Mufti taqi Uthmani - Easy Good Deeds
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Mufti taqi Uthmani - Easy Good Deeds Mufti taqi Uthmani - Easy Good Deeds Document Transcript

  • CONTENT Introduction Some Important Points Good Intention Praying Prayers according to Sunnah Seeking Pardon Dhikr of Allah Darud Thanks giving Patience Beginning all important work with "Bismillah" To precede in greeting Visiting the Sick Participation in Burial Service (Namaz-e-Janazah) and Burial13. Condolence and consoling14. To love for the sake of Allah15. Helping a Muslim16. Justified Recommendation17. Concealing others Shortcomings18. Preaching good
  • 4 519. Sadaqah and Charity 52 Reading and recital of Surah Fateha 9 320. Forgiveness 54 and Surah Ikhlas2 1. Tenderness / Kindness 56 Careful Ablution (Wadhu) 9422. Peace Malung 59 Misvak 9523. Helping the Orphans and Widows 60 Dhikr after Ablution (Wadhu) 9624. Spending on Family 62 Tahiyyat-al-Wadhu 96 4 L25: -* Good Treatment of Parents 64 Tahiyyat-al-Masjid 98 Y26. i;.$ourtesy and Kindness to Parents, 68 Intent of Itekaf 99 Relatives and Friends Praying in First Row 9927. Good Marital Relationship 69 Filling the gap in Prayer row 10028. Good Treatment of Relatives 71 Ishraq Prayer 10129. Doing Good to the Neighbour 74 Bathing and use of perfume on Friday 10230. Cordiality and Courtesy 76 Eating Sehri in Fast 10431. Good behaviour to Co-travellers 78 To hurry in Iftar 10532. Meeting for Allah 79 Giving Iftar to a Fasting Man 10533. Respect to Guests 80 Looking after the household of a Haji or 10634. Removing harmful things from the way81 Mujahid35 Avoidance of Quarrel 83 Praying for Martyrdom 10736. To learn Matters of Faith 84 Starting work early in the morning 10831. Teaching Religion 86 Dhikr of Allah during Business 10838. Respect of Elders 87 Taking back sold goods 10939. Respect for Islamic way and Customs 88 Giving loan to the Needy 11040. Kindness to children 89 Giving grace period to poor debtor 11041. Adhan: Calling to Prayer 89 Telling the Truth in Trade 11142. Responding to Adhan 90 Planting Trees 11243. Reading the Quran 92 Good Treatment of Animals 112 Killing Harmful Animals 113
  • 669. Controlling the Tongue 11470. Avoiding useless talk and activities 11671-77 Six Good Deeds. 11678. Beginning from the right 11779. Cleaning and eating a dropped morsel 118 INTRODUCTION80. Praising Allah upon Sneezing and BY its Response 119 JUSTICE MAULANA MUHAMMAD TAQI USMANI81 Fear of Allah 11982. Optimism and Hope from Allah 120 Allah has created this world so that creatures living here may, through good actions, provide for the Hereafter and do deeds that may earn for them Divine pleasure. However, we become so engrosed in the affairs of worldly life that we become oblivious of the true purpose of this life. So every living moment from morn till eve is spent in making earthly life better and more and more pleasant. In this struggle there are few of Allahs bondsmen who think of bettering their lot in the Hereafter, although it is an established fact, which even tie most hardened atheist cannot deny, that everyone has to leave this world one day and none knows exactly when the summons would come. The methods prescribed by Islam to better the human lot in the Hereafter are not really difficult; in fact, if one adopts them, his earthly life too becomes I pleasant and comfortable. But unfortunately, it is generally believed today that observance of Islamic teachings, is difficult and demands the sacrifice of many worldly advantages, pleasures and comforts.
  • 8Consequently, most people, being scared of this importance of storing up good deeds, but when ourassumed difficulty, veer away from the Divine path, eyes shall close in eternal sleep and when we shall be summoned before Allah to answer for whatever The fact is that, firstly, Islamic commandments we did in this world, then we would know howand injunctions are not per se difficult to follow and important even the most ordinary good deed shallwhosoever of Allahs bondsmen desires to followthem is aided by Allah and his lives in this world become. Good deeds are the currency of the Afterlife; gold and silver and worldly coins shall avail nought,as well as in the Hereafter, are changed for the the only question to be asked would be "How manybetter and to his greater advantage. good deed have you brought to be reckoned ?" If Secondly, even if there is some difficulty or then the pocket would be empty, one would ruesome laborious effort is called for in the observance and repent why the roster of deeds was not filledof rouse command, it is insignificant if one keeps in up with good acts. But then all repentance wouldmind the eternal bliss and comfort vouchsafed in be of no avail as the time for acts would be longthe Hereafter for the observers. Even in this worldly, past.earning the daily bread does involve some hardshipbut it is accepted since it is rewarded. Similarly if The exalted companions of our eternally blessed Holy Prophet knew the worth of good deeds;w e keep in mind that observance of Islamiccommandments is going to earn for us unimaginable they were eager to do good. As soon as they learnt that some good deed earned Divine pleasure theyrewards in the Hereafter, we would hardly shirkthe slight hardship involved. did it and went on doing it. And if they learnt it late, they regretted the delay. Thirdly, while there are some Islamic Abu Huraira recounted the Hadith to Abdullahcommandments and injunctions the observance of ibn Omar that whosoever offers the salah of Janazahwhich does entail some labour, there are otherDivinely ordained acts which do not entail any at the burial service of another would earn merithardship nor are they time consuming nor do they equivalent to one carat and whosoever goes withdemand any expenditure. It is only a matter of the bier and remains with it till burial earns twoattitude; if one develops the right attitude, he would carats each carat being equal to the hill of Uhad.go on chalking up good deeds in his roster of deeds, Ibn Omar asked Ayesha (may Allah be pleasedand if one goes on observing them, he would have with her) to verify it, which she did, Ibne Omara vast store of good deeds that would fetch rewards exclaimed "Alas w e have lost so many carats".in the Afterlife. (Tirmidhi). In this world, w e do not realize the true Every good deed which earns Divine pleasure
  • 10is most valuable . As it is only in this world that onecan do good deeds, especially those that entail nohardships and earn merits for them, it would be amisfortune of the highest order if one shuns themhere only to repent in the Hereafter. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS The present booklet is a compendium of gooddeeds done easily, without any significant labour and Only those deeds have been discussed herewithout any expenditure. Whosoever shall pay heed that do not involve any significant labour or difficultyto them shall go on doing good deeds and earn merits. but earn much merit and reward. The purpose is to awaken in the hearts of the readers the urge to The Muslims are requested to read this booklet follow and observe them and increase their store ofcarefully and to do the good deeds mentioned herein goodness for the Afterlife. However, it is necessaryas a routine. May be that these apparently insignificant to remember the following points when reading thisdeeds steer our lives on to the path of Divine pleasure book:and ensure our salvation. 1. Since this booklet deals with only those good May Allah give the author and all Muslims the deeds that are easy to perform without much labouropportunity to observe these injunctions and may He or hardship and one can start performing themgrant us merits and its bounties in the Hereafter. immediately, there is no mention of those acts andAmeen. actions which are unavoidably enjoined and prescribed. Hence it should be remembered that din (i.e. faith) is not confined to the deeds mentioned here. The commandments of faith embrace all aspects of life and it is incumbent upon every Muslim to carry out all prescribed acts and to desist from sinning. This book has two purposes: Firstly it is to urge those who already carry out the prescribed duties to add those easy-to-perform actions in their repertoire of good deeds and thus enhance the positive value of their roster of deeds. The second purpose is to attract those who, believing the commands of the faith too difficult to observe, have
  • deviated from it, and to gradually persuade them to The conditions then were such that it was difficultdo easy-to-perform deeds which lead them at once to imagine a mumin (a believer) committing a majorto the portals of faith. It is hoped that if they start sin and not repenting for it. In those days most sinsperforming those easy deeds, there shall gradually were minor and thus only those sins wereawaken in their hearts the urge to observe all the mentioned, while the Seriousness and heinousnesscommandments of the faith and thev shall one dav 4 penance sins and the importance of penitence and of major remain.easily embrace a wholly religious way of life. . 2. The second point to be understood is that 3. Keeping in mind the above mentioned twoczhadith (saying of our eternally blessed Prophet) points, one must not forget the following saying ofhave been quoted in this book which promise Divine our eternally blessed Prophet:forgiveness for some very simple actions. However, K~ p J l e d * - Yit must be remembered, when reading these ahadith - ~~)) # .8>,0 0 ~ ~ - 8 0that the sins which are automatically pardoned by Never take any -good deed as humble.good deeds are minor sins only: major sins require Hence one must never b e deluded intoformal penitence and forswearing. The Holy Quran believing that if we are unable to do big deeds. howsays : can small relatively insignificant deeds lead to our salvation? A good deed is never insignificant and 0- $&&--&$&.$2+,wG, H . so no opportunity of doing good should be let pass, If you avoid the major sins you are prohibited as it is entirely possible that good deed may be to perform, We shall atone your minor vices. rewarded by Divine pleasure and our whole life Similarly, sins relating to the human rights are may change.not pardoned until and unless the right due to the This book, if read with those points in mind,aggrieved is restored to him or her, or the aggrieved shall be useful. May Allah reward this humble effortperson forgives the wrongdoer. I and may He grant us the good fortune to do good Thus the mention of sins pardoned by simple deeds. Ameen.good deeds should not delude the reader intobelieving that whatever sins big or small he commits ***he would be receiving Divine pardon by virtue ofthese good deeds. One should keep in mind theenvironment in which the eternally blessed ProphetMuhammad spoke of Divine pardon for good deeds: , I i
