and Abū Manŝūr al-Baghdādiyy274 was called “al-Ustādh (the highly ranked teacher)”. Al-273 Abū Ĥāmid Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Aĥmad ať-Ťūsiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Ghazāliyy (450 – 505 AH). Al-Ghazāliyy was nicknamedĤujjatu-l-Islām for his brilliant scholarship, particularly in defending the IslamicBelief against deviations. He was initially one of the students of Imāmu-l-Ĥaramayn al-Juwayniyy, but quickly raised in the ranks of scholarship. Hegained a reputation as a brilliant scholar and started authoring books already inal-Juwayniyy’s time. He stayed with his teacher until he died. After that hetravelled to Baghdād and was made in charge of the prestigious Niđħāmiyyahschool by its founder, the minister Niđħāmu-l-Mulk, who was practically theruler at the time. He had built this school for the greatest scholar of the time, AbūIsĥāq al-Shīrāziyy. Later al-Ghazāliyy left all of that behind to live an asceticlifestyle and became one of the greatest scholars of Sufism after already havingachieved that in the sciences of belief and jurisprudence.274 Al-Imām, al-Muĥaddith, al-Faqīh, al-Uŝūliyy, Abū Manŝūr ˇAbdul-Qāhir IbnŤāhir Ibn Muĥammad al-Baghdādiyy at-Tamimiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Ashˇariyy(429 AH). Adh-Dhahabiyy described him in his book Siyar Aˇlām an-Nubalā’ as:“the great, outstanding, and encyclopedic scholar.... He used to teach 17 differentsubjects and his brilliance became the source for proverbs.” Adh-Dhahabiyy saidfurther that he would have liked to write a separate, more complete article abouthim, and quoted Abū ˇUthmān aŝ-Ŝābūniyy saying: “Abū Manŝūr is by scholarlyconsensus counted among the heads of the scholars of belief and the 136
    • Juwayniyy275 was called “Imāmu-l-Ĥaramayn (the imām of the two holy cities)”.Strangely, the Wahhābis are not impressed by these big scholars. The Wahhābisbelieve that Ibn Taymiyah was the mujaddid (renewer) of his time, but he is notworthy of standing in the shadow of the true mujaddid of his time, Taqiyyu-d-Dīn as-Subkiyy276, who wrote several books refuting Ibn Taymiyah.Ibn Taymiyah claimed that Hellfire will end - something an ignorant Wahhābidenies, and an evasive Wahhābi makes excuses for. He has a book with amisleading title: The Refutation Against Whoever Claims that Paradise and Hellare Finite. What he actually wants to say is that only Paradise is everlasting, notthat both Paradise and Hell are everlasting.He said therein277: ُ‫معُأنُالقائلنيُببقائهاُليسُمعهمُكتابُوالُسنةُوالُأقوالُالصحابة‬This means: “Those who claim that Hell will remain have no evidence from theBook, the Sunnah or the statements of the Companions.” Then how about thisverse from the Book278: ﴾‫﴿خٰلِدينُفِيهآُأَبَدا‬ ً َ َِ َThis means: “They will be in it forever and ever”, or this statement from theProphet279:methodology of jurisprudence, as well as a front figure of Islām.”275 Al-Baĥr al-Imām Abu-l-Maˇālī ˇAbdul-Malik Ibn ˇAbdullāh Ibn Yūsuf IbnMuĥammad al-Juwayniyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy al-Ashˇariyy (419 – 478 AH).276 Al-Imām al-Mufassir al-Ĥāfiđħ al-Mujtahid al-Uŝūliyy an-Naĥwiyy al-Lughawiyy al-Mutakallim Shaykhu-l-Islām Abu-l-Ĥasan ˇAliyy Ibn ˇAbdil-KāfiyyIbn ˇAliyy Ibn Tamām Ibn Yūsuf Ibn Mūsā Ibn Tamām Ibn Ĥāmid Ibn Yaĥyā IbnˇUmar Ibn ˇUthmān Ibn ˇAliyy as-Subkiyy al-Khazrajiyy al-Anŝāriyy al-Ashˇariyy (683 - 756 AH).277 Ar-Raddu ˇalā Man Qāla bi-Fanā’i-l-Jannati wa-n-Nār, page 67.278 Sūrat al-Aĥzāb, verse 65.279 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6179. 137
    • ‫وألهلُالنّارُياُأهلُالنّارُخلودُالُموت‬“(and it will be said) to the people of Hell, ‘O, People of Hell, everlastingnesswithout death’”? Even his faithful student, Ibnu-l-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, whomthe scholars nicknamed: “The Shadow of Ibn Taymiyah who walks upon the faceof the Earth”, agreed with Ibn Taymiyah, and said out of conveying theconviction of Ibn Taymiyah280: ُ‫وأماُكوهناُأبديةُالُانتهاءُهلاُوالُتفىنُكاجلنةُفأينُمنُالقرآنُوالسنةُدليلُواحد‬ ‫يدلُعلىُذلك‬This means: “As for Hell being everlasting with no end, and not vanishing likeParadise (is everlasting), where is there a single piece of evidence of that fromthe Qur’ān and the Sunnah?”For those who deny, we tell them not to deny what they do not know. Those whoknow that he said it make excuses. Some may say that Allāh will reward him forhis mistake. Some may say he retracted his statement. Both excuses are wrong.Claiming that Hellfire will end is blasphemy, because its everlastingness isexplicitly repeated throughout the Qur’ān. How would this man, who memorizedthe Qur’ān and knew Arabic very well, be rewarded for contradicting the explicitverses of Allāh’s book?Allāh rewards the mujtahids when they make ijtihād in the fiqh judgments, evenif they deduce a wrong answer, as proven by the ĥadīth281: ُ‫إذاُحكمُاحلاكمُفاجتهدُِمْثُأصابُفلهُأجرانُوإذاُحكمُفاجتهد‬ ‫ُِمْثُأخطأُفلهُأجر‬This means: “If the Ĥākim282 deduces a judgment and was correct, he has tworewards, and if he judged, so he deduces a ruling and is mistaken, he will haveone reward.” However, an unqualified person who breaches the basics of belief280 Ĥādī al-Arwāĥ, pages 579 and 582.281 Narrated by al-Bukhāriyy in his Ŝaĥīĥ, Ĥadīth No. 6919.282 Ĥākim in this context refers to the qualified mujtahid. 138
    • that are explicitly mentioned in the Qur’ān is not rewarded, in fact he loses all ofhis reward. As for claiming that he retracted the statement, let the Wahhābiproduce the retraction, or else refrain from lying to protect a deviant man.This claim breaches one of the most fundamental Muslim beliefs, and is merelyone case where Ibn Taymiyah strayed.Aĥmad Ibn Ĥajar al-Haytamiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy, wrote in his FatāwāĤadīthiyyah283: Ibn Taymiyah is a slave which Allāh forsook, misguided, blinded, deafened, and debased. That is the declaration of the Imāms who have exposed the corruption of his positions and the mendacity (deception) of his sayings. Whoever wishes to pursue this must read the words of the Mujtahid Imām Abu-l-Ĥasan [Taqiyyu-d-Dīn] as-Subkiyy, of his son Tāju-d-Dīn as-Subkiyy, of the Imām al-ˇIzz Ibn Jamāˇah and others of the Shāfiˇiyyah, Mālikiyyah, and Ĥanafiyyah shaykhs... It must be considered that he is a misguided and misguiding innovator and an ignorant fanatic whom Allāh treated with His justice. May He protect us from the likes of his path, doctrine, and actions!... Know that he has differed from people on questions about which Tāju- d-Dīn as-Subkiyy and others warned us. Among the things Ibn Taymiyah said which violate the scholarly consensus are:  that whoever violates the consensus commits neither disbelief (kufr) nor grave transgression (fisq);  that our Lord is subject to created events - glorified, exalted, and sanctified is He far beyond what the depraved ascribe to Him!  that He is complex or made of parts (murakkab), His Self standing in need similarly to the way the whole stands in need of the parts, exalted is He and sanctified beyond that!  that the Qur’ān is created in the Self of Allāh, exalted is He beyond that!  that the world is of a beginningless nature and exists with Allāh since pre-eternity as an “ever-abiding created object”, thus making it necessarily existent in His Self and [making283 Fatāwā Ĥadīthiyyah, pages 114-117. 139
    • Him] not creating willingly, exalted is He beyond that!284  his suggestions of the body, direction, and displacement [of Allāh], and that He fits the size of the Throne, being neither bigger nor smaller, exalted is He from such a hideous invention and wide-open disbelief, and may He forsake all his followers, and may all his beliefs be scattered and lost!  his saying that the Hell-Fire shall vanish285,  and that Prophets are not impeccable,  and that the Prophet has no special status before Allāh and must not be used as a means,  and that the undertaking of travel to the Prophet in order to perform his visitation is a sin, for which it is unlawful to shorten the prayers, and that it is forbidden to ask for his intercession in view of the Day of Need,  and that the words of the Torah and the Bible were not perverted, but their meanings were. [Ibn Taymiyah as stated in his book Bayān Talbīs believed that Jesus referred to Allāh as “our father who is in Heaven.”] Some said: “Whoever looks at his books does not attribute to him most of these positions, except that whereby he holds the view that Allāh has a direction, and that he authored a book to establish this, and forces the proof upon the people who follow this school of thought that they are believers in Divine bodily attributes, dimensionality, and sitting.” That is, it may be that at times he used to assert these proofs and that they were consequently attributed to him in particular. But whoever attributed this to him from among the Imāms of Islām upon whose greatness, leadership, religion, trustworthiness, fairness, acceptance, insight, and meticulousness there is agreement - then they do not say anything except what has been duly established with added precautions and repeated inquiry. This is especially true when a Muslim is attributed a view which necessitates his disbelief, apostasy, misguidance, and execution. Therefore if it284 This is mentioned about Ibn Taymiyah also by Ibn Ĥajar in Fatĥ al-Bārī,vol.13, page 411.285 As reported from him by Ibn al-Qayyim - who tends to agree with him - in hisHādī al-Arwāĥ, pages 252-258. Also Ibn Taymiyah dedicated a book on thissubject as the scholars of his time documented. Ibn Abī ˇIzz in his commentaryon ať-Ťaĥāwiyyah also endorsed this belief of Ibn Taymiyah’s. 140