  • 15 earn merit. Similarly if one eats with the intent that his physical beady too has its rights and dues which (1) GOOD INTENTION include nourishment through eating or if one eats with the intent of getting pleasure and taste and of Intention is an alchemic prescription that can thanking Allah for these, the eating become an act ofturn base dirt into noble gold. The hadith says "All merit.actions depends upon intentions." There is no lawful deed of life, which if done It is sometimes interpreted to mean that good with good intent, does not become act of merit.intentions justify bad deeds too and turn sinsmeritorious. This is entirely wrong. Sin is always a A few instances shall elucidate the point further:sin no matter how noble the intention may be. For (a)Honest earning, whether by trade or serviceinstance if someone breaks into a house to steal or industry or agriculture, if done with the intent ofwith the intention of giving away as alms whatever rightly fulfilling the duties enjoined by Allah towardhe would steal would be a thief deserving the oneself and ones family, would become an act ofprescribed punishment. His good intentions would merit.not earn hire any merit nor would his sin bepardoned. Then if one further intends to spend whatever he may save after fulfilling the needs of himself and What this hadith means is as follows: his family in helping the poor and in other similar 1. A good deed earns merit only if done with good deeds, he would earn further merit.right intention. For instance prayer would earn merit (b)When a person engaged in learning intendsonly when one prays only for Divine pleasure: if to serve the humanity through his knowledge heone prays to impress others, then, instead of earning would go on earning merit as long as he remainsmerit, it would earn punishment. engaged in acquisition of knowledge. For instance a 2. The second interpretation which is germane student of religion may decide to propagate the faith,to the present discussion is that all lawful deeds a medical student to alleviate human suffering due toactually earn neither merit nor punishment, but if disease, an engineering student to serve his peoplethese are done with good intent, they become acts through his specialized knowledge etc. all these actsof worship and earn merit. For instance eating is would become acts of merit because of the intentionlawful: but if one eats with the intention that food which motivates the doer.shall give hire energy and that energy lie shall (c) A man, knowing that sustenance andspend in the service of Allah, the act of eating would
  • 16 17subsistence is the responsibility of Allah which He so ordained, hence such an act is also meritorious ifshall fulfil without fail, engages in a particular done to follow the sunnah.profession or vocation with a view to serve humanity,his profession would earn him merit. (g)Hospitality to guests, if shown in pursuance of sunnah is an act of merit. For instance if someone enters the medicalprofession consciously choosing it from among other (h) Planting a sapling or plant in the house so that it may one day be of use o some man or animal fprofessions in order to cure the sick, be would earnmerit even if he charges for his services. Such a and please the onlooker would be a good deed.man would not hesitate to provide free treatment (i)Writing a beautiful and legible hand to makefor the poor and the destitute. it easy for the reader to read is an act of merit. A cloth merchant who enters this profession (j) If a woman dresses herself in beautifulto provide clothes to people because clothing oneself raiment and wears ornaments and adorns herselfis a religious duty, would also earn merit. to please her husband and if a man remains clean Similarly a government servant, motivated by a and neat to please his wife, both are good deeds.desire to serve the common man and fulfil his needs, (k) If permissible recreation is indulged in towould earn merit. "Thus, every profession, becomes the extent needed to prepare oneself for duties it ismeritorious, provided the intention is right." a meritorious act. (c) If one dresses in finery not to show off his (1) If a watch is kept to know prayer timingsstatus or wealth, but to afford pleasure to others, it and to realize the value of time which is intendedis an act of merit. to be spent in good deeds, it is an act that earns merit. (d)If one treats his children with love becauseit is a sunnah of our eternally blessed Prophet, it There are a few common examples fromearns him merit. everyday life which can earn much merit for the doer, Imam Ghazali has rightly observed in his 1hya- (e) If one does the household chores because al-ulum that there is no lawful action in human lifethis too is a sunnah as our eternally blessed Prophet which, if done with the right intent, cannot behelped in the housework, its merit rewards in theAfterlife. changed into an act of merit. Even if husband and wife give mutual pleasure to each other, each with (f) Loving conversation with wife and children the intent of giving the other his or her due andis a sunnah and the eternally blessed Prophet has making them pure this too would give them merit.
  • 19 1. Divine grant of prayers fulfills our desires; 2. Every prayer earns merit; and 2. PRAYING 3. Repeated acts of praylng bring one ever closer Allah likes his bondsmen to pray to Him. If a man, to Allahhowever munificent he may be, is again and again Although the correct method of praying is to faceasked for anything, he sooner or later loses his the Qiblah and raise ones hands and pray withpatience and becomes angry. But Allah, on the tongue, prefacing the prayer with praise of Allah andcontrary, is, pleased the more his bondsmen ask him. darud, but one can also pray without theseHadith tells as that Allah is displeased with one who preliminaries too. Thus Allah has made the act ofdoes not ask him for anything in prayer. praying so easy that one can also, pray almost Praying is not only a means of realizing ones anywhere and at any time; one can pray whilepurposes but is, in itself, an act or worship. In other engaged in any activity and if one cannot intone thewords praying even for ones personal ends and prayer as e.g. in lavatory, one can think his prayer.worldly needs is counted among acts of worship and Also it is not necessary to pray for big orearns merit. The more one prays the closer one gets important things; one should pray to Allah asking himto Allah. It is not necessary to pray only in times of to fulfil all ones wants, big or small; hadith tells us toneed or of &stress: rather, praying in times of pleasure pray even when one breaks his bootless (Tirmidhi).and plenty is also necessary. A hadith tells us thatone who desires his prayers in the times of sorrow Consequently one should develop the habit ofand distress to be answered, should pray in times of asking Allah to fulfil even the smallest need, to seekhappiness and plenty. (Tirmidhi cited in h i a1 UsulJ Divine amelioration of the most ordinary trouble. Just a child calls his mother for everything big or small, Allah has promise in Quran Pray to Me and I one should call and go on calling Allah. No matter &all fulfill it". Ths Divine promise can never be wrong what work one may be engaged in, one should always so one must pray with Belief and trust in its fulfillment. ask Allah for something or the other. Cultivate this But Nfillment can take different forms; sometimes one habit and see how quickly you rise. gets what he prays for, but sometimes the desired object is not regarded by Allah as beneficial or useful ( 3 )PRAYERS ACCORDING TO to his bondsman and so he is granted something better in this life or Hereafter. Thus every act of praying has SUNNAH three advantages: Although one should pray to Allah at all times
  • Hence if you come to know that any Muslim isfor all ones needs, our eternally blessed Prophet has in trouble or need, pray for him. In fact one shouldtaught us some specific prayers for special occasions pray for the unbelievers too so that they may be Iat different times of night and day, e.g. upon waking I Divinely guided on to the path of Islam. Thus oneup, when going to the toilet and coming out of it, gets merit for We act of praying as well as forwhen performing ablution, upon entering andcoming out of the mosque, upon entering the house, 1 wishing well for others.before meals and after meals hearing the adhan, SEEKING PARDON (4)when dressing, when looking in mirror, before Ifalling asleep in bed. Seeking Divine pardon is an antidote for the II poisoning of human soul by sinning. Every sin These prayers are all-embracing and extremely against Allah, however heinous if may be, isuseful for all our worldly and other-worldly needs. I forgiven if one seeks Divine pardon for it. WheneverWe, by ourselves, can never think of such prayerswhich the eternally blessed Prophet has taught us. I a sin-great or small-is committed, it should be atoned for by seeking pardon, and even when noThese prayers are not time consuming nor ablution I sin has been apparently committed, one should seekis their precondition nor is one to raise his hands. If I Divine forgiveness. Every Muslim knows that theone commits them to memory, one reaps a very rich I eternally blessed Prophet Muhammad was free ofharvest both here and in the Hereafter. all sin, but even then he has said that "I beg for Hence every Muslim must commit these prayers I Allahs forgiveness seventy times or more every day. to memory. There are many books wherein they are I (Bukhari) listed. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvis "Munajat-e- In one hadith the eternally blessed Prophet is Maqbul" has most of them. You should commit them quoted as follows: "Whosoever regularly seeks to memory and ask your children to memorize them Allahs pardon, Allah makes for him a way out of all too. tight corners, removes all his worries and grantsPRAYING FOR OTHERS. him sustenance from sources h e had never imaginedn(Abu Daud, Kitab-al-Satat. Bab-al- One prays for ones own needs and desires, Istighfar) .but one should also pray for ones relatives, friendsand Muslims in general as it is an act of great merit. Hence one should cultivate the habit of seekingThere is a hadith which says that when a Muslim Divine pardon at all times and at least once a (lay,prays for anyone of his brothers in faith in the latters one should tell a hundred beads of Istighfar on theabsence angels pray for the same for him. (Sahih rosary.Muslim).
  • & + & 9 recall ones shortcomings and wrongdoings of the day and seek Divine Pardon for them and Grace. One can ask for-Divine forgiveness in anylanguage however the Arabic version is givin below (5) DHIKR OF ALLAH ~6 %< 9 y,& o, u ..S #%t &$I@ >Lcy3@bdCJd~f One particular form of seeking Divine pardon Dhikr i.e. mental or verbal remembrance ofhas been particularly lauded in hadith, and it has Allah is so consoling, pleasant and easy form ofbeen designated as Chief of all Prayers for Divine worship that one can perform it continuously at allForgiveness; it is given below: /r/, ,./ /* GI;$z u 3 p 3 ! q>dJJ ~ &,,",/*/<, times and with great benefit, Allah has enjoined His Dhikr in the Quran in the following words: &g & ;& *> I & & 0 , ,+ // 4 fl 4 #./ . ~&,,J;;&&$&&,;% .> - * , / J , , < 4 , *< , , "# / ,. Obviously dhikr does not benefit Allah, Who has 4, , / /a* -dYJ&# d*Y - ,,.* * j*b ~>$ j ~ + b 9 @ f i & b i ) c no need of in the benefit is for Allahs bondsmen since dhikr strengthens the bond between Allah and His bondsmen, is food for the soul which invigorates Translation:0 Allah! You are my Sustainer thereis no god but You, You created me, I am Your it. And with an invigorated soul it becomes easy tobondsman and am to the best ofmy abilityfirmon my overcome ones base instincts and to vanquish theoath to You. I seek refuge with You against whatever Devil. Thus one is able more easily to avoid sinsI have done. Whatever boons You have showered on and the good deeds increase.me, I invoke them and turn to You and i also turn to Someone asked our eternally blessed ProphetYou against my sins. Hence forgive my sins because Which worship is highest, in the Eyes of Allah andthere is none save You who forgives sins. which shall be reckoned weightiest on the Day of Hadith tells us that whosoever intones these Judgement?" The Prophet replied "Dhikr of Allah"words with full faith in the morning and dies before - (Jamial Usul, p. 475 Vol. 4)nightfall shall be counted among those of the Paradise, A companion once submitted to the eternallyand whosoever says them with full faith at night and blessed Prophet 0 Messenger of Allah! Good deedsdies before morning shall likewise go to paradise. are many and I do not have the strength to perform(Sahih Bukhari, Bab Afdal-a!-Istighfar) all of them. So please tell vie one thing that I may Specially before going to sleep, one should briefly always remember. Please do not tell me niany things
  • 24as I would forget them." The Holy Prophet said "Your place like lavatory. However even there dhikr cantongue should he wet with dhikr of Allah". (Jami be done without intoning or moving the tongue.Tirmidhi, Dawat Bab Fad1 a1 Dhikr). Thus the merits of this worship can be reaped at all times without any difficulty. However it is Abu Musa Ashari has been quoted as follows: appropriate to fix a particular time in the night orThe eternally blessed Prophet said "A house wherein the day when one can perform dhikr after ablutionAllah is remembered and a house wherein He is and facing the qiblah; dhikr at other times wouldnot remembered are like living and dead bodies" be an added boon.(Bukhari and Muslim) For special dhikr the following books may be Another hadith quotes our Prophet as follows: consulted."People who leave a meeting or conclave withoutmentioning and remembering Allah are like those 1. Fadail-al-Dhikr by Shaikh a1 Hadith Hadratwho get off from a dead ass, and such a meeting Maulana Muhammad Dhakariyya.they would repent (for time misspent] on the Day of 2. Dhikr Allah by Maulana Mufti MuhammadJudgement" (Abu Daud) Shafi. Thats why a hadith tells us to recite the 3. Mamulat-e-Yaumiyah by Dr. Abdul Hai Arififollowing worlds at the end of every meeting or However some brief adhkar are given below which should be recited continuously. 1. Hadith quotes our eternally blessed Prophet This atones for the sh-ortcomings of the as saying thatmeeting. "The following four phrases are most pleasing In spite of the great merits of dhikr. Allah has to Allah. (Sahih Muslim)made it very easy. There are no preconditionsattached to it. If someone performs ablution and thensits facing Qibla and performs dhikr it is all for the 2. Hadith tells us that two phrases mostbest. But if there is no time or occasion for it then pleasing to Al-Rahman are light on the tongue butone can perform dhikr while engaged in other view weighty on the Day of Judgement:works, even ablution is not required and dhikr is J a/# & #MS.# , l d + (*~*UI&,, & l 0 (Bukhari Muslimlpermitted even when unclean after coition or whilemenstruating. However one should not perform itverbally when unclothed or when in some unclean
  • 27 . , 3. Hadith tells us to recite : & C ~ S 4,. l ~H ~ ~ ~ f l C y And Anas, a companion, has said that the eternally blessed Prophet said that "When my name is mentioned before anyone it is incumbent uponmuch because these words are amohg the treasuresof paradise. (Mishkat) him to send durud on me, and whosoever sends darud once, Allah sends his Mercy on him ten times (ibid .) The best darud is the darud-e- lbrahime which 4. Hadith tells us that if one recites these words is recited in prayers and the briefest is Sallallahoin the morning he gets merit equivalent to freeing alaihi-wa-sallam, the latter also has the same meritsof ten slaves from among the progeny of Prophet of as others. It should be noted that when the holyIslam, he gets ten good deeds recorded in his name, Prophets* exalted name is written, one writeshis ten sins are pardoned he is elevated by ten sallallaho alaihi-wa-Sallam after it and not sallaamstages and is protected against the Devil till evening. which is insufficient.And if he recites these words in the evening; he (7) THANKS GIVINGgets the same reward till morning (Abu Daud). Allah bestows countless boons on me on every instant; they are countless as Allah Himself says in the Quran: % ,J.,J=$; DARUD (6) bw-9, 1-3 Ahadith mention in detail so many advantages Shaikh Sadi has said that if one ignores otherand merits of blessing the holy prophet by reciting boons and mercies, life itself is a boon o highest order, fDarud that one can compile a whole to me, and in so fir as the act of breathing itself has two boons ofmany learned people have in fact written books on inhalation and exhalation; if breath, goes in and doesthem. One hadith quotes the Holy Prophet as saying not came out it is death and if breath goes out andthat "One sent by my Sustainer came to me and told does not cone in it is again death. Hence every breathme that Whoever from your ummah sends darud has two boons for which Allah must be thanked.on you once ten good deeds are recorded on his However even if one thanks Allah once with everybehalf, his ten (minor) sins are pardoned and he is breath, it is still insufficient; so how can oneelevated by ten stages" (Sunan Nisai and Musnad adequately thank Allah for other boons and mercies?Ahmed, Al-targhib li al Mundhari, P.157 voIume3) Though it is impossible to thank Allah adequately,
  • 28 29but thanking Him to the best o ones ability is a f pleader. He would never utter anything smackingpleasing to Allah and earns countless merits, and also o thanklessness. fleads to the grant of further boons and mercies, onealso get closer to Allah as he has said: Devil assails man by first making him 4 /, , ,,a: / ad *#aa *< ungrateful. The Qurantells us that when Devil was urss;)t>3>c1>u+;t ## &fi$b granted leave till the Day of Judgment he said that In another place, He says: he would mislead Allahs bondsmen in every way and he further said: This shows that Devils greatest desire is to make Allahs bondsmen thankless so that they may Allah likes a thankful bondsman and dislikes be bereft o the worship o thankfulness. But if f fa thankless one, since thanklessness is extreme someone is determined to be thankful, he is sparednarrow mindedness. A thankless person laments Devils guile and wile.even slightest troubles and ignores the countless Thus thankfulness to Allah is a supreme actmercies and boons; he is more aware o his troubles f of worship which requires only a few moments.than of his comforts, A thankful person, on the &# l 4 ~ # :/ ~ l ~ # * ~ ~ 1 ; s ~contrary is thankful,, even in direst troubles, for theinnumerable boons he enjoys, while praying, for He who thanks Allah after eating earns thedeliverance from his troubles. same merit as one who fasts and desists from Suppose a person is sick. If he is thankless, he eating. (Bukhari and Tirmidhi)would ignore all other blessings, regard himself as Consequently, one must thank Allah for allthe most troubled and aggrieved person in the world his boons and mercies, whether big or small. Oneand lament his fate. But if he is a thankful man he should thank Allah when on returning home, hewould think o the healthful period of his life and f finds his family safe and well, when he eats f=odthen he would think o his treatment o and the f f when his hot brow is fanned by cool breeze,presence of his well- wishers and friends as mercies, when he sees his child happily at play; in otherhe would think of people more sick than himself words everything which pleases and comfortsand thank Allah for sparing him more serious should be acknowledged with thanks to the Onesickness, He would pray for his recovery but not by Allah who is the Real and the Ultimate Sourceway of complaint, he would pray as a besieger and and intone his thanks, he should do it in his heart.