    • is true of him that he is a disbeliever and an innovator, then Allāh will deal with him with His justice, and other than that (i.e. other than the blasphemer) He will forgive us and him.His fate was that he died imprisoned according to the consensus of the headjudges of the four schools of his era. To that, the Wahhābis compare his situationto that of Imāms Mālik and Aĥmad, who are clear and very far from the strayingsof Ibn Taymiyah. They were not beaten nor imprisoned by prestigious and justjudges of Ahlu-s-Sunnah as Ibn Taymiyah was, nor were they blamed for badstatements by other scholars of their era. They were tortured by the deviantfaction of their time, the Muˇtazilah.There is no comparison in this issue. The Wahhābis have the nerve to imply thatIbn Taymiyah and his students were the only guided people of their time and allof the other scholars were influenced by the bad innovators and the Ŝūfiyyah286.They dare claim that he was imprisoned out of jealousy of his knowledge. Uponoverwhelming exposure such as what is mentioned here, the Wahhābi would say,“It is not permissible to defame the scholars, this is backbiting and gossip.” Theanswer to this attempt to overlook the truth is to say that the Prophet warnedagainst many people when there was a need to do so, such as the ĥadīth287: ِ ُ‫َُاَُُ ُ َُُُّ ُُُّالًُاُوُالًُاُيُ ُُرَُ ُُِ ُِ ُُْ َُُُُِْ ًَُُُا‬ ‫م أظن أن ف ن ُف ن ع ِفان من دينناُشْيئ‬ ْ َThis means: “I do not think that so and so and that so and so know anythingabout our Religion,” and the ĥadīth of Fāťimah Bint Qays when she sought theProphet’s advice about two men who wanted to marry her 288: ِِ ََُُُُُ َُ ٌُُ ُُ ُ ََُُُُ‫َُُاَُُُ َُ ُْ ٍَُُُ َُ ُ ُُ ُ ُ ُُ ُ ُُْ ُ ُُِ ُُوَُُ ُ ُاو‬ ‫أم أبوُجهم فالُيضع عصاه عن عاتقه ُأماُمع ُِية فصعلوك الُمال له‬ ْ َ َّ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّThis means: “As for Abū Jahm, he never takes the stick from his shoulder(meaning that he beats women) and as for Muˇāwiyah, he has no money.”286 Ŝūfiyy is a person who practices taŝawwuf. The true application of taŝawwuf isin leaving the mundane and worldly desires. It is not by neglecting the obligatoryprayers for optional deeds, spinning in circles, dancing, touching women, orbelittling the status and pleasures of Paradise.287 Narrated by al-Bukhāriyy in his Ŝaĥīĥ, Ĥadīth No. 5720.288 Ŝaĥīĥ Muslim, Ĥadīth No. 1480. 141
    • There is also the ĥadīth of Hind the wife of Abū Sufyān, who said to the Prophet,“Abū Sufyān is certainly a miserly man. Would it be sinful if I took some of hismoney secretly?” the Prophet did not say to her, “How could you expose himlike that? - this is backbiting and gossip.” Rather, he said289: ِ ِ ُُِ ‫ُ ُيَُُُْ ُُِوبُُ ُُِ َُ َُ ُْ ُ ُُُِِ ُر‬ ‫خذ أنت ُ َنوك ماُيكفيك باملعُوف‬ ْ َThis means: “You and your children (may) take what is normally needed.”Therefore, our exposure of Ibn Taymiyah’s deviance is not mere gossip, but areligious duty.His books were burned, except what the scholars kept for records, he was warnedagainst from the tops of the minarets, and people were forbidden to teach fromhis route.He became outdated until Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb revived and added tohis teachings. Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-WahhābMuĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb an-Najdiyy is their father, after whom they werenamed. He was a deviant man from just over 200 years ago, of the land of Najd,the land that the Prophet  said290: ُِ َُ َُُّ ُُ ‫وُِ َُ َُ ُُْ ُُقُُر‬ ‫ُب هاُيطلع َ ْن الشْيطان‬ َThis means: “The horn of the devil will emerge from Najd.” His father,ˇAbdul-Wahhāb, and his brother, Shaykh Sulaymān, and the other scholars of histime shunned him. Unlike his master, he was not a scholar. His father wasdisappointed in him because he did not study as his ancestors had. One of theeasiest angles to expose his deviance may lie in the fact that he was notauthenticated by any scholar of his time. He was not a scholar of ˇaqīdah (creed),nor fiqh (detailed rules), nor lughah (Arabic language), nor tafsīr (Qur’ānicinterpretation), nor ĥadīth, nor history, etc. He was so ostracized, that he deemedeveryone who did not follow him a blasphemer. He claimed to be the mujaddidof his time, calling Muslims back to their Religion. He claimed that the Muslims289 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 2097.290 Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy, Ĥadīth No. 6681. 142
    • all over the Earth worshipped graves, Prophets and awliyā’ (Muslims of thehighest levels of piety), and this belief is still held by his followers until today. Itwas reported that he was a funded British agent. He was the first person tomisinterpret the ĥadīth claiming that all innovations are bad, which has lead tointense tribulations in our times. He instigated his followers to rebel against thekhalīfah, which is a major sin even if the khalīfah is an unjust Muslim. As aresult, he shed the blood of many Muslims. His followers have confirmed hisbelief of likening Allāh to the creation in many of their books, of course withoutcalling it “likening”. He died after more than 100 years ago and left the legacy ofthe worst faction alive today. Al-AlbāniyyTheir uncle is Nāŝiru-d-Dīn Muĥammad Ibn Nūĥ al-Albāniyy, a deviantcontemporary who died. The Wahhābis elevated him to the status of a muĥaddith(ĥadīth scholar). He worked in a library, and indulged in reading the six books ofĥadīth. He misunderstood a lot, and imagined himself to be a scholar. Wediscredit him by telling the Wahhābis that he had no shaykh to teach him thescience of ĥadīth, and we challenge any Wahhābi to bring us his chain ofteachers if they think this is a lie 291. Not to mention that the true scholars had291 The Wahhābi’s weak response to this is to say that al-Albāniyy was givenIjāzah (certification) from Shaykh Muĥammad Rāghib at-Tabbākh al-Ĥalabiyy.Had at-Tabbākh actually taught al-Albāniyy or given him an Ijāzah, he wouldhave been able to recount at-Tabbākh’s chains of narration which are knownamong the people of knowledge and his real students.Even if we were to assume that at-Tabbākh actually met al-Albāniyy and that heactually gave him an Ijāzah, this still doesn’t make him a Muĥaddith let alone aĤāfiđħ of ĥadīth. Furthermore, what strengthens our stance that he didn’t haveany teachers in the Science of Ĥadīth is what is written in his official biographywhich has been spread by the Wahhābis: He also learnt from his father the art of clock and watch repair - and became highly skilled in that and famous for it and derived his earnings through it. He began to specialize in the field of ĥadīth and its related sciences by the age of 20 - being influenced by articles in “al-Manār” magazine. He began to work in this field by transcribing al-Ĥāfiđħ al-ˇIrāqiyy’s monumental “al-Mughniyy ˇan Ĥamli-l-Asfār fi-l-Asfār fī takhrīj mā fi- l-lĥyā mina-l-Akhbār” and adding notes to it. 143
    • many, many, many shaykhs, so even upon the presentation of one chain ofteachers (which they have yet to produce) we would not be impressed. Despitethis, they take him as the brightest ĥadīth scholar of our day, and some go as faras to label him as the mujaddid of our time. He has endeavored diligently inperverting the ĥadīth and its science, but the true scholars have not been hesitantin refuting and warning against him. The only people who do not know him as afraud are his followers and whoever has been poisoned by them.It was narrated about him that in one of his sessions, a Jordanian lawyerrequested from al-Albāniyy to recite 10 ĥadīth with their chains of narration frommemory. Al-Albāniyy responded by saying, “I am not a muĥaddith ofmemorization, I am a muĥaddith of the book.” The lawyer responded by saying,“Then I am able to do what you do” Upon that, al-Albaniyy felt embarrassed. He delved further into the field of ĥadīth and its various sciences despite discouragement from his father. Furthermore, the books he needed were not to be found in his father’s library which was composed mainly of various works of Ĥanafiyy Fiqh - and since he could not afford many of the books he required he would borrow them from the famous library of Damascus – “al-Maktabah ađħ-Đħāhiriyyah” – or sometimes from book sellers. He became engrossed with the science of ĥadīth to the extent that he would sometimes close up his shop and remain in the library for up to twelve hours - breaking off his work only for prayer - he would not even leave to eat, but would take two light snacks with him. Eventually the library authorities granted him a special room to himself for his study and his own key for access to the library before normal opening time. Often he would remain at work from early morning until after ˇIshā. During this time he produced many useful works - many of which are still waiting to be printed.Nowhere in this talk do the Wahhābis mention the name of al-Albāniyy’steachers in the Science of Ĥadīth. In fact, what is clear to us is that he spent all ofhis time reading books in the library, and after some time he emerged from itthinking himself to be a scholar of ĥadīth. His ignorance is quite evident by themistakes found in his books (e.g. declaring ĥadīth narrated by al-Bukhāriyy,Muslim and many others to be weak). 144
    • Others Whose Names are not Deserving of a SubtitleThe Wahhābis have other heads, such as the recently deceased ˇAbdullāh IbnBāz. He has been falsely called “the Grand Muftī of Makkah”. He has alsoworked hard in solidifying the call of the Wahhābis. Now that he and al-Albāniyyare dead, we find the Wahhābis breaking into small groups, and bickering amongthemselves. Also among the Arab Wahhābi heads are: ˇAbdul-ˇAzīz Āl ash-Shaykh, Rabīˇ al-Madkhaliyy (he is known for dividing the Wahhābis, and he hasbeen labeled a Ĥizbiyy), Ŝāliĥ Fawzān, Muqbil Ibn Hādī, ˇAbdullāh Ibn Jibrīn292,292 ˇAbdullāh Ibn Jibrīn said in his book al-Irshād, page 5: When the third century of the Hijrah ended, the last of the best (three) centuries, these books (the books he likes) were unfortunately left for dead, and were stored away without anyone recognizing, reading, or studying them except rarely, and only in hiding. The Ashˇariyy School and Muˇtaziliyy School (this is a lie) were firmly established and people pored over their study everywhere… And by careful study of these centuries: the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, and most of the seventh, you do not find anyone that is upon the School of the Sunnah…Ať-Ťaĥāwiyy mentioned in it (the Creed of Ať-Ťaĥāwiyy) some terrible statements that were widespread in his time through the Kalām scholars, such as his statement: “Verily Allāh is clear of the having limits, extremes, corners, limbs or instruments. The six directions (up, down, front, back, left and right) do not contain Him like all created things.”What we can understand then, is that anthropomorphist creed of believing thatAllāh is a bodily being, something to be pointed at in a direction, and with parts,and dimensions is what was only taught in hiding during those centuries until IbnTaymiyah showed up. The belief of Ibn Taymiyah went into hiding again afterhis death. His books were burned and forbidden to teach, and anyone who spreadhis teachings faced punishment. Ibnu-l-Qayyim, as an example, was jailed andalmost executed at one point. That is why it is hard find books of scholars thatsupport the beliefs of Ibn Taymiyah during that period.So we also have the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th centuries free of what Ibn Jibrīn calls‘Sunnism’, until the rebellion of Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb in the 12thCentury after the Hijrah. Since then they have only grown stronger throughsupport from the imperialist powers. It was the British that first supplied themwith weapons, and thereby helped to renew the call to the so-called “Salafi”version of religion. After that the books of Ibn Taymiyah were gradually broughtout from their hiding places and published. 145