  • Saints and learned ones have also instructed Thee with every batting of the eyelids and with everythat upon going to bed and before falling asleep, breath.one should think o Allahs gifts and boons and thank fHim for every one of them. For instance, one should - ,, @ ,0.*,/,,J & & a 1 b 9 & & t# d ~ & l h *< ~e L + * J sp J s/#, 4//4 /a :* ## *think of the good health of his family and himself;of the house which he lives in, of the comfortable 2. 0 Allah! I praise Thee as many times as thebed he sleeps in, of his own safety and that of his number of Thine creatures, as the blackness of Thinefamily and thank Allah for these Divine mercies words as the weight o f Thine Throne and inbefore closing his eyes in sleep. accordance with Thine Pleasure. Real and true thankfulness to Allah implies 3. It is reported from Abdullah ibn Ghannam thatchanging ones ways to into those that please the our exalted and eternally blessed Prophet taught theAlmighty, but if one merely expresses his following words of thankfulness.thankfulness in his heart or by mouth, it too is anact of great worship. This can lead to a change forthe better in other deeds. While there are no specific wards prescribed for 0 Allah! Whatever boon I or anyone of Thineshowing ones gratitude to Allah and He can be creatures get is from Thee only; there is none coevalthanked in any language, our exalted and eternally with Thee hence all praise and all gratitude are forblessed Prophet has taught us some compressive Thee alone.words to express our gratitude to our Maker; theseare given below. The Holy Prophet may he be blessed eternally &!;g,,&J&& j*gq;$pip said that whosoever spoke these words in the a,/ &j;&3$$I$J,~r*a morning would be thanking Allah for that day and if he spoke these words in the evening he would & . % m a w &r J & Bd ~ + #/,& & / ~ 4 434 be thanking Him for that night. &p3,&j;~,34~3.=r.bl+G &-# , # , N J , ~ rC3&j&$jr;&* << -4 (8) PATIENCE 1.0 Allah!l thank Thee with a thankfulnessthat Allah has created three worlds: one of completeis eternal w t Thine Own Eternal Being. I thank Thee ih bliss and comfort without any shadow of grief orwith a thankfulness that i unlimited but for Thine s pain which is Paradise; the second of pain and griefWill.And I thank Thee with a thankfulness the speaker without any shadow of bliss or comfort; which isofwhich desiresnaught but ThinePleasure And I thank
  • 32 whatever Allah does he believes Him to change hisOhell; and then there is the third world where blissand grief and pain and comfort coexist, and this one pain and sorrow into pleasure and comfort and tois our present world. Consequently, there has never save him from such plights in future.been nor can ever be, a man who has not at some This way of thought is "patience". Patience hastime in his life tasted sorrow. Man, however rich or the advent age that it brings solace and banishespious or powerful he may be, would experience dismay. Moreover the pain and sorrow thus becomepleasure as well as pain; even Allahs chosen causes for boundless reward and merit since Allahmessengers have suffered in this world. says : Hence, one who wants to be wholly andpermanently free of sorrow and pain does not knowthe nature of this world and this desire of his can Please note that sorrowing and worrying innever be fulfilled. Of course, the measures of times of trouble and trial are not sins, even weepingpleasure and pain may vary, but complete and is sudden shock is not a sin, nor is it an act opermanent freedom from pain is impossible. impatience. Impatience is to criticize Allah and to lament and complain. Patience is to hold firm to ones It is thus obvious that every one of us is visited faith in Allah even when h s whole world is crumblingby sorrow and pain in one form or the other. So if into rains and heart is heavy with grief anti ewes arehis lot impatient and frantic and laments his fate brimming with tears. It is this patience for which hasand bewails his lot it would not rid him of pain and been promised boundless reward.sorrow. Such a behavior would, one the one hand,,exacerbate the feeling of pain and sorrow, and, on One sign of patience is to repeatedly say:the other hand, his impatience would be of gravedisadvantage to him in so far as the pain and sorrowwhich could earn him merit and reward would For those who recite these words in times of trialremain barren. and tribulation. Allah has said: In contrast to this, there is a man who in timesof pain and sorrow thinks of the brevity of mundanelife and the inevitability of pain and then thinksthat whatever Allah does has some Divine Design Consequently our saints and learned men havewhich man cannot unravel. This man then does not rightly said that patience is equal to a thousand actslament his lot nor does he complain; rather his faith of worship and it leads to mans spiritual elevation.in Allah and His doings is strengthened since It does not require any major catastrophe for one
  • to show patience and recite: run counter to the practice of patience. One shouldin everyday life there are many minor pinnipeds which try to better ones condition ana also go on prayingshould be countered with the recitation of this ayah. to Allah. Groaning due to pain is also not contrary to patience. The reality of patience is, as described Umme Salma has quoted our Holy Prophet as above, not criticizing or bewailing any Divinesaving that decision, and reciting. This recital is simple and brief but it earns immeasurable reward and merit. "Whensomeone ofyou is afflictedby some pain (9)BEGINNING ALL IMPORTANTor is troubled. WORK WITH "BISMILLAH" A hadith tells tis that once when a lamp went Recital of "Bismillah" when starting any workout our Holy Prophet recited this ayah. is a sign of Muslims. Our blessed and exalted Prophet - This clearly shows that must be has said J<*/) 4 3 / B ~ , y /, • .recited when assailed by even minor troubles, and ~1d$l~4ij,ld+~h6?@~similarly patience should be exercised even in Everyimportant work not began with Bumillaheveryday problems and worries so that one gets remains imperfect and half clone".merit of an act of worship. A sudden stumble, a prickof a thorn, failure of electric power, a bad news, a According to the established sunnah of our eternally blessed Prophet, every important1 workloss, all should be met with a recital of and it should should be started with Bismillah and every Muslimbe firmly believed that some Divine Purpose is at must follow it and inculcate this habit. Bismillahwork behind every unpleasant event. This is true should be recited when entering or leaving thepatience that ways earns immense amount of merit. house embarking upon a vehicle and upon and Another point to be remembered is that just as upon disembarking from it, when the steed orshedding tears over some grievous event is not mount stumbles, when one himself stumbles,contrary to patience, trying to ameliorate ones lot upon entering the mosque and coming out of it,and remove e the cause of pain and sorrow tone is a little before e n t e r i n g t h e lavatory a n dnot against the practice of patience. Seeking immediately upon coming out of it, before startingemployment when unemployed obviously does not 1- All good work
  • 37to eat and drink, upon starting to dress, before to Allah". (Abu Daud )putting on shoes, before reading a book, beforewriting a letter or anything else, before starting It is not necessary to greet only those withdays work, before entering into a pact, in fact whom one is acquainted; greeting strangers whoevery change of state should be prefaced with are known to be Muslims is a matter of great meritBismillah. Women too should recite it when Our holy Prophet, may lie be Divine, blessedstarting to cook, w h e n serving food, w h e n eternally, was asked as to which action are goodstitching a dress, when dressing a child; they for Muslims. Among the actions which our holyshould also inculcate in their children the habit Prophet enumerated was this: "You should greetof reciting Bismillah is very easy and leads to people whether you know their or not" (Sahihrapid accumulation of much merit in ones record. Bukhari. Sahih Muslim)Recital of Bismillah turn mundane activities into acts of worship. It is reported about Abdullah bin Omar that sometimes he went out of the house only to greet A Muslim and an unbeliever both carry out the any Muslims he met and thus to increase his merit. daily routines of life but there is immense difference (MuvattaImam Malik)between the two: the unbeliever does everythingin a state of unawareness, while a Muslim does The correct interpretation of this hadith,whatever he has to do by consciously accepting and however, is that one should greet others, though notrealizing the fact that nothing can be accomplished everyone one sees because it is impossible and it might without Divine Will Help and Pleasure. This also be embarrassing for others. (A1Adab a1 Shariah, realization change worldly acts into acts of devotion li ibn Muslih page 422, volume 1) to, and worship of Allah. The advantages of reciting It is also a sunnah to greet the family when Bismillah have been discussed in detail in "Bismillah entering the house. Our holy Prophet instructed his kay Fadail-o-Masail" by the authors father Maulana personal servant Anas as follow:Mufti Muhammad Shafi: its study shall be of greatbenefit. "0 son! When you enter (your) house, greet your family member; this act shall be of benefit for (10) TO PRECEDE IN GREETING both you and your family members" (Tirmidhi) Greeting brother Muslims is one of these Islamic Even when entering an empty house one shouldpractices which are hallmark of a Muslim and its greet with the intent that angels are being greeted.merits have been anointed in many ahadith. e.g. Abdullah ibn Omar used to say :"One who takes pretence in greeting others is closer , ,0/0,/04@, ~ L ~ I &.. I ~ L E & , ~ X ~ ~ & / . I
  • 39 38 However if a group is sitting quietly and somebodyon such occasions (A1 Adalf al Shariah li ibn Muslih, passes by then he should greet them; if someonep.424, vol.1) wishes to join them then just one salaam is enough Hadith also urges the muslims to clearly speak and single response from one of the group fulfillstheout the greeting so that it may be heard and sunnah .understood. Although the sunnah of greeting to To be the first with salam is sumah and he whofulfilled by saylng "A1 Salam Alaikum ". but adding does not reply to it is a sinner."wa Rahmat ulla-wa barakatuhu" earns more merit. When a letter is received in whichif@t5 I Imran bin Husayn recounts that once he and salaam alaikum" is written, it should be respondedothers were in the presence of our exalted and to in the prescribed manner while reading the letter.eternally blessed Prophet when a man came and said: -&WV "As-salamo alaikum", to which the (11) VISITING THE SICKblessed Prophet responded and said "Ten" (i.e. theperson who had greeted him, had earned ten merits); Visiting the sick is an act of great merit and is GLdb i ) . included in the human rights an enunciated by thethen another man came and he said, Xssalamo alazkum wa Rahmatullah", to which the exalted Prophet, may he be blessed always. Someblessed Prophet responded and said Twenty (i.e. the jurists regard it vajib, but in fact it is a sunnah.man had earned twenty merits); finally a thira man Thauban relates that our Holy and eternally came and said salamo alaikum wa Rahmatullah wa blessed Prophet has said that "when a Muslim visits Barakatuhu"), to which the exalted Prophet responded his sick brother in faith, he is all the time in the garden and said Thirty" (i.e.he had earned thirty merits) (Abu of Paradise. (Kitab al Birr wa a1 Silah and Tirmidhi. Daud, Tirmidhi, Jami a1 Usul, p.602. vol. 6j, Kitabal-Khabaiz) It should be noted here, however, that salam Ali has said that he heard our Holy Prophet saying i.e. greeting is a sunnah only when the person greeted that "When a Muslim goes to visit another ailing is not busy or when salam would not disturb him; if Muslim in the morning, seventy thousand angels pray salam is going to disturb him in whatever he is doing, for his forgiveness till evening, and if he goes visiting e.g. reciting Quran or doing dhikr or tending the sick till the evening, seventy thousand angels pray for his or studying or doing something else in which loss of forgiveness till morning and he is granted a garden in concentration would cause loss, the one should wait the Paradise". (Tirmidhi. Kitab a1 KhabaiZ. Hadith till the work is finished. 969). Similarly it is not right to salaam when somebody Our exalted and eternally blessed Prophet, is making a speech, and speaker too should not do it.