    • Salmān ˇAwdah, Muĥammad al-Munajjid, and others.Hopefully, their end will come soon. Among their heads is a Caribbean mannamed Bilāl Philips, although many Wahhābis claim that he is off the “Minhaj”now. He believes that Allāh must be above the creations since it is not befittingto say He is below them. Ibn Bāz and Philips are among the Wahhābis whodocumented the so-called three aspects of Tawĥīd. In America there is a mannamed Dawud Adeeb, who has been refuted on more than one occasion. In onelecture called, “The Existence of Allāh”, he said that he did not know whetherdividing Tawĥīd into three categories was an innovation or not, yet he proceededto teach the people about it anyway. He is known for pointing up toward the skywhile claiming that he is “pointing up because God is up.” Several people,including Wahhābis, heard him saying that “Allāh sits on the ˇArsh.”Also among the Wahhābis in America is: Ĥasan aŝ-Ŝumāliyy, Abū Muslimah,Ťālib ˇAbdullāh, Abu-l-Ĥasan Mālik, and Abū Usāmah adh-Dhahabiyy who hasbeen living in the UK as of recent. Yasir Qadhi and Suhaib Webb from “Al-Maghrib Institute” are both Wahhābi in creed, although they have apologistagendas. Suhaib Webb attempts to mix his Wahhābism with Sufism and YasirQadhi’s perversions are so evident that even the major Wahhābi leaders warnagainst him. Yusuf Estes is yet another Wahhābi, although his fame ispredominant in Europe.Be warned of these men, and others, like Ibn al-ˇUthaymīn, who said that “Wedo not know exactly how Allāh sits, and that Allāh has a glorious face and tworeal eyes.” He did not try to camouflage his blasphemy. They have many stoogesand plenty of money to back them. It is important that the information in thisbook is learned properly, understood, and taught to as many people as possible,so to help in defending the religion of Muĥammad . There are only a fewstanding between the Wahhābis and the people.In short, if you are a follower of Ibn Jibrīn, Ibn Bāz, Ibn ˇUthaymīn, al-Albāniyy,Abū Bakr al-Jazā’iriyy, Muqbil, al-Madkhaliyy, ˇAbdur-Raĥmān ad-Dimashqiyyah, Abu Muslimah, Abu Usamah, Bilal Philips, Dawud Adeeb, YasirQadhi, and other so-called “Salafis,” know that you are a follower of a sect thathas been in hiding for most of history since the Hijrah. They claim to know andfollow what the Salaf believed, although they are in opposition to 95% of allscholars of all the major Islāmic sciences. 146
    • Appendix D: Rain Clouds over the Graves of the ĤanābilahShaykh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh an-Najdiyy said293:(415) ˇAbdul-Wahhāb Ibn Sulaymān Ibn ˇAliyy Ibn Musharraf at-Tamīmiyyan-NajdiyyShaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb studied Fiqh with his father, the author of the famousbook al-Mansak, and also studied with others. He gained Religious knowledgeand also taught it. Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb wrote an explanation of somereligious issues and it was recognised as being well-written. He died in the year1153 AH. Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb is the father of Muĥammad, who was founderof the mission (i.e., the Wahhābi mission) whose evil has spread across thehorizon. However, there is an enormous difference between father (ShaykhˇAbdul-Wahhāb) and son (Muĥammad). Indeed Muĥammad did not reveal hismission until after the death of his father (Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb). Some of thepeople whom I met have related from some of the people of knowledgenarrations from the contemporaries of Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb that describe hisanger with his son Muĥammad. This is because Muĥammad had not agreed tostudy the religious knowledge of his ancestors and the people of his area. Hisfather (Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb) had a presentiment that something wouldhappen because of his son Muĥammad. Therefore, Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhābfrequently said to the people about his son (Muĥammad), “How much evil youwill see from Muĥammad.” Subsequently, what Allāh Predestined to happencame to pass.Similarly, the son of Shaykh ˇAbdul-Wahhāb, Sulaymān, who is the brother ofMuĥammad, was also opposed to the mission of Muĥammad. Sulaymān refutedMuĥammad emphatically with verses of the Holy Qur’ān and ĥadīths. This isbecause the refuted one (i.e., Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb) would not acceptother than these two sources294. Nor would he consider the sayings of earlier or293 Al-Imām, al-ˇAllāmah, Shaykh Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdillāh Ibn Ĥumayd an-Najdiyy al-Ĥambaliyy, the Muftī of the Ĥambaliyy School of Makkah (1295 AH)– as-Suĥub al-Wābilah ˇalā Darā’iĥ al-Ĥanābilah.294 Although Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb claimed to follow the Qur’ān andSunnah only, in reality he contradicted both of them. 147
    • later scholars, whoever they were, other than [Aĥmad] Ibn Taymiyah and hisstudent Ibn al-Qayyim [al-Jawziyyah]. This is because Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb considered their sayings (i.e., Ibn Taymiyah and his student Ibn al-Qayyim) to be explicit verses which did not accept interpretation and he usedthem in debate with the people, despite the fact that the sayings of these twofigures contradicted what he understood. Shaykh Sulaymān named his refutationagainst his brother (Muĥammad) Faŝlu-l-Khiťāb fi-r-Raddi ˇalā Muĥammad IbnˇAbdil-Wahhāb (“The Emphatic Speech on the Refutation of Muĥammad IbnˇAbdil-Wahhāb”). Allāh protected Sulaymān from the evil and deception of hisbrother Muĥammad, whose great influence spread a threat far and wide. This isbecause if a person contradicted and refuted Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb, andMuĥammad was unable to kill him openly, he would send someone toassassinate him in his bed or in the market-place at night, since he judgedwhoever contradicted him to be a blasphemer and legalised their killing.It has been said that an insane person lived in the town and among his habits wasto strike whoever he came across, even with a weapon. Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb gave an order that this insane man was to be given a sword and admittedto the mosque where his brother Shaykh Sulaymān sat alone. When ShaykhSulaymān saw the insane man, he was afraid. The insane man threw the swordfrom his hand and said, “O Sulaymān, do not be afraid; you are of those who aresaved.” He repeated this many times and this is without a doubt among theKarāmāt295.295 An extraordinary event that happens to a righteous Muslim, indicating that theProphet that he follows is truthful. 148
    • Appendix E: Further Clarification Concerning the Origins of the WahhābisThe so-called Salafis, or Wahhābis as Muslims commonly refer to them as, is themost violent extremist movement spread among the Muslims in our time. Somethink that their radical way is a recent phenomenon and that their violentextremism only targets non-Muslims. The reality is that Sunni Muslims were thefirst to suffer and perish at their hands since their establishment some 280 yearsago in the eastern Arabian Desert.The Wahhābis are the followers of Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb and hispredecessor Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah who in turn followed a cocktail of hereticalbeliefs taken from the Greek Philosophers, the Karrāmiyyah, and theĤashwiyyah or simply put: those who believed the world is beginningless andthose who likened Allāh to His creations.The radical and in some cases, blasphemous interpretations of the so-calledSalafis (although previously confined to small communities of people in Arabia)currently has a global imprint due to the protection, finance, and tutelage of theSaudi government. It should be noted that “the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia” is theonly country in the entire world named after an individual [dictator]. One onlyneeds to ask “why that is?” in order to know the truth about the WahhābiMovement.The following is a summary of their origins as documented by the Muftī ofMakkah, al-Muĥaddith Aĥmad Ibn Zaynī Daĥlān ash-Shāfiˇiyy296:296 He is a historian and a scholar in the Islamic Fiqh. He acquired different typesof Islamic knowledge and was appointed as the Muftī of the Shāfiˇiyyah scholarsin the greatly honored city of Makkah. His students were so many that it is rareto find a scholar who came after him whose chains of narrations do not includehim. He was born in Makkah in 1231 A.H. and died in al-Madīnah in Muĥarram1304 A.H. He authored many writings which were published and widely spread.The following are some of his works:  Sharĥ Matn al-Alfiyyah; (an explanation of the text of al-Alfiyyah in the Arabic language).  Tārīkhu-d-Duwali-l-Islāmiyyah bi-l-Jadāwil al-Marďiyyah; (a history 149
    • During the reign of Ŝulťān Salīm III (1204-1222 AH) many tribulations tookplace. One was the tribulation of the Wahhābiyyah (Wahhābis or so-calledSalafis) which started in the area of al-Ĥijāz297 where they captured al-Ĥaramayn298, and prevented Muslims coming from ash-Shām299 and Egypt fromreaching their destination to perform Pilgrimage (Ĥajj).The fighting started between the Wahhābis and the Prince of Makkah, MawlānāSharīf Ghālib Ibn Musāˇid, who had been appointed by the honored MuslimŜulťān as his ruling representative over the areas of al-Hijāz. This was in 1205AH during the time of Ŝulťān Salīm III, the son of Ŝulťān Muŝťafā III, the son ofAĥmad. Previous to the outbreak of fighting, the Wahhābis began to build powerand gain followers in their areas. As their territories expanded, their evil andharm increased. They killed countless numbers of Muslims, legitimatedconfiscating their money and possessions, and captured their women. Thefounder of their wicked doctrine was Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb, who of the Islamic states).  Fatĥu-l-Jawādi-l-Mannān ˇalal-ˇAqīdah al-Musammāti bi Fayďi-r- Raĥmān fī Tajwīd al-Qur’ān; (a summary of the Tajwīd rules of recitation of the Qur’ān).  Khulāŝatu-l-Kalām fī Umarā’ al-Balad-il-Ĥarām; (the history of the Rulers of Makkah).  Al-Futuĥātu-l-Islāmiyyah; (a history of the opening of the different countries by Muslims).  Tanbīhu-l-Ghāfilīn, Mukhtaŝar Minhāji-l-ˇĀbidīn; (a summary exposing the good manners of the worshippers).  Ad-Duraru-s-Saniyyah fi-r-Raddi ˇala-l-Wahhabiyyah; (a treatise refuting the Wahhābis).  Sharĥ al-Ājurrumiyyah; (an explanation of an Arabic grammar text).  Fitnatu-l-Wahhābiyyah; (a treatise of the tribulations inflicted by the Wahhābi sect).297 Al-Ĥijāz refers to the western part of Arabia which includes Makkah and al-Madīnah.298 Al-Ĥaramayn refers to Makkah and al-Madīnah.299 Ash-Shām refers to the area that includes Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, andPalestine. 150
    • originated from eastern Arabia, from the tribe of Banū Tamīm. He lived a longlife, about one-hundred years. He was born in 1111 AH and died in 1200 AH.His history was narrated as follows:Muĥammad Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb started as a student of knowledge in the city ofthe Prophet, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah. Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb’s father was agood, pious man among the people of knowledge as was his brother, ShaykhSulaymān. His father, his brother, and his shaykhs had the foresight Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb would innovate a great deal of deviation and misguidance, because oftheir observance of his sayings, actions, and inclinations concerning many issues.They used to reprimand him and warn people against him.What Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb’s father, brother, and shaykhs speculated about himcame true - by the Will of Allāh, the Exalted. Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb innovateddeviant and misleading ways and beliefs and managed to allure some ignorantpeople to follow him. His deviant and misleading ways and beliefs disagreedwith the sayings of the scholars of the Religion. His deviant beliefs led him tolabel the believers as blasphemers! He falsely claimed visiting the grave of theProphet  and performing the Tawassul300 by him as shirk. Additionally, hefalsely claimed visiting the graves of other prophets and righteous Muslims(Awliyā’) and performing Tawassul by them was shirk as well. He added to thisby saying, “To call upon the Prophet  when performing Tawassul by theProphet is shirk.” He passed the same judgment of shirk on the ones who callupon other prophets and righteous Muslims (Awliyā’) in performing Tawassul bythem.In an effort to give credibility to his innovations Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb embellishedhis sayings by quotations which he selected from Islamic sources, i.e., quotationswhich are used as proofs for many issues but not the issues which Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb was attempting to support. He brought false statements and tried tobeautify them for the laymen until they followed him. He wrote treatises forthem until they believed that most of the People of Tawĥīd were blasphemers.Moreover, Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb called upon the princes of eastern Arabia and thepeople of ad-Darˇiyyah301 to support him. They carried his doctrine and madethis endeavor a means to strengthen and expand their kingdom. They workedtogether to suppress the Bedouins of the deserts until they overcame them and300 Tawassul is asking Allāh for goodness by a prophet, righteous believer, etc.301 Ad-Darˇiyyah is a region north of the city of Riyāď, Saudi Arabia. 151
    • those Bedouins followed them and became foot-soldiers for them without pay.After that, these masses started to believe that whoever does not believe in whatIbn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb said is a blasphemer, and it is Islamically lawful (ĥalāl) toshed his blood and plunder his money.The matter of Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb started to evidence itself in 1143 AH andbegan spreading after 1150 AH. Subsequently, the scholars - even his brother,Shaykh Sulaymān and the rest of his shaykhs - authored many treatises to refutehim. But Muĥammad Ibn Saˇūd, the Prince of ad-Darˇiyyah in eastern Arabia,supported him and worked to spread his ideology. Ibn Saˇūd was from BanūĤanīfah, the people of Musaylimah al-Kadhdhāb302. When Muĥammad IbnSaˇūd died, his son ˇAbdul-ˇAziz Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Saˇūd took over theresponsibility of fulfilling the vile task of spreading the Wahhābi beliefs.Many of the shaykhs of Ibn ˇAbdil-Wahhāb in al-Madīnah used to say, “He willbe misguided, and he will misguide those for whom Allāh willed themisguidance.” Things took place as per the speculation of the scholars. IbnˇAbdil-Wahhāb claimed his intention behind the madhhab he invented was “topurify the Tawĥīd” and “repudiate the shirk.” He also claimed people had beenfollowing the shirk for six-hundred years and he revived their Religion forthem!!This is a very brief summary of the history of Wahhābi Movement. To talk atlength on each of these details would be very lengthy. The tribulations inflictedby the Wahhābis were a calamity for the Muslims. The Wahhābis shed a greatdeal of blood and robbed a great deal of money; their harm was prevalent andtheir evil spread.Many of the ĥadīth of the Prophet  spoke explicitly about this tribulation. Onenarration said:ُ‫جُنَاسُمنُقِبَلُاملشرقُيَقرؤونُالقرآنُالُجياوزُتَراقِيَ هم،ُُيرقونُمنُالدينُكما‬ ََ ّ َِ ِ َ َ َ ْ ِِ ْ ِ ِ ٌ ‫خير‬ ُُ ِ‫ُيرقُالسهمُمنُالرميَّة،ُسيماهمُالتَّحل‬ ‫ْ يق‬ َ ِ ِ َِّ ِ َّ ْThis means: “There will be people who come from the eastern side of Arabia302 Musaylimah al-Kadhdhāb (the Mendacious) was a blasphemer man whoclaimed the status of prophethood for himself after the death of ProphetMuĥammad . He was killed by the Muslims during the caliphate of Abū Bakr,may Allāh raise his rank. 152
    • who will recite Qur’ān, but their recitation will not pass beyond theircollarbones303. They will go out of Islām as swiftly as the arrow goes throughthe prey. Their sign is shaving their heads.” This ĥadīth was mentioned inmany narrations, including in Ŝaĥīĥ al-Bukhāriyy and other books of ĥadīth.There is no need to expound on listing these narrations or their narrators becausethey are well-known and of the ŝaĥīĥ classification.The Prophet said: “Their sign is shaving their heads.” This is an explicitreference to the Wahhābi sect. They used to order all those who follow them toshave their heads. None of the previous sects, i.e., those who came before theWahhābi, like the Khawārij or other innovators, had this sign.As-Sayyid ˇAbdur-Raĥmān al-Ahdal, the Muftī of Zabīd in Yemen, used to say:“There is no need for writing against the Wahhābis. For, in refuting them, it issufficient to mention the ĥadīth of the Prophet: ‘Their sign is shaving theirheads’ since no other innovators had ever done it.”303 This means they do not understand the meaning of what they read. 153
    • Appendix F: A Chronological History of Ibn Taymiyah661304 - Abu-l-ˇAbbās Aĥmad Ibn ˇAbdil-Ĥalīm Ibn ˇAbdis-Salām Ibn ˇAbdillāhIbn Abi-l-Qāsim Ibn Taymiyah al-Ĥarrāniyy ad-Dimashqiyy was born. Helearned from Ibn ˇAbdid-Dā’im, al-Qāsim al-Irbiliyy, Muslim Ibn ˇAllān, Ibn AbīˇUmar and al-Fakhr but he mostly read on his own305.667 - Ibn Taymiyah accompanied his father who moved from Harrān to ash-Shām.698 Rabīˇu-l-‘Awwal - Scholars protested against Ibn Taymiyah’s sayingsbecause of what they found in Ibn Taymiyah’s book al-Fatwā al-Ĥamwiyyah. Details of the events of 698 (Damascus)3061. A group of scholars [and Shāfiˇiyyah] raised objection to Ibn Taymiyah’s sayings about the Attributes of Allāh. They brought al-Fatwa al-Ĥamwiyyah and rebutted him in a session they held for that.2. [After the session was over, the public announcers broadcasted in Damascus the invalidity of al-Ĥamwiyyah creed.]307 The scholars issued a decree and banned Ibn Taymiyah from discussing the issues of creed.3. After some days, the judges Imāmu-d-Dīn and his brother Jalālu-d-Dīn al- Qazwīniyy sat with Ibn Taymiyah for a long time. The two judges then prohibited the people from speaking badly about Ibn Taymiyah.304 All dates are After Hijrah.305 Ŝalāhu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy said: “[Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah] was immenselylearned but lacked intelligence that embroiled him into perils and made him fallinto hardships.” (Sharĥ Lāmiyyah al-ˇAjm, page 189)306 Same account of events was documented by Ŝalāhu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyyvolume 1, page 34.307 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy, volume 1, page 34. 154