  • 41 asking and praying for the patient become an act ofhearing of sickness of anyone among his merit. There is no need to have ones visit reportedacquaintances, went to visit him. to the sick man. But if it is intended to please the The correct way of visiting the sick is to put ones patient then the names of the visitors may be toldhand on the sick mans forehead and inquire after his to him at sonic appropriate timeillness, but only if putting the hand on his forehead Hadith has also emphasized that visitor mustdoes not cause the sick one pain otherwise it is not stay very long with the sick man because itsufficient to ask how he was. might harm the patient. However, if the patient Out exalted Prophet has taught us the following wants someone intimate to stay with him then there prays which is to be recited seven time when visiting is no harm in staying long. the sick:- u -, & $P~ :& & pG . #/*J,& It is also necessary to choose the right time for , * - , the visit; it is not right to visit a patient when he is This prayer heals the sick, provided his time resting or is otherwise engaged. Hence it is better to find out beforehand the appropriate time for a visit. of death has not come. Our holy Prophet also used to recite the (12) PARTICIPATION IN BURIAL following prayers several times while visiting the SERVICE (NAMAZ-E-JANAZAH) sick:- : ,., , ,/i$ &~dl+;~q+,&y,~3! 0 I ? , AND BURIAL / ,/ * C , ~&.dJ3&y 6 j ; L J 3.363 Participation in the burial service of a Muslim and accompaniment of the funeral procession up to and also said r: , . 3 1 ; ),&cry9 ~ ~~*,#/ 0./ the graveyard have been designated as acts of great merit in ahadit.:in tact our most exalted Prophet has called it a right of the dead that the living ones pray It should be remembered that the visitors for them and accompany them to graveyard. actions should never cause the slightest trouble or Although participation in burial service and burial pain to sick and this has been emphasized more are ford kifayah, i.e. if a few do these, it does not than visiting the sick. A visit which pains or trouble remain compulsory for others, yet both are acts of great the sick would be a sin rather than act of merit. merit. Thus if visitors are not allowed to see the Abu Hurairah has reported that our holiest patient, they must not visit; in such a case mere
  • Prophet said that "Whosoever participates in burial The act of comforting does not deserve and earnservice {namaz-e-janaza carps one carat and if he merit only when someone dies: the Hadirh quotedremains till burial is complete, then he gets two carats, above shows that comforting and commiserating witheach carat being equal to the Mount of Ohud". anyone who is in pain, trouble or sorrow ears the same They should participate in this prayer not as a merit as the sufferer is getting for his suffering.matter of pure form but for the sake of Allahs pleasure; (i) These words occur in the tradition quoted inthis would certainly fetch much merit. Accompanying Jam i Tirmidhi. (Tirmidhi: Kitab-a1-/aria iz. Hadiththe funeral procession after the prayers is, as said 1040, chapter 49) but actual hadith has also beenabove, an act of great goodness which, according to quoted inMujahid, is of a higher order than nafl prayers. (Fath-a!-Bari. p.193. vol 3. ref. Abd-al-Razzaq). (14)TO LOVE FOR THE (13) CONDOLENCE AND SAKE OF ALLAH CONSOLING To have love for someone for the sake of Allahs pleasure is also a grand act for which much merit and It is an act of great merit to offer condolences on many rewards have been promised. To love for thesomebodys death and to console the bereaved family sake of Allah" means loving someone, not for anyby word and deed. Abd Allah ibn Masud has quoted worldly gain, but because he is more religious and Iour beloved Prophet (may Allah eternally bless him) pious or he is very learned in din or is busy in servingas saying: 7 ~ ~ & t & ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ the cause of din or because loving him or her is , One who condoles with or consoles a commanded by Allah, e.g. ones parents. troubled man get as much merit as the li Such a love has been called "love for Allah" in troubled man gets for his grief. 1 &adith. (Jami Tirmidhi, Kitab-al-Janaiz. Hadith 1073) F i One hadith says: i It may be noted that condolence is generally 1 Allah shall ask on the Day of Judgment, "Wheretaken to mean expression of grief and so, instead of are those who loved for the sake of My Greatness?consoling and comforting the bereaved family,causesthem more grief. Condolence actually means consoling i Today when there is no shade save Mine, 1 shall haveand sympathizing, hence it encompasses all ways and it them in My Shade" [Sahih Muslim: Kitab a1 Birr wa a1 Silah)means of comforting the mourners and giving themsolace and reducing their anguish. I Another tells us that On the Day of Judgment.
  • 45 be eternally blessed - and with Abu Bakr and Umar,Those who had mutual love for the sake of Allahs may Allah be pleased with them, and because of thisGreatness shall be on pulpits of light and all shall envy love I hope I shall be in their company, even thoughthem (Jami Tumidhi, Kitab al Zuhd) my deeds arc not equal to theirs." (Sahih Bukhari, Abu Idris Khulani, one of the famous fabiin says kitabal-Adab, chapter Alamah a1 Hubb fi Allah).that once he visited Muadh ibn Jabal in the mosque There are many ahadith of the same importof Damascus and told him that "By Allah I love you for showing that having love for someone for the sake ofthe sake of Allah". He repeatedly asked me to swear if Allah is an act of great merit, which grants one theit was so and when 1 answered in affirmative every opportunity of doing good in this world and being intime he pulled me by my shawl and said Hear the exalted company in the Hereafter.good news! 1 have heard the exalted and blessedMessenger of Allah saying that My love shall certainly Hence one should love good people for the sakebe for those who love each other for my sake, who sit of Allah and with the intent of becoming good oneselfin each others company for my sake, who go to meet and earning Allahs pleasure, as the poet says:each other for my sake and spend money on each t,fi$;s& s $ *E ; ; , J* 0 I #other for my sake." (Muvatta Imam Malik, Kitab-al-Shirr). 7 love good people (and)although I am not one of them, may Allah grant me Having love for Allahs pious and good bondsmen goodness too.is actually an outcome o ones love for Allah, so it fearns the same rewards and merits as the latter, Hadith tells us that when one someone loves hisbecause of this love. Allah includes His lover in His brother in faith, he must tell him of his love (Abu Daud:beloved people. According to a hadith, someone asked Kitab-al-Adab; Tirmidhi: kitab-al-Zuhd).our blessed and exalted Prophet". When shall come Anas has recounted that someone was sittingthe Day of Judgment?" Our Prophet asked hits "What with our Holy Prophet when another one passed. Thepreparation have you made for the D a y The man sitting one said 0 Messenger of Allah! 1 love thissaid "Nothing, but I have love for Allah and for his man". The Prophet said "Have you told him?" The manMessenger". The Prophet said "You shall be (on that said No". The Prophet said Tell him!" The man roseDay) with whom you love." to his feet and went to the man who was passing and The above hadith has been quoted by Anas. He said "I love you for the sake of Allah. He said "Maysays that these words of the Holy Prophet mere so Allah Whom you love, love you in return!"pleased us as nothing else had ever done. He furthersaid " 1 have great love for the Holy Prophet - may he
  • 47 (15) HELPING A MUSLIM I A hadith tells us that the Holy Prophet said "A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim", and a brother To help a Muslim in some important work and to does not leave his brother helpless nar does he lie todo it for his sake or to remove his troubles and womes him nor yet makes false promises, nor treats him withis an act which has been promised much reward by cruelty" (Tirmidhi:A1 Birr wa-al- Silah)the Prophet: Another hadith runs as follows: Abdullah bin Omar said that our Holy Prophetsaid: "If a Muslim is being insulted and degraded and 8 (/ J"i. / - WJ~&L~*UIOK,+~+~~~& , ,/,. ,, *b his honor somewhere and mother Muslim leaves him helpless, Allah would leave the latter helpless on .rnbi4$+ t,,J a t / , : I T34,;fLef3 -** , *idk,UU / 0,<t,, . ,/< .C# ,,#, occasions when he would need help. And if any Muslim helps him in when he is insulted and degraded, "One who helps someone in his need, Allah shall help him when he would need help" Allah helps him in his work, and one (Abu Daud: Adab) who removes any worry or trouble of any Muslim. Allah, in return, removes Helping a Muslim includes appropriate refutal of anyone of his worries on the Day of any wrong charges or insinuations levelled against Judgment". [Abu Daud, Kitab-a!-Adab, another Muslim. Bad-al-Mu vakhao Abu Darda report that our Holy Prophet has said: , 5, ; .: Telling someone the way, sharing someones ... ~ I &Ca+g > & J U ~ & I ~ J ~ I $ ~ ~ + + J ~ ) 3 8 , Iload or helping him with it, and all other acts of publicservice are included in the acts defined by this hadith. "One who defends the honer of his"Those who help others are truly much blessed," as brother,Allah keeps the fire ofhell awaythe hadith says:- from his face on the Day of Judgment [Tirmidhi:a1 Birr wa a1 Silah, Chapter 20) "Bestpeople are those who are useful JUSTIFIED (16) to others". RECOMMENDATION Hence all occasions of service, big or small, must To give justified recommendation for someone isbe sought for; this increases ones merits. I someone f an act of great merit. The Holy Quran says:is a victim of tyranny, it is the duty of every Muslim tosave him from it.
  • 49 and the Holy Prophet has said:- something, he still has to follow some rules or preferences of his own. In such a case too one should Make recommendation; you shall earn merit. not make specific recommendation but leave it to the(Abu Daud and Nisari) person to do it according to his rules and preferences Once a man asked the Holy Prophet for so that he may not be unduly burdened.something; the Messenger of Allah turner! to others Nowadays recommendation is made for the sakeand said "Recommend hm, so that may you earn merit of its merit in the hereafter but its riles as formulated(BukhariKitab a1 Adab). by shariah are not observed. Especially, people do A good recommendation, whether affective or not consider the trouble they may cause to theineffective, is in itself a good deed. If it is effective person to whom recommendation is being made.then it might carp double merit. Remember that there are rules for everything in shariah which have to be followed; it is not at all But it should be noted that the recommendation permissible to unduly trouble anyone even for theshould be for some correct purpose and not for any sake of another Muslim.unlawful purpose because recommendation for something unlawful is a grave sin with graverconsequences. Hence it is necessary to be absolutely (17)CONCEALING OTHERSsure that the person recommended is truly deserving SHORTCOMINGS.of it, and whatever he is being recommended for isjustified and lawful. If o n e conies to know of somebodys Another point to be noted is that the shortcomings it is a matter of great merit if he recommendation should not unduly burden the person conceals it front others provided this shortcoming to whom the recommendation is being made, first of is not handful or dangerous for others. According to all it must be assessed if the person is really able to Abu Huraira, our Holy Prophet has said that: do what is recommended; if not, then recommendation should not be made as it might embarrass hire. If one "Allah shall conceal on the Day of cannot know whether the person to which Judgement the shortcornings of the one recommendation is made is able to act on it or not, who conceals the shortcomings o f then recommendation should not be pressing and one other " should ask for the work to be done if it can be done. (Sahih Muslim: Kitab a1 Birr wa Silah ) Sometimes even when a person is able to do And Aqabah ibn Amir relates that our eternally blessed Prophet has said that:
  • 50 I deeds gets as much merits as those who act upon his "The action of one who conceals the guidance, and the merits of the doers arc not reduced shortcoming of another is as if he saved a girl from being buried alive 1 thereby. And one who calls others to do wrong sins as much as the collective sins of those who follow (Mustadrik:Hakim. p.334, volume 4) him in sinning and their sins shall not be reduced at all" (SahLh Muslim). (18)PREACHING GOOD ~ I While merit is vouchsafed when others respond I to guidance, the very act of guidance to good, whether To urge others to goodness is also an act of great responded to or not, is one of great merit becausemerit. If someone agrees to do good due to another hadith tells us that:mains efforts, both shall earn equal merits and reward. Abu Masud Ansari relates that our eternallyblessed Prophet has said One who guides another togoodness shall earn as much merit as the doer of the Giving order to do good is a form ofgood deed (Sahih Muslim}. Sadaqah and slopping (someone) from If the guidance towards good is in the form of a going evil is also a form of Sadaqahcollective effort, i.e. many persons are guided and (Sahih Muslim).consequently do good, the reward of the good deeds Hence no opportunity of giving good advice toof all goes to the guide also (in addition to the rewards and guiding others should be lost, but care should beclue to actual doers). taken to adopt a method for this which is not insulting or irksome to the other man. One should not criticize Abu Hurairah recounts that our Holy Prophet others in Public nor should one adopt an overbearingsaid:, anti proud stance, advice should be given in privacy and in a soft tune showing ones sympathy anti cornifications hence one should chose a time for advice when the hearer is not worried. Wisdom should be exercised in this anti intent should be of doing good, since the Quransays: One who calls others to the right path of good
  • 53 (19) SADAQAH AND CHARITY it too would a sadaqah and would earn merit and lead to Divine pardon. Sadaqah and charity are both acts of great merit This hadith also clearly shows that the pooranti effective means of earning Divine pardon and should not think that they cannot earn merit throughescaping the fires of hell. Quran and hadith too are sadaqah: by spending whatever they can afford,replete with the merits of spending money as they tots can cam this merit.sadaqah and in charity: in fact one can do justice tothis topic in a book only. Shaikh a1 hadith Maulana There are some who, after paying zakat,Mohammed Zakaria Kandhalvi has written a book believe that they have done all that is required from"Kitab a1 Sadaqat" which is indeed an excellent them and do not spent a paisa more; this is notencyclopedic work on this topic. Hence there is no justified. Zakat is a duty and the money is to beneed to describe in detail the merits of sadaqah and spent for very specific purposes only. There arecharity: those who desire can consult this book. many other good deeds which lie outside the imbed of Zakat e.g. contributing to mosque fund. Hence What we wish to bring to the readers attention some money over and above Zakat should be spenthere is that it is not at all necessary to spend on outer good deeds too. Our spiritual elders antiovermuch to gain merit; one has to spend only as saints always set aside a certain portion of theirmuch as he can afford. If one has only a Rupee and incomes for charitable purposes. Maulana Thanvilie spends one paisa on some good work it is as if a always reserved one-fifth of his income for this,man with a hundred thousand rupees spends a others reserved one-tenth or one-twentieth part.thousand. Allah does not care for human wealth; The advantage of this practice is that whenever theAllah values the purity of intent. Maximum sadaqah occasion arises, the money is already set aside andwith pure intent is as much pleasing to Allah as available; this availability is also a reminder.great spending, and cams much merit anti reward.Our exalted and blessed Prophet has said: If everyone regularly sets aside some part of -9:. 2:: ,/ , ,: 0-< his income, he can easily earn much merit and % a d JUI 9 H * 3 1) reward: "Escape the fire of hell he it by the Sadaqah and Khairat (charity) should have length of half a date" only one purpose, viz. obtaining the pleasure of (Sahih Bukhari - Sahih Muslim) Allah. Those who give away money for these This hadith means that if one has nothing save purpose arc amply rewarded by Allah in this worldhalf a slate, and he gives to another who needs it, too. Hadith tells us than "Sadaqah does not reduce wealth:
  • 55 The point to ponder is that if the aggrieved (20)FORGIVENESS person does not forgive and gets his due revenge, what shall this revenge achieve: If the injury Although an aggrieved person has every right inflicted is such that it cannot be avenged then notto avenge himself within the bounds of shariah, forgiving it would cause the one who inflicted thebut forgiveness is an act of supreme merit. The holy injury to suffer in the Hereafter. Here one shouldQuran says: stop and think how another ones suffering in the * J 4,; /. ,: . J /: < / % , * ,, / , * <, Hereafter would benefit the one aggrieved or in & & ul*c)lc)3yy~ I + , , Jd I + injured in this world. Forgiveness here, on the There is none in this world who is entirely contrary, brings abeut Divine forgiveness for theinnocent and has never done wrong or committed forgiver, and escape from hell, and Allah the Highesta mistake, and everyone craves Allahs pardon. shall pardon his sins. Reason, therefore, tells us toTherefore, when someone makes a mistake the exercise forgiveness.aggrieved person should think ofhimself as a seekerof Divine pardon and forgive the wrong doer. The Forgiveness, it should be borne in mind, meansabove ayah indicates that a forgiving person can here that no revenge is to be sought in this worldexpect Divine forgiveness for his own faults and or in the Hereafter. Such a forgiveness earn muchmisdeeds. merit. There are many other ahadith of the same However it is not necessary that the act ofpurport: e.g. Abu Darda relates that our exalted and forgiving is followed by rapprochement. The latterblessed Prophet has said that:- is involuntary not forced and depends largely upon the future behaviors of the other person. Thus if one forgives anti yet has mental reserves towards the aggressor or transgressor and is unable to maintain cordial rcaltions with him save in the matter of rights If a person is given physical pain and (salaam etc.) he too shall earn merit for his forgiveness. h e forgives it, Allah the Highest elevates his rank and pardons his sins" Forgiveness also does not imply letting down One reads in Jami Tirmidhi that someone had ones guard against any future aggression. If such anbroken a persons tooth, and the assaulted person aggression is feared then any step that is taken tocame to Amir Muawiyahs court to obtain redress. safeguard oneself against it is not contrary toThere Abu Darda related to him the above Hadith forgiveness. In such a case if the previous wrong isand he gave up the idea of revenge and forgave his pardoned and help, even official help is sought againstassaulter ( J m i Tirmidhi:kitab a1 Diyat: Hadith 1412)
  • 56 57 future wrong doing. This too would not detract from "Tenderness adorns everything and the merit earned for earlier forgiveness. would make if ugly" (Sahih Muslim) When the urge to avenge oneself upon the Tenderness means that one must avoid usingwrongdoer awakens, one must pause long enough to harsh words or harsh attitude in anger, and behavereflect that our Holy and Revered Prophet never and speak with tenderness. If someone has to beavenged himself upon anyone. Even when the checked or if a difference in opinion is to expressed,unbelievers stoned him and blood flowed from his face. one should not be rough or harsh, but speak softlyHe said: and kindly. If a younger person has to be trained and strictness cannot be avoided, it too should be adopted in moderation or to the extent needed. Oh Allah Forgive my people. as they do not know" (Sahih Bukhari Sahih Kind behavior also implies that one must not Muslim) argue or quairel with others on every issue and think well of them as far as possible. Even haggling over price should not be harsh or acrimonious. One should be ready to accept anothers viewpoint if it is Tenderness towards others is very pleasing to acceptable, and when if it is not so one shouldAllah and is very meritorious. Ayesha (may Allah be withdraw from argument. It is not good to compelpleased with her always)relates that our holy Prophet others to agree with ones own viewpoint and to forcehas said:- them into submission. Jabir has related that our exalted that our blessed Prophet said that ,i: / +n+~+l / , <: ~i!,t+~ j ~ j 4 ~ 4 i ) t + ; , / / < # >/J Xllah is kind and likes kindness and gives that reward for tenderizes whrch Xllah is kind to him who is tender and is not ,granted for harmless nor for forgiving in selling as well as buying anything else". (SahihMuslim) and even when asking others for his In another hadith related by Ayesha (may Allah due". (Sahih Bukhari).be pleased with her). our Prophet (mayhe be eternallv Hudhaifah ibn Yaman has related that ourblessed) says that: e,, t y s ~I <,< ~ !-<*, , ~ &4 - Y & ~ 6 & ~ < ) / # J I ~ J blessed Prophet said that. byLs!4& "A bondsman of Allah who was given much