    • 705 to 707 - Ibn Taymiyah was called to Egypt and imprisoned there in Khazanatal-Bunud308. Details of the events of 705 – 707 periods (Damascus and Egypt)1. The Ŝulťān in Egypt requested the judges to test Ibn Taymiyah in his creed, because objectionable matters related to that creed reached the Ŝulťān.2. On the 7th [or 8th] of Rajab the scholars and judges held a session and asked Ibn Taymiyah about his creed [in the presence of the representative of the Ŝulťān]309. He mentioned some of it. They brought his creed al-Wasiťiyyah and discussed some of its topics. They delayed other topics to another session. They met on Friday the 12th of Rajab and decided to forward al- Kamāl az-Zamalkaniyy to interrogate Ibn Taymiyah. Kamālu-d-Dīn refuted Ibn Taymiyah. The session then ended on the basis that Ibn Taymiyah had made a pledge to follow the creed of ash-Shāfiˇiyy [and his Madhhab is that of ash-Shāfiˇiyy]310. They accepted this standing of his then adjourned the meeting. 3113. Tribulations took place after that, Ibn Taymiyah and his follower’s stirred troubles [and the followers of Ibn Taymiyah claimed that their shaykh is correct. They were brought with Ibn Taymiyah before the court of the judge Jalālu-d-Dīn al- Qazwiniyy.]312 Ibn Taymiyah fought with the Shāfiˇiyy judge, [and then he was slapped and the ruling was to punish him, but someone interceded for him. The same thing happened to two of his followers.]313 Consequently, the representative of the Ŝulťān refrained people from discussing the issues of creed hoping by that to control the tribulation314. The scholars and judges held another session around the end308 Ibid.309 Al-Ĥuŝniyy.310 Ibid.311 This section is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy.312 Al-Ĥuŝniyy.313 Al-Ĥuŝniyy.314 This did not stop the judges to discuss other issues among themselves andsome of them resigned. The ruling officials intervened and reassigned the judges,but the issue was not resolved and the Ŝulťān’s representative asked the Ŝulťān to 155
    • of Rajab. [In the presence of the representative of the Ŝulťān, they discussed with Ibn Taymiyah the issue of creed. Ibn Taymiyah followed the same route he had followed in the earlier session.]3154. The officials in Damascus corresponded with the Ŝulťān about Ibn Taymiyah’s affair around the end of Shaˇbān. On the 5th of Ramaďān, the proclamation of the Ŝulťān reached Damascus asking the head judge Najmu- d-Dīn Ibn Ŝaŝrā316 to accompany Ibn Taymiyah who was summoned to Egypt317. It also asked the officials to inform the Ŝulťān about the events of 698 concerning the creed of Ibn Taymiyah. Subsequently, they started asking the people, and gathering the information about the events, and what Ibn Taymiyah did during that period. They brought [to the judge Jalālu-d- Dīn al-Qazwīniyy]318 the creed that was investigated during the time of the head judge Imāmu-d-Dīn al-Qazwīniyy.3195. News reached ash-Shām that the Mālikiyy judge in Egypt is greatly involved in pursuing Ibn Taymiyah’s matter. The Ĥanābilah are causing tribulations in Egypt and some of them were slapped as a punishment. On the 12th of Ramaďān Ibn Taymiyah was sent to Egypt 320. He reached Egypt in the last third of Ramaďān.3216. The scholars held a hearing in Ramaďān [and the judges, fuqahā’, scholars and princes attended the meeting. Shamsu-d-Dīn Ibn ˇAdnān ash-Shāfiˇiyy spoke, showed some sections of the creed of Ibn Taymiyah, filed a suit against Ibn Taymiyah’s creed at the Mālikiyy court, and brought before the court some sections of the creed.]322. They asked Ibn Taymiyah to defend himself. Ibn Taymiyah did not answer the questions and stopped. Several times the scholars asked him, but he did not respond; instead of that, he triedmake a decision.315 Al-Ĥuŝniyy.316 This name can also be pronounced as Ŝaŝurrā.317 Consistent with Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy, volume 1, page 34.318 Al-Ĥuŝniyy.319 This section is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy.320 Ibid.321 This section is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy.322 Al-Ĥuŝniyy. 156
    • to lecture them, but they stopped him. They spent a long time trying to resolve the issue. Eventually, the Mālikiyy judge decided to imprison Ibn Taymiyah323 and his two brothers. He was taken from the meeting and at first was held in the tower of the castle then they transferred him to the basement in the castle of the mountain to humiliate him and prevent people from mixing with him. Al-Mālikiyy said: “Ibn Taymiyah has to suffer restraint if he is not killed because his blasphemy became confirmed.”3247. The Shāfiˇiyy judge Ibn Ŝaŝrā went back to ash-Shām [carrying the Ŝulťān’s decree, and reached it on the 16th of Dhi-l-Qaˇdah]. a. The Muslims were gathered in the grand mosque and warned about the creed of Ibn Taymiyah. b. It was then announced in Damascus that whoever believes in Ibn Taymiyah’s creed, his blood and belongings become lawful, especially the Ĥanābilah. c. The decree of the Ŝulťān was then read325 [and in front of the judge Jamālu-d-Dīn al-Mālikiyy and other judges] the Ĥanābilah were humiliated and they testified that they follow the creed of ash-Shāfiˇiyy.326 8. Ibn Taymiyah stayed imprisoned in the basement until the 23rd of Rabiˇ al-‘Awwal. a. During this period, his case stirred difference in opinions among the Muslims in Damascus and Cairo concerning Ibn Taymiyah and other issues. The head judges had to interfere to rectify the situation. Ibn Ĥajar quoted that all those who were in Egypt from among the judges, shuyūkh, fuqahā’, scholars and laymen condemn Ibn Taymiyah except the Ĥanafiyy323 Ibid.324 This section is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy.325 The proclamation denounced Ibn Taymiyah’s creed, ordered the peopleespecially the Ĥanābilah to avoid it and threatened those who do not do that withdismissal them from the posts, imprisonment, confiscation their money, and to beput them to death. See al-Ĥuŝniyy.326 This section is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy. 157
    • maybe because the Ĥanafiyy in Damascus praised the knowledge and understanding of Ibn Taymiyah327. b. Then the Shāfiˇiyy, Ĥanafiyy and Mālikiyy head judges held a meeting to discuss the case. c. They accepted to release Ibn Taymiyah, but stipulated that he has to retract some of his belief. Different times they asked him to attend, but he refused. One ruler interceded and he was then brought to the castle. d. Some fuqahā’ discussed with him the issues and by the end of the deliberation, Ibn Taymiyah said: “I am an Ashˇariyy.” They witnessed that he had declared his repentance voluntarily and cleared himself of what is contrary to his attestation. e. They wrote a pronouncement for the record and a great number of the scholars and non-scholars witnessed the event which occurred on the 25th Rabiˇ al-‘Awwal 707. The tribulation calmed down, Ibn Taymiyah left the prison and lived in Cairo.709 Period - Ibn Taymiyah was still incarcerated in 709. He was sent toAlexandria, then released, then sent back to Cairo, and then sent back to prison328in Alexandria. Details of this period (Egypt) 1. On the middle of Shawwal, Tāju-d-Dīn Ibn ˇAťā’ met with a group of Sufis from the faithful and went to the castle to complain about Ibn Taymiyah. They said that Ibn Taymiyah denies making Tawassul by the Prophet , and slanders the Mashāykh of the Tarīqah329.327 The famous Ĥāfiđħ, Abū Zurˇah al-ˇIrāqiyy said: “The knowledge of IbnTaymiyah is wide, but his comprehension is weak” (al-Ajwibah al-Mardiyyah).Imām as-Subkiyy said: “Ibn Taymiyah was covering himself with following theBook and Sunnah, pretending that he is a caller to the truth and guide to Jannah,but he deviated from following to innovating and diverted from the Jamāˇah ofthe Muslims when he discarded consensus” (ad-Durrah al-Muďiyyah).328 Ibid.329 “Mashāykh of the Tarīqah” refers to the pious Muslim mentors who guide 158
    • 2. The judge Zaynu-d-Dīn Ibn Makhlūf spoke to the head judge Ibn Jamāˇah about Ibn Taymiyah and Sharafu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝābūniyy and ˇAlā’u-d-Dīn al-Qawnawiyy witnessed the case. Consequently, Ibn Jamāˇah ordered the imprisonment of Ibn Taymiyah who was led to the prison of ad-Daylam on the 18th of Shawwal and stayed there until Ŝafar 709. He was then moved to Alexandria to the jail in the eastern tower. 3. The Ŝulťān an-Nāŝir assembled the judges, interceded for Ibn Taymiyah to the Mālikiyy judge and reconciled them. The Judge stipulated that Ibn Taymiyah vows not to repeat his bad doings. The Ŝulťān gave his word that Ibn Taymiyah had repented. 4. Ibn Taymiyah then left the prison [on the 8th of Shawwal 709]330, stayed in Cairo, and people started visiting him. He went with an-Nāŝir to ash- Shām331 in Shawwal, 712 and reached there in Dhi-l-Qaˇdah. By that, out of the 7 years he stayed away from ash-Shām, Ibn Taymiyah spent 4 years in jail.718 Jumāda-l-Ākhirah - The people of ash-Shām became aware of the decree ofthe Ŝulťān which banned Ibn Taymiyah from delivering edicts about the issue of“swearing to divorce”. The scholars [of Fiqh and judges] held a session for thatand discarded Ibn Taymiyah’s sayings completely and ignored it. The ruling wasannounced in public. 332719 Ramaďān - The scholars [of Fiqh and Judges]333 stood up against IbnTaymiyah because of his judgment concerning the issue of divorce. Theyconducted a session for this purpose334 [and the decree of the Ŝulťān was readbefore them. It contained a section that deals with Ibn Taymiyah because of hisjudgment in the case of divorce. The decree of the Ŝulťān reprimanded Ibntheir students to the best way of one’s humbling oneself to worship Allāh.330 Ibid.331 Ibid.332 All this section is from Ibn al-Wardiyy, volume 2, page 381. This section isconsistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy. It is not found in ad-Durar in detail. Ad-Durarmentioned two events for the issue of divorce one in Ramaďān 719 and the otherin Rajab 720. Ibn Taymiyah was release from the castle was in ˇĀshūrā’ 721.333 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy.334 Ibid. 159
    • Taymiyah after it had banned him from issuing judgments.]335 The sessionascertained that Ibn Taymiyah is prohibited from giving Islamic edicts. 336720337 - The scholars held another session in Rajab at as-Saˇadah court, re-corrected Ibn Taymiyah in the edict of divorce and reprimanded him. Theyordered him to be put in jail at the castle of Damascus. He was released by theŜulťān’s proclamation on Monday in ˇĀshūrā’, 721, and left the jail to his home.The time he spent in prison was 5 months and 18 days. 338 Details339 1. Ibn Taymiyah was present in this session. The scholars asked him about his edicts in the matter of divorce and reminded him that they, the Ŝulťān and the ruling officials, had banned him from issuing judgments but he did abide by that. 2. Ibn Taymiyah denied issuing the judgment. Five men witnessed that he had answered their inquiries according to what the judges stated. He denied and insisted on denying. Another person came and more witnesses attested that he gave the judgment to a butcher named Qamar Muslimāniyy, and they recollected the incident. 3. They ordered Ibn Taymiyah to write by his own hand that he will not give a judgment like that or judge at all. He wrote that he will not issue such a judgment and did not judge by something else. 4. The judges decided to imprison him in the castle of Damascus.726 Shaˇbān - The scholars [during the time of the head judge Jalālu-d-Dīn al-Qazwīniyy]340 stood up against Ibn Taymiyah again, but this time because Ibn335 Ibid.336 Ibid.337 All this section from aŝ-Ŝafadiyy and is consistent with al-Ĥuŝniyy. However,al-Ĥuŝniyy’s account took place in Ŝafar 718 at as-Saˇadah court and heprovided more details.338 The same jail period was quoted by al-Ĥuŝniyy.339 Taken from al-Ĥuŝniyy.340 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy. 160