  • wealth would be brought before Allah and wouldbe asked what did you do in the world" He would (22)PEACE MAKINGsubmit that Oh my Nourisher. Thou hadst given meThine wealth and 1 traded with it and 1 was Peacemaking between two Muslims who differ among themselves is an act of immense merit. Theforgiving, so 1 made it things easy for the rich and Holy Quran says:allowed time to the poor. Allah would say I havemore right to behave in this manner and wouldthen turn to His Angels and command them Releasemy this bondsman. (Sahih Muslim) and also: Abu Hurairah has quoted our blessed Prophetas saying that:- These verses clearly show how sublime it is to make peace between two Muslims and to try to restore good relations between than. For this purpose one should tell both o them things about cacti other which f may reawaken love and affection between them and "One who gives time to thepoor debtor remove their misunderstandings. In this connection or gives him some relief,. Allah would one can relate even those things which may keep him in the shade of His throne in apparently scent contrary to facts. For example to tell the Day of Judgement when there one of the two quarreling parties that the other would be no shade Save that of His prayed for every other Muslim which included his Throne". (Jami Tirmidhi ) adversary. Our holy Prophet inlay he be eternally Abu Qatadah has quoted our revered and blessed) has said the following for such an act:respected Prophet as saying that:- * / / " * */ , #: ,/.,$,0,,/ *.~s.,!.~ifc;r=ru~+.cl &;.I@ / J ? # ,/I : ~ * 9 ~ y & & F "He is not a liar who makes peace "One who desires to be relieved of the pains between two persons and conveysand worries of the way of Judgement, should ease good thing from one to another or saysthe troubles of the destitute or ease his loan. anything good" (SahihMuslim) (Sahih,Bukhari, Muslim) Another hadith gives the following Prophetic quotation:
  • 61 "TheHoly Prophet said 1 and guardian of orphan shall be like this in the Paradise making a gesture with the "To d o justice between two persons first two fingers with a very small (meritorious)like (giving)Sadaqah distance between them. To create bad blood and enmity among people Guardianship of an orphan has been so muchis a diabolical act anti a hadith tells us that nothing is elevated by this hadith that if is difficult to conceivesnore pleasing to the Devil than creating discord its merits. Who can imagine the merits of closeness toamong then. Hadith tells us that Devil regards sowing: the HoIy Prophet which he indicated by his twodiscord between husband and wife as his greatest fingers.achievement. " According to Abu Hurairah, our exalted anti In contrast to thus, trying to snake peace anti eternally blessed Prophet also explained that whether bring about rapprochement between husband and an orphans guardian is related to him, e.g. mother,wife is an act o great merit. f grandfather, brother etc. or not, he shall entitled to This should be especially remembered by those merit in both cases (Riyad a1 Salihin. p. 118 quoted who live together, the family quarells among in-laws from Muslim) which are so common in our society are usually due As regards widows,. Abu Hurairah has related to ignorance of the basic rules of Islam. If one follows The Holy Prophet said that the Islamic rules anti precepts in letter and spirit his Here and Hereafter shall both be pleasant for him. (23) HELPING THE ORPHANS AND THE WIDOWS "One, who exerts i the cause of a widow or a n destitute person, is llke a crusader i the cause of a n Helping orphans and widows is also a very widow Allah. (it is reported by chromidroses)meritorious act, as the Quran tells us: I also think that the Holy Prophet also said that He is like one who continuously stands in prayer Sahl ibn Safd.a companion has relatedIthat" without break and is like one who fasts without break". ", : " # , 1 4 C~~;L;~,A&, &/&,. . , ). & , L, , g ///, (SahihBukhari and Muslim). -+~>,+96/. , ; ," Abu Huraira has also related the following hadith
  • 63of our beloved Prophet: said that "There is one dinar which you spend in "The best Muslim homestead is the one where the way of Allah (forjihad), another is that you spendan orphan is treated well and the worst one is that on freeing a slave, another is that which you give awhere an orphan is ill-treated ". (A1 Targhib li al poor man by way of charity, and there is anotherMundhiri. p.127, vol 4, quoted from Ibn Majah) dinar which you spend on your family (wife and Quran and Ahadith are both replete with children), the dinar that you spend on your wifeinjunctions to help, aid and assist the orphans and and children has the highest merit" (Sahih Muslim).widows. The few ayahs and Prophetic sayings quoted The reason why spending on ones own familyabove show how much thus action is appreciated by is superior to other spendings is that providing forAllah. Hence, whenever there is a chance to help an ones family is a duty (fard),while other arc by wayorphan or a widow, it should never be lost and of nafl in nature; obviously fard earns more merit thanwhatever good one can do to either should be done; nag. It also makes the point that spending on onesthis shall - Allah willing - earn the doer much merit, family has more merit when the family is needy, butprovided the good deed is done with sincerity and when their needs are fulfilled in the proper way, thennot to impress others or hold them in thrill, and the it is more meritorious to spend on others.real intent is to carp the Divine Pleasure only. Even if Umme Salmah once asked our eternally blessedone is thanked or paid for the good deed, one should Prophet 0 Messenger of Allah! Do 1 earn mexit evennot regard it as a payment for services rendered, but when I spend on my sons from my previous husbandshould look to Allah for reward. Abu Salmah! They are after all my sons and I cannot abandon them". The Holy Prophet replied "Yes you (24)SPENDING ON FAMILY shall get merit for it". Saad ibn Waqqas relates, that our eternally Barring a few insensitive and selfish persons, blessed Prophet said that:there is none in this world who does not spend moneyon his family; the only purpose of the struggle forearning a living is to provide ones family with theirneeds and to make their life easy and comfortable.Few know, however, that this effort too is an act of "Whateveryou spend for the sake ofgreat merit in the eyes of Allah. earning Pleasure ofAllah - even for the food you put in your wifes mouth - According to Abu Hurairah, our Holy Prophet earns merit" (Bukhari,Muslim)
  • 64 All these ahadith clearly prove that if one spends "What is the next actionurHe said "Jihad in the waymoney to fulfil the lawful needs of his family with the of Allah". (Bukhari and Muslim)intent of giving them their Divinely ordained rights ascommanded by Allah and of pleasing Allah, then every Abdullah ibn Omar relates: "Once a person cameexpenditure urns him the same merit as sadaqah. to the Messenger of Allah and expressed his desire to participate in jihad in order to please Allah. The Holy Behold how infinitely kind and-gracious is Allah Prophet asked him "Are your parents alive:" The manthat what one does solely to satisfy his own inner said "Yes. Both are alive". The Holy Prophet said Thenurges has been changed by a slight change of intent go and serve them well". Another Bersion say thatinto an act of such merit that it has become superior the Holy Prophet said Serve them and then performto all other sadaqah and expenditures. Hence to Jihad". (Bukhari and Muslim)please Allah, one should openly spend to fulfill thelawful needs o ones family and should never regret f The ahadith tell us that if ones parents needit. services then he must go on serving them Jihad does not become absolutely necessary (fard-e-ain), as (25) GOOD TREATMENT OF serving the parents is superior to Jihad. It is also widely known that Owais Qarni lived in Yaman and desired PARENTS to visit the Holy Prophet. But since his mother needed Good treatment of parents has been very much his services, our Holy Prophet ordered him not to conicemphasized in the Quran as well as ahadith. Parents but to take care of his mother. Thus Owais Qarni couldhave priority in matter of human rights and also they not visit and see the Holy Prophet; however, as ahave more rights them others. For instance read the reward for his serving his mother, he was grantedfollowing verses of the Quran: such a status by Allah that many important #*<,/,A S / / # / + / ,,, ,, companions asked him to pray for them. When he 6 ~ ~ 9 4 1 3 4 , l g + ~AL),&J, , / +~ / finally came to Madinah during the Caliphate of Omar, And serve Allah. Ascribe nothing as the latter rushed to him to ask for his blessings. partner unto him. Show kindness unto Serving the parents is normally easy since love parents. for parents is but natural and one is automatically Abdullah ibn Masud relates "Once I asked holy motivated to serve and help them and take care ofMessenger of Allah - may he be eternally blessed - them. Then parents love their children and do notwhat action pleased Allah most. He replied To pray wish to unduly trouble them, or to make them do thingat the right time". 1 asked "What is the next action"" that are difficult. A little service is enough to pleaseHe said "Good treatment of ones parents." I asked them and earn their blessings. According to one hadith
  • looking at parents with love has merits equal to Umrah Taking care of parents is in any case one of theand Haj. Thus by serving ones parents, a man can fundamental duties of man but taking care of them inearn much merit. Our Holy and eternally blessed their old age has been particularly emphasized in theProphet has said Ouran. "Maythat person be disgraced, may that person be disgraced who, finds either or both of hisparents in old age, and yet is not able to enter the Paradise" (Mus2im) It means that it is easy to earn Paradise byserving, helping and taking care of old parents, andwhosoever doe not do it deserves disgrace. The emphasis is because in their old age, the parents are no longer able to Mother has been given more right to childrens be of any physical or monetary use forlove and service than the father. Abu Hurairah relates: their offspring and so, often selfish"A person came to our Holy Prophet and asked 0 children abandon them. Moreover, inMessenger of Allah! Which one among the people is advanced age, one is sometimes shortmost deserving of my good treatment? The Holy tempered and their words and whimsProphet replied Your mother!. Then man asked, create resentment. So the QuranhasThen?. The Holy Prophet again said Your mother. asked us to remember how our parentsUpon being asked the fourth time, the Holy Prophet cared for us when we were helpless inreplied, Your father". (Bukhari and Muslim) our infancy and how they pampered It is on the basis of this h a d i t h that the us and hence it is now our turn totheologians have opined that mother has thrice the pamper them, to bear with them withright of the father on her children. This is obviously patience and serve them and take carebecause mother has greater responsibilities then father of them.in bringing up and rearing children; her troubles have It is after seen that parents are ignored whenbeen especially mentioned in the Quran. Moreover, they are alive and when they die, they areshe needs more help in her old age than the father . remembered anti it is regretted that they were ignoredThis is why mother is placed higher than father by and no care was taken of them. But then it is too late.Allah. So every opportunity of earning for them should be