    • Taymiyah denied the legitimacy of visiting 341 the grave of the Prophet . [Theyfound an edict in Ibn Taymiyah’s hand-writing in which he prohibits the traveland riding the animals to visit the graves of the Prophets and the righteous.]342[They wrote to Egypt about this matter]343. [The Ŝulťān ordered theimprisonment of Ibn Taymiyah]344 [in the castle] 345 [of Damascus and prohibitedIbn Taymiyah from issuing judgments]346. He was then imprisoned in thecastle347. Ibn Taymiyah stayed there until he died on Monday [20th or]348 22nd ofDhi-l-Qaˇdah 728349. Details350 1. This time Ibn Taymiyah issued an edict in which he stated, it is prohibited to initiate a travel except to the three Masājid - refer to the mashhūr ĥadīth. He said it is not permissible to initiate a travel to visit the graves of the Prophets like the grave of Ibrāhīm  and the grave of Muĥammad . 2. Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah traveled to Jerusalem and gave a speech. In his speech he mentioned this judgment and said: “Here I am going back without visiting the Khalīl (Ibrāhīm).” He went to Nablis and in his speech he mentioned the same case until he said: “It is not permissible to visit the grave of the Prophet except his Masjid.” The people jumped at him, but the ruler of the city protected him.341 Ibid.342 Ibn al-Wardiyy, volume 2, page 398.343 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy.344 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy and al-Ĥuŝniyy quoting Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy.345 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy.346 Ibn al-Wardiyy, volume 2, page 398.347 Al-Ĥuŝniyy quoting Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy.348 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy.349 Ibid.350 Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy. 161
    • 3. The people of Jerusalem and Nablis wrote to Damascus describing the events that occurred and what Ibn al-Jawziyyah had done.4. The Mālikiyy judge summoned Ibn al-Jawziyyah. The latter went instead to the head judge Shamsu-d-Dīn Ibn Muslim, showed repentance and embraced Islām in his presence. The judge accepted his embracing of Islām, judged him as a Muslim and deemed his blood unlawful. He did not punish him because of his relationship to Ibn Taymiyah.5. At this point, the scholars from the Shāfiˇiyyah and Mālikiyyah schools became extremely upset. They wrote an edict against Ibn Taymiyah, since he was the first person to speak about this matter. Shaykh Burhānu-d-Dīn the son of shaykh Tāju-d-Dīn wrote on it about 40 lines counting many cases Ibn Taymiyah said and judged. At the end, he judged him as a kāfir. Shihābu-d-Dīn Ibn Jahbal ash-Shāfiˇiyy agreed with him. Under his handwriting, aŝ-Ŝadr al-Mālikiyy said a similar thing and others joined in that.6. They carried the edict to the Ŝulťān’s representative who at first wanted to call a meeting to assemble them with the fuqahā’ and the scholars. He then found that the matter bears a great deal of discussion and the Ŝulťān has to be informed. Consequently, he included the edict in the issues’ proceedings which were sent periodically to Egypt.7. The Ŝulťān gathered the judges, but the Mālikiyy was sick and could not attend. When they read the edict, the head judge Badru-d-Dīn Ibn Jamāˇah said, “The one who says this statement is a deviant, strays others and is an innovator. The Ĥanafiyy and Ĥambaliyy agreed with him. The Ŝulťān then asked, “What do you judge about this person.” He said, “Be imprisoned.” The Ŝulťān said, “This is what I thought privately I should do to him.”8. The four head Judges, the Mālikiyy, Shāfiˇiyy, Ĥanafiyy and Ĥambaliyy wrote the verdict to Damascus and instructed the representative to act upon the decree of the Ŝulťān. The announcers broadcasted the declaration of the Ŝulťān. The date of the correspondence from the Ŝulťān was the 27th Rajab 726.9. Soon after that, Ibn Taymiyah’s followers, who were already in prison, were put on trial. Some of those were: a. ˇImādu-d-Dīn Ibn Kathīr: He was indicted, hit and prosecuted for saying that the Torah and Injīl are not perverted. They 162
    • toured him around the city, degraded him and his punishment was made public. b. ˇAbdullāh Al-Iskandariyy: He conceded that he had said, “The callers of the adhān are blasphemers,” because they say “O Prophet of Allāh you are my means.” He also admitted that he embraced Islām at the head Ĥambaliyy judge Shamsu-d-Dīn Ibn Muslim who accepted his repentance, deemed his blood unlawful and did not breach his marriage contract. c. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: After all, he was the originator of the tribulation altogether. They confronted him with the speeches he said in Jerusalem and Nablis, but he denied the case. However, a group of trustworthy fuqahā’ from Damascus had traveled to Nablis and attended the session. They testified that he said it and the judge substantiated it. The head judge Ibn Muslim slapped him on his rear and belittled him with two other individuals (one of them had praised Ibn Taymiyah), and sent them back to the prison. The head judge Jalālu-d-Dīn punished him further after the Mālikiyyah arraigned him from the prison and filed a suit at the head Mālikiyy judge. The Ĥambaliyy judge interceded for him and accepted the ruling of Jalālu-d-Dīn. Ibn al-Jawziyyah was then smacked, put on a donkey and toured the city disgracefully. By the end of the day, they sent him back to the prison located at the judge Jalālu-d-Dīn’s post; afterwards, they gave him to the Ŝulťān’s representative who imprisoned him in shackles in the castle and let the others go free. By that, the tribulation came to rest.The Muslim judges, scholars, and rulers made Ibn Taymiyah repent several timesand each time he renounces his oaths and nullifies his commitments. Eventually,he was incarcerated following an edict issued by the four head judges who are:one Shāfiˇiyy, one Ĥanafiyy, one Mālikiyy and one Ĥambaliyy. They judged himas a deviant against whom one must warn against, as stated by Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy, who was one of Ibn Taymiyah’s students. Ŝulťān Muĥammad IbnQalawūn issued a decree to be read in Egypt and ash-Shām to warn the Muslimsfrom Ibn Taymiyah and his followers. 163
    • Repentance of Ibn Taymiyah (705)351 Invalidity of the Apparent Meaning in CreedIbn Taymiyah claimed repentance and wrote by his hand: Praise to Allāh, my belief is that al-Qur’ān352 is one Attribute of the Attributes of the eternal Self of Allāh and is not created. It is not a letter and not a sound. It does not settle in any creation, or paper, or ink, or something else. I believe in the saying of Allāh: َٰ َ َ ۡ ِ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ ُ َ ۡ َّ ﴾٥ ‫﴿ٱلرحمَٰن َع ٱلعرش ٱستوى‬ explained according to the saying of the [Sunni] group attending this hearing. It is not understood according to its ‘ĥaqīqah’ and apparent meaning. I don’t know its reality, only Allāh knows the reality of that. The saying about an-Nuzūl resembles the saying about al-Istiwā’. I say about the former what I say about the latter. I don’t know its reality, only Allāh knows the reality of that. It is not understood according to its ‘ĥaqīqah’ and apparent meaning, as the group attending this hearing said. Anything that contradicts this belief is false and anything I wrote or said which contradicts that is false. Any part of its content that accuses others with misguidance or attributes to Allāh what is not befitting to Allāh, I hereby clear myself of it and to Allāh repent from what disagrees with it. Written by Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah on Thursday the six of Rabiˇ al-‘Ākhir 705; everything I wrote and documented in this paper, I said it willingly without compulsion. Written by Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyah. Ĥasbunā Allāh wa Niˇma-l-Wakīl353.351 Najm al-Muhtadiyy documented this statement with the signatures of thescholars who signed it. Ibn Ĥajar conveyed the record in ad-Durar also but thedate he documented was 15th Rabiˇ al-Awwal 707.352 Al-Qur’ān in this context means the Speech (Kalām) of Allāh – His eternaland everlasting attribute confirmed to His Self.353 This is a common saying which means: Allāh provides what is sufficient to usand He is the best to rely on. 164
    •  On the top of that, the head judge Badru-d-Dīn Ibn Jamāˇah wrote: “He testified in my presence; all that he wrote was by his own hand on the specified date.”  At the footnote of the handwriting: “He testified all that which he wrote by his hand. Written by ˇAbdul-Ghaniyy Ibn Muĥammad al- Ĥambaliyy.”  Following the handwriting of Ibn Taymiyah, there are some testifications. Here is a copy of it: “The aforementioned wrote by his hand the above material in my presence and testified its content. Written by Ibn ar-Rufˇah.”  A copy of another handwriting: “He admitted that. Written by ˇAbdul- ˇAziz an-Nimrāwiyy.”  A copy of handwriting: “He admitted all of that on the date listed. ˇAliyy Ibn Muĥammad Ibn Khaťťāb al-Bājiyy ash-Shāfiˇiyy.”  Another copy of handwriting: “This occurred in my presence on the date listed. Written by al-Ĥasan Ibn Aĥmad Ibn Muĥammad al- Ĥusayniyy.”  In the footnote, it is written: “The aforementioned wrote by his hand and testified. Written by ˇAbdullāh Ibn Jamāˇah.”  Another copy of handwriting: “He admitted that and wrote it in my presence, Muĥammad Ibn ˇUthmān al-Būrījibiyy.”All those individuals are from the great scholars during that era. Ibn ar-Rufˇahalone authored al-Maťlab al-ˇĀliyy fi Sharĥ Wasiť al-Ghazāliyy in 40 volumes.After Ibn Taymiyah wrote the statements by his hand, the head judge al-Badr IbnJamāˇah stamped his handwriting by the noble mark and a group of the scholarswitnessed that. That document was kept in al-Malkiyyah an-Nāŝiriyyah Library.However, not long after a short period passed, Ibn Taymiyah negated hispromises and nullified his words.354354 As his biography showed, he went back to his practice of misguiding others,as it is the habit of the heads of misguidance. 165
    • The Decree of Ibn Qalawūn (705) Addressing the Issue of Ibn TaymiyahI start with the name of Allāh, the one who is merciful to the believers and thenon-believers in this life and merciful to the believers only in the Hereafter.Praise belongs to Allāh who is clear of the similar and the equal. For this, Allāhsaid: ُ ِ ۡ ُ ِ َّ َ ُ ۡ َ ۡ َ َ َۡ ﴾‫﴿ليس كمثلِهِۦ َشء هو ٱلسميع ٱۡلَصي‬ ِ“No one or thing resembles Allāh in anyway and He is attributed withHearing and Sight.”I thank Allāh who inspired us to submit to as-Sunnah and the Qur’ān, andcleared in this era the causes of suspicion and skepticism. I bear witness that noOne is God but Allāh the only One who is without any partners. This testamentof someone aspires to receive by his sincerity the good ending and fate, andfurther clears his Creator of occupying a direction, since Allāh cleared Himselfof filling a direction per the saying of Allāh355: َ ُ َ ۡ َ َ ُ َّ َ ۡ ُ ُ َ َ ۡ َ ۡ ُ َ َ َ ُ َ ﴾٤ ‫﴿وهو معكۡ أين ما كنتۡ وٱّلل بِما تعملون بَصي‬ ِ ۚThe verse informed us that Allāh knows about us wherever we are and seeswhatever we do.I bear witness that our master Muĥammad is Allāh’s faithful worshipper and hisMessenger. For reaching safety, the Prophet set the way to whoever strives toobey Allāh. Allāh ordered to ponder about the endowments of Allāh, whilebanned contemplating about the Self of Allāh. May Allāh raise the rank ofProphet Muĥammad, his family and companions. By them, the banner of faithrose, Allāh established the foundation of the straight Religion whose rules Heordered to follow. Furthermore, by them Allāh extinguished the dogma ofwhoever had strayed from the truth and endorsed the bad innovations.Hereafter, the Islāmic creeds, observed Laws of Islām, highly ranked integrals offaith and the certified Islāmic schools are the foundation on which one builds.They are the sanctuary to which each one should resort and the route thatwhoever abides by it will be greatly successful. Moreover, whoever dissents355 Sūrat al-Ĥadīd, verse 4. 166
    • from it deserves excruciating torment. Accordingly, one has to execute theserules and emphasize their permanence. Moreover, one has to safeguard theNation’s (Islāmic) beliefs against dispute, look upon the rules of the leadingimāms as coherent, eradicate the eruptions of the innovations, and break up itscongregated factions.During this time, Ibn Taymiyah expanded the realm of his pen and stretched byhis ignorance the scope of his speech. He talked about issues pertaining to theSelf and the Attributes [of Allāh] and in his wicked speech, he expounded ondespicable matters. He discussed issues that the companions and their studentsdid not address and he uttered things from which the famous, God-fearing, andleading imāms stayed away. By that, he sponsored [issues] that the imāms ofIslām had renounced, while the consensus of the scholars and judges settledcontrary to what he sponsored. He spread some of his edicts to make themknown in the country and to fool the minds of the lay people. By that, heconflicted with the scholars of Fiqh of his era and the scholars of ash-Shām andEgypt. He sent his letters to various places and gave his edicts ridiculous namesthat have no support by the revelation Allāh conveyed.We became aware of this effort, and the conduct of his mentored pupils whopracticed this wickedness and the similar state of affairs they uncovered andspread. We learned about the doing of Ibn Taymiyah who mocked his cult andswayed them to obey him until it was said that they explicitly attributed to Allāhthe Exalted, the letter, sound, tashbīh356 and tajsīm357. For the sake of Allāh, westood up fully alarmed from this immense news and renounced this innovation. Ithurt us when news spread about some ones in our kingdom for being behind thisdisgrace. We hated what the falsifiers uttered and we recited the saying ofAllāh358: َ ُ َ َّ َ َ ۡ ُ ﴾٩١ ‫﴿سبحَٰن ٱّللِ عما يَصفون‬ ِ َّ“Allāh is clear from the non-befitting attributes some ones ascribe to Him.”He, the exalted and high in status, is unique in his Self and Attributes without an356 Tashbīh is likening Allāh to the creations and it is kufr.357 Tajsīm is likening Allāh to a body and it is kufr.358 Sūrat al-Mu’minūn, verse 91. 167
    • equal and the alike359: ُ َۡ ُ َّ َ ُ َ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ۡ َ ُ َ ُ َ َ ۡ ُ ُ ۡ ُ َّ ﴾١٠٣ ‫﴿َل تدرِكه ٱۡلبۡصَٰر وهو يُدرِك ٱۡلبۡصَٰر وهو ٱللطيف ٱلبِي‬ ِ “Indeed, no creation knows the reality of Allāh, whereas Allāh knows everything.”We forwarded our decrees to arraign the aforementioned Ibn Taymiyah to submitto our high Dignities after his false edicts had spanned our country in ash-Shāmand Egypt. He explicitly declared in these edicts statements which whenever anintellectual hears them, he recites the saying of Allāh360: ۡ ‫َّ َ ۡ ۡ َ َ ۡ ح‬ ﴾٧٤ ‫﴿لقد جئت شيا نكرا‬ ِ “What you conveyed is debarred.”When he [Ibn Taymiyah] was brought to us, we convened the recognizedIslāmic-decision-makers361 and the authorities in authentication and reliablenarration; the judges of Islām attended together with the Muslims’ rulers, thereligious scholars, and the Muslims’ fuqahā’. To appraise his issues, weconducted a formal religious hearing before a sizeable crowd, a group of imāmsand professionals whose expertise is in the issues of dispute. They consequentlyrefuted him. They established all the alleged charges of which he was accusedand their verdict emerged per the trustworthy and reliable testaments [submittedto them] as well as his handwriting that exposed his deplorable belief. Theyadjourned the meeting and the concluding disposition of the assemblage was todenounce his wicked creed. They held him liable for what his pen had testifiedwhile reciting362: َ َُ ۡ َ َُُۡ َ َ ُ َۡ ُ َ ﴾١٩ ‫﴿ستكتب شهَٰدتهۡ ويُسلون‬359 Tanzīh is to clear Allāh from the non-befitting attributes such as place and anyattribute of the creations.Sūrat al-Anˇām, verse 103.360 Sūrat al-Kahf, verse 74.361 Called Ahlu-l-Halli wa-l-ˇAqd.362 Sūrat az-Zukhruf, verse 19. 168
    • “Their testimony will be written down and they will be questioned.”Furthermore, it was reported to us that he was ordered to repent many timesbefore this event. The honorable Islāmic ruling pulled him back when he collidedwith such issues and unrightfully charged. However, he re-engaged after theyhad stopped him, defied the restraining orders, and discarded them.At the court of the judge al-ˇAzīz al-Mālikiyy, the previous matters werecertified. The honorable Islāmic Law ruled its judgment that stipulated toimprison the aforementioned [Ibn Taymiyah] and prevent him from enactmentand presentation. Our decree requests that no one may observe such practicesthat the aforementioned conducted. [Anyone who does not] abstain fromimitating him in believing similar beliefs, or citing him to trail such sayings, orpaying attention to such statements, or pursuing his course in tashbīh, or talkingabout the high direction that he voiced, or conversing about word and sound, oruttering [any of] that will quit to death. Also, [it is forbidden] to convey tajsīm,or express statements about this inapt matter, or dissent from the saying of theimāms, or single oneself out from the Nation’s scholars, or place Allāh, theGlorified and Exalted, in a direction, or yield to discussing where and how.Nothing is for the advocate of that but prosecution.Let everyone watch out this bound. To Allāh is the order from before and after.Let each of the Ĥanābilah retract this creed, exit out of these immensely deviateddelusions and abide by what Allāh ordered of holding on to the praisedmadhāhib of the people of [Islamic] faith. Verily, whoever deserts the order ofAllāh misses the straight course. Such one warrants nothing except affliction,and long imprisonment is his settlement and abode - what a disgraceful abodethis is.Our decree instructs to broadcast publicly in guarded Damascus, the countries ofash-Shām, and other close and far corners that we seriously forbid, [intend to]deter and [hereby] threaten whoever follows Ibn Taymiyah in the matter weexpounded. Whoever had pursued him [but repented] we will leave him in hisposition, forgive him and assign him a national status similar to what we endowon him. Whereas, whoever insist to rebuff and refuse all but to defend, we orderto drop them from their schools and positions, degrade them below their currentrank while humiliating them, and deny them from filling in our country anypositions of judgeship, ruling, directorship, teaching, testimony, and“imamship”; indeed, no ranking or residency for them. We wiped out the call ofthis man from the countries and nullified his creed by which he had misguidedmany people or almost did; indeed, he misguided many individuals and by thatcreed, they spread corruption on earth. 169
    • Let the records of the Islāmic hearings confirm that the Ĥanābilah havecomplied with retracting this standing and present the records afterauthentication to the Mālikiyy judges. We provided pardon and warning, andexercised justice when raised the alarm.Read our decree on the podia of the mosques and dispense it as a comprehensiveadmonisher and deterrent as well as [one of] the most just forbidder and bidder,Allāh willing.Praise to Allāh alone; may Allāh raise the rank of our Prophet Muĥammad, hisfamily and companions and grant them Salām.The above honorable handwriting is dependable; it was written on the 18 th ofRamaďān, 705 AH.” The Edict of the Four Head Judges in Egypt (726) 363 Visiting the grave the Prophets The four judges in Cairo wrote the following on the front side of the answerwhich Ibn Taymiyah gave with regards to visiting the grave of the Prophets and the graves of the righteous: Praise to Allāh; in an answer to a [given] question, the author of the related content [of this edict] states that the visit to the graves of the Prophets and righteous is an innovation. He also mentions things similar to that and says that it is not permissible to travel to visit the Prophets. [All of that] is false and condemned. [Let it be known that] a group of highly ranked scholars related that the visit to the Prophet  is virtuous and sunnah by consensus. This aforementioned muftī364 should be restrained from uttering such statements and eccentric answers; and [should be] imprisoned if he does not put an end to that. The standing of his should be exposed publicly to make it well known so that people become vigilant and alert to not follow him.363 Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy.364 Person who issued the edict. 170
    • Written by Muĥammad Ibn Ibrāhīm Ibn Saˇdillāh Ibn Jamāˇah ash- Shāfiˇiyy; the same thing says Muĥammad al-Ĥarīriyy al-Anŝāriyy al- Ĥanafiyy but he [Ibn Taymiyah] definitely and categorically has to be imprisoned, written by the latter; the same thing says Aĥmad Ibn ˇUmar al-Maqdisiyy al-Ĥambaliyy; the same thing says Muĥammad Ibn Abī Bakr al-Mālikiyy, when it is confirmed that he said it, to be immensely refrained as needed to thrust away this vice and other wickedness. The Ŝulťān’s Directive (Rajab 726) Visiting the grave the Prophets Ŝulťān in Egypt wrote a directive to his representative in Damascus concerningthe issue of visiting the grave the Prophet . Badru-d-Dīn al-‘Aˇzāziyy signed itand Ibn Najībiyy recited its content, it states, after beginning with the name ofAllāh: May Allāh continue his blessings; we put forward for your noble acknowledgement and dignity our review for the subject matter you prepared concerning Ibn Taymiyah. We studied the issue and examined the content in reference to the aforementioned and the way he charged into issuing the answer. [He gave the answer] to the Islāmic question after the repeated honorable decrees, which came in response to the verdicts declared by the judges and head scholars, had prohibited him from doing so. We held a hearing in our presence and asked for the reading of [Ibn Taymiyah’s] answer in front of the judges and the scholars. They all declared that the edict is wrong and condemned Ibn Taymiyah. They gave a ruling which entails censuring him [Ibn Taymiyah], imprisoning him by a lengthy incarceration, and categorically preventing him from answering Islāmic questions. While in our presence, they marked by their handwriting the aforementioned opinion on the front side of the edict that is equipped by a copy of what Ibn Taymiyah wrote. We have attached to this correspondence to the high Dignity a copy of the ruling to provide him with a perspective of the resulting opinion that the four judges had written. Then he proceeds forward to apprehend the aforementioned at the castle of guarded Damascus, categorically prevent him from answering Islāmic questions, and prevent the people from mixing with him and repeatedly visiting him. Each day, he [Ibn Taymiyah] will be provided with his basic needs. To serve him, he will 171
    • be visited by a selected individual like a relative, son, brother or the like. Let this matter be known, and follow the ruling according to the judgment issued by the scholars, which possess the diverse knowledge, concerning the aforementioned prison and the lengthy incarceration. This individual very frequently sets out to people forbidden innovations which preoccupy their minds. It is a priority to put off this matter and block his pretext for such an endeavor. Let his [high Dignity] execute this judgment and progress in fulfilling it. When the high Dignity apply this directive which we devised concerning Ibn Taymiyah, he will proceed to stop those who follow Ibn Taymiyah’s ways, or issue answers according to these edict, or apply these [false] judgments in divorce, or follow this newly innovated edict. If he [the high Dignity] learns about someone who followed this practice or gave an answer according to it, then examine the pertinent cases. If they are known scholars and mashāykh365, then their punishment is comparable to the status of each, but if they are youths of the enlisted members who seek to show off like Ibn Taymiyah sought it, then he punishes and deters them. Let him be strict and decisive in resolving their issues to straighten the conduct of the people and to guard them in following the truth. Subsequently, no one would then dare to answer Islāmic questions contrary to consensus or innovate in the revealed Religion of Allāh unprecedented propositions. The high Dignity will administer these identified matters because these practices eradicate the pretexts [behind the evil doings] and this measure has superiority over permitting these endeavors. We rushed sending this answer and postponed the other requested items which will be sent after this article, Allāh willing. It was written on the 27th of Rajab, 726 AH.365 It is the plural of shaykh. 172
    • References 1. Ibn al-Muˇallim al-Qurashiyy, Najm al-Muhtadi wa Rajm al-Muˇtadī (manuscript), pages. 630-631. 2. Ibn Shakir al-Kutbiyy, ˇUyūn at-Tawārīkh (manuscript), page 179. 3. Ibn Ĥajar al-ˇAsqalāniyy, ad-Durar al-Kāminah, volume 1, pages 144- 153. 4. Ibn al-Wardiyy, Tatimah al-Mukhtaŝar fī Akhbār al-Bashar (Tārīkh Ibn al-Wardiyy), volume 2, page 381, page 398. 5. Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy366, ‘Aˇyān al-ˇAŝr wa Aˇwān an-Naŝr (manuscript), volume 1, page 34. 6. Taqiyyu-d-Dīn al-Ĥuŝniyy, Dafˇ Shubah man Shabbaha wa Tamarrad, pages. 41-42, 43-45. (He quoted Ibn Shākir al-Kutbiyy in his book of Tārīkh); al-Ĥuŝniyy said: “Ibn Shākir was one of the followers of Ibn Taymiyah and was beaten severely because he said to a caller of Adhān you committed kufr when the caller said ‘O Prophet of Allāh you are my means.’ They wanted to sever off his head, but he renewed his faith in Islām. I only mention what he said because that is more prudent to establish the case against Ibn Taymiyah, in spite the fact that he neglected things out of his spitefulness and wickedness, which if mentioned would deeply degrade his role model. The surprising thing is that Ibn Taymiyah mentioned them, while he ignored them.”366 Ŝalāĥu-d-Dīn aŝ-Ŝafadiyy was a student of Ibn Taymiyah and Taqiyyu-d-Dīnas-Subkiyy. 173
    • EpilogueLet us end with some statements given about the Wahhābis by the scholars:Shaykh Aĥmad aŝ-Ŝāwiyy al-Mālikiyy (1241 AH) concerning the Wahhābis saidthe following367: …And some said that this ayah was revealed in reference to the Khawārij [before they appeared], those who pervert the interpretation of the Qur’ān and the Sunnah. And they declared lawful [the shedding of] the blood of the Muslims and [the confiscation of] their money. As may now be seen in their modern-day counterparts; namely, a sect in Ĥijāz called “Wahhābis,” who think they are on something; truly they are the liars. Satan has gained mastery over them and made them forget Allāh’s remembrance. Those are Satan’s party, truly Satan’s party, they are the losers.Shaykh Muĥammad Amīn Ibn ˇĀbidīn al-Ĥanafiyy ad-Dimashqiyy said,concerning the Wahhābis368: …As it has occurred in our times with the followers of [Ibn] ˇAbdil- Wahhāb, who appeared from Najd and imposed their control over the sacred Ĥarams. They used to attribute themselves to the Ĥambaliyy School but they believed that only they were Muslims and that whoever opposed their beliefs were polytheists (mushrikūn), thus they considered the killing of those who were from the Ahlu-s-Sunnah and their scholars to be legitimate, until Allāh Most High destroyed their might and power.Perhaps this is more than sufficient. If we can refute the Wahhābi understandingof the aforementioned texts, then the others that they use can also be explained.This book complies with the verse:369367 Ĥāshiyah aŝ-Ŝāwiyy ˇalā Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, vol. 5, page 78; Dār Iĥyā’ at-Turāth al-ˇArabiyy.368 Radd al-Muĥtar, vol. 3, pages 339-340, Chapter: “Regarding the Followers of[Ibn] ˇAbdil-Wahhāb, the Khawārij of our Times.”369 Sūrat Āl ˇImrān, verse 110. 174
    • ‫َ ب ْ ِ َ َ ْ َ َ ِ َر‬ ِ ْ َ ِ ْ ٍ َّ ‫ْ َ َ ُأ‬ ُ ‫﴿كنتمُخْي ر ُمةُأخرجتُللنَّاسُتَأْمرونُُِٱملعروفُوتَ ْن هونُعنُٱملْنك‬ ِ ِ ‫ِْ َ ب‬ ُ﴾‫ُوت ؤمنونُُِٱهلل‬ َThis means: “You are the best nation ever sent out to the people. You bid thegood, forbid the evil, and believe in Allāh.”We thank Allāh for the blessings that He gave without being obligated to giveanything.We thank Him for enabling us to know who these wicked people are, andgranting us the ability to refute them. We ask Him to enable us to see the truth astruth so that we may abide by it, and to see the evil as evil so that we may avoidit. We ask Him to grant us the correct belief and a good understanding of it. Weask Him to let us die with belief, and escape His torture. We ask Allāh to grantus the lawful sustenance. May Allāh make this booklet beneficial in life and afterdeath, forgive those who worked on it, spread it, make it a shield and a weaponfor the Muslims, and make it weigh heavy in the scale on the Day of Judgment.O, Allāh, we ask You by the merit and honor of Your beloved Prophet  toanswer this humble supplication. And Allāh Knows Best 175
    • Transliteration SystemEnglish Arabic English Arabic A, a ‫أ‬ Ť, ť ‫ط‬ B, b ‫ب‬ Đħ, đħ ‫ظ‬ T, t ‫ت‬ ˇ ‫ع‬Th, th ‫ث‬ Gh, gh ‫غ‬ J, j ‫ج‬ F, f ‫ف‬ Ĥ, ĥ ‫ح‬ Q, q ‫ق‬Kh, kh ‫خ‬ K, k ‫ك‬ D, d ‫د‬ L, l ‫ل‬Dh, dh ‫ذ‬ M, m ‫م‬ R, r ‫ر‬ N, n ‫ن‬ Z, z ‫ز‬ H, h ‫ه‬ S, s ‫س‬ W, w ‫و‬Sh, sh ‫ش‬ Y, y ‫ي‬ Ŝ, ŝ ‫ص‬ ‘ ‫ء‬ Ď, ď ‫ض‬ Ā, ā ‫ءا‬ 177
    • Vowels (Tashkīl)Open the two lips when uttering the letter Fatĥah ‫ب‬ َُ baGather up and fold the two lips when utteringthe letter Ďammah ‫ب‬ ُ buLower and stretch the bottom lip when utteringthe letter Kasrah ُِ ‫ب‬ biStress the letter by doubling Shaddah ‫ب‬ ُّ e.g. bb Extension (Madd)Extend the sound of the letter for the length of two ĥarakah. One ĥarakah is thelength of time taken to flex the finger or extend it. This is the case for threeletters:Alif ‫آ‬ which is underlined ( ā ) to show that it needs to be extended.Wāw ‫و‬ which is underlined ( ū ) to show that it needs to be extended.Yā’ ‫ي‬ which is underlined ( ī ) to show that it needs to be extended. 178
    • ‫َ ُۡ ُ َ َ َ ُ ۡ ُ َ‬ ‫َ ُ ۡ َ َ َّ‬ ‫فسبحَٰن ٱّللِ حني تمسون وحني تصبِحون ٧١‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ َ ُۡ ُ َ‬ ‫َّ َ َ ِ َ ۡ َ ِ َ‬ ‫َ َُ ۡ ۡ ُ‬ ‫وَل ٱۡلمد ِف ٱلسمَٰوَٰت وٱۡلۡرض وعَ‬‫شيا وحني تظهرون ٨١‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ ِ‬ ‫971‬