  • taken. "One good deed among others is to maintain cordial relations with the However, even after their death one can still go relatives of ones father" (Sahih Muslim)on serving the parents. Abu Usaid has related that"One day we were with the eternally blessed Abdullah ibn Dinar, a pupil of Abdullah ibn OmarMessenger of Allah when a person from (the tribe of) says that once the latter was riding a camel to MakkahBana Salmah came and asked him, 0 Messenger of and there was a she-ass on the leash with him. HeAllah! Is there any way 1 can treat my parents well rode each alternately. On the way he met a peasantafter death" the Holy Prophet replied: and asked him his and his fathers name. When the peasant told him, he gave his she-ass to the peasant and also his turban. Those who were travelling with him asked ibn Omar why he had given so valuable a present to a peasant who could be pleased with an ordinary gift. Abdullah ibn Omar explained that the Yes. Pray for them, pray for their peasants father was a friend of his fathers and that forgiveness, fulfil their promises after he (ibn Omar) had heard our eternally blessed Prophet them, be courteous and kind to their say that One good deed amongst others is to maintain relatives and respect their friends". cordial relations with the relatives of ones father" (Muslim) The methods preached by our beloved and ever-exalted Holy Prophet can always be followed. Thus one very good way of increasing good deeds in ones record is to maintain cordial relations (26) COURTESY AND KINDNESS with the relatives and friends of ones parents and to treat them with respect, courtesy and consideration. TO PARENTS RELATIVE AND FRIENDS ( 2 7 ) GOOD MARITAL As the hadith quoted in the last section shows, RELATIONSHIP.dutiful and good behavior not only towards parents, Mutual respect, love, understanding, courtesy andbut also towards their relatives and friends is an act a mutual consideration of each others needs plusof great merit. Abdullah ibn Omar relates that our mutual tolerance are not only a must for marital andexalted and eternally blessed Prophet has said that: familial bliss but also very meritorious. The exalted ,- > I; 3 ,J&;sSl$ii, &:3 ,, and eternally blessed Messenger o Allah has said that: f
  • 70 ,e)~~t,#/e,, J J / ., ../. ;.?&!,!,~~J~>~I;L;-I(~IC,~&,.,J~J+$ J , p *,,P,,, well. If you think of these good qualities, the good relationship with your spouse shall be restored". Allah The most perfect faith have those has said:- /,, <, ,@<, , J , #,/, ~ 0~ J J * , # Muslims who have better morals, and the % J I & ~ ~ I + & O I # & ~ ~ ~ ~ best of these arc those who arc best for * *./,. ~PUUg ! & , q l! their women" (Tirmidhi) In a hadith the Messenger of Allah, may he be A hadith has already been quoted which says eternally blessed, has directed as follows: / C / 7 , , 0 9 9 , , , / ,+9+,fi97)t//that the food which one puts in his wifes mouth earns d&~!~a,~&t-~~ro.~him merit. Another hadith goes a bit further andpredicts merit even oh the sexual act of husband and "No believer should have total dislikewife. Some o the companions once asked the Holy f of a believing woman (because)if heMessenger o Allah, We satisfy our carnal needs; does f dislikes one thing, there would be someit too carp merit." Our Holy Prophet replied, Tell me quality [inher) which he would surelywould it not be a sin if someone did it in the unlawful 1ike "way" Then the one who is doing it in the lawful way If husband and wife follow this principle andwould certainly get its reward". (Muslim) live with mutual love land try their best to be good to Another hadith tells us that when a husband, each other, their marital life shall be enriched withupon returning home, looks at his wife love and the happiness and they shall go on earning more and morewife returns his glance with love Allah looks upon merits and Divine rewards all their lives.both of them with Mercy. (28) GOOD TREATMENT OF Husband and wife are always together and pass RELATIVESa large portion of their lives in each others company,it is but natural for frictions to arise. If these normal Good treatment of relatives is very pleasing tomisunderstandings and displeasures are allowed to Allah and earns much merit. It has also been enjoineddegenerate into bitter quarrels and cruelty to each by the Holy Quran in several places and its meritsother, then not only are worldly pleasures destroyed described, for instancebut the Divine reward for mutual love is also lost. HenceAllah and his blessed Messenger have formulated forus a perfect guideline for marital bliss: it can be (A1 Nisa: 36) Show kindness untosummarized as follows: "Do not look at only those parents and unto near kindredthings which displease you; think too that the partner,who is displeasing you, has some good qualities as
  • 73 undeserving, or to get them an employment for which they are not suited etc. are all unlawful in Islam; good (A1 Nisa: I ) Be careful of your duty towards Allah in Whomyou claim your treatment of relatives does not encompass committing rights and towards the womb that bore sins for them. Hence when a relative seeks helps or support for any unlawful end, a polite excuse is called YOU for. Abu Hurairah relates that our Holy Prophet - mayhe be eternallv blessed - said that (2)Good treatment of relatives is meritorious and rewarding only when it is motivated by the desire to earn Divine pleasure and not by any urge to show off "He who believes in Allah and in the or to keep up with others or to follow customs. Our Day of Judgement, should treat his present day society is shackled by customs and relations well". (Bukhari and Muslim) traditions; good treatment of relatives is usually motivated by the desire to save face or out of one-up And according to Anas, the Holy Prophet said manship; hence many things not really desired or likedthat are done due to the force of customs. Consequently, one must not allow himself to be motivated by such @; +* thoughts and if any good is done to any relative or "He, who desires his earnings to kinsman it must be done only to earn Allahs pleasure, increase and his life to be long, should and with happiness and grace; nothing should be treat his relations well", done to complete a formality or fulfil a custom. (Bukhari and Muslim) (3) Since good treatment of kinsmen should Good treatment means courteous behavior, be for the sake o Divine pleasure, one must never fsharing in happiness and grief and helping them in a expect or wait for a good deed in return. Even whenlawful manner whenever required. the return is not good, ore should not abandon good However some points regarding this good treatment of his relations. Actually this is the acid testtreatment must always to kept in mind. that shows whether the good treatment is for Allah or merelv for show. Our eternally Prophet has said: (1) Some people treat their relatives so wellthat they do not hesitate to sin for them in wrong -belief that this is what has been enjoined on them. "He does not treat his relations wellTo share in sinning with a relative, to recommend them who merely returns a good deed; he
  • who treats them well even when they "Gabrieladvised me so much regarding deny his rights really treats them well". neighbours rights that I began to (Sahih Bukhari) suspect that he would be included Umme Kulthum bin Aqabah has related that the among the heirs" (Bukhari and Muslimeternally blessed Messenger of Allah said: and Ibn Omar and Ayesha). Abu Sharih relates that the eternally blessed Holy Prophet said "The best sadaqah is the one given to inimical , $ , 80! .d9 .# ,/ 5 0 0 / , 0relatives (Hakim and Tabrani: A Targheeb wa a 1 1 UG$~$Y~&I, $ 0 ?Uw3,df~Tarheeb, p.120. volume 4). "He who believes in Allah and in the Real and true good treatment is the one given Day of Judgement should be good toeven when ones relations treat him badly; this earns his neighbour" (Sahih Muslim)much merit. Abu Hurairah relates "Someone said to Abu Huraira has quoted the Messenger of Allahthe Messenger of Allah I have some relatives whom I as follows:treat well, but they deny me my rights; I treat them L ,/well, but they treat me badly. I am forbearing, but - 6 / .$D< b ~ b %%*Y ? ,d* ,/a, %#f pdbyb+~c)I(ct.they quarrel with mef.The Messenger of Allah said If "He who believes in Allah and the Daythis is really so then you are feeding them hot ashes. of Judgement should not cause pain toAllah shall always give you a helper (SahihMuslim). his neighbour" (Bukhari and Muslim) It means that they were acquiring hell fire by The first and foremost and the principal right oftheir deeds, and they would never harm him; rather the neighbor is not to cause him pain, trouble orhe would be helped against them by Allah. sorrow; moreover, helping him in his need, sending him occasional gifts, sharing his joys and sorrows are (29) DOING GOOD TO THE all meritorious and rewarding acts. In fact if ones NEIGHBOR neighbor is poor or in financial straits he should be helped monetarily too. Neighbour is not necessarily Neighbours rights are many and are ordained ones equal in social or material sense; poorby Allah. Our holy Prophet, may he be eternally neighbours are also neighbours and they have all theblessed, has said: 6&,p4,++,uL+,t&jb, ,, a##* , 0 - :@f0/6</,,p,:, ,- 0 9 0 more rights as they are in greater need of help and assistance, If a neighbour is hungry, it is not merely meritorious to feed him but also a bounden duty. Even
  • I 76 77a unbeliever neighbour should be treated well. It him be eternal peace - was asked "what wouldhas been related that Abdullah ibn Omar had a Jew admit most men to the Paradise!" He said "Pietyas a neighbour; once when a goat was slaughtered, and cordiality"ibn Omar kept on insisting upon his household topresent some meat to the Jew also. In another tradition, Abu Hurairah has quoted (Abu Daud and Tirmidhi). the follbwing words of our blessed Holv Prophet: * B r J J , ~ , a , s *0>~/#5 ~ i ~ l b 4 ~ $ 1 3 c f 3 1 (30)CORDIALITY A N D COURTESY "Off all the men of faith, those are best Cordial and courteous behavior is very pleasing who have best manners towardsto Allah and is also rewarding. Abu Dhar Ghifari others". (Tirmidhi)has related that our eternally blessed Prophet said: 4Q4 , ,,,f/ , Jc;,&w,.;~$;~&g$y f pa< 4 / Ayesha (may Allah be pleased with her) has quoted the following words of our respected and J,J f-,0, IA J @ + , &&, J 0 f % J & "Never decry any good deed, even blessed Prophet. # + F &J e l c;rb + though it may be (as ordinary as) Xman of faith attains by virtue ofhis good moral meeting your brother cordially. Thus behavior and courtesy and cordiality the status of one cordial behavior towards others should who is a keeper of fasts and stands in prayer" (i.e. never be considered lowly as it too who fasts as nafl and prays as nail. (Tirmidhi) adds much good to ones record. Jabir relates that our Prophet - upon whom be Abu Darda quotes our Prophet - may he be eternal peace saidblessed till eternity in the fallowing words: , =f,,. , * C U.,I ~ > ~ + ~ ~ I k $ ~ ~ ~ ; "? ,- f J:; 0: -4 Ie g ; & . , > /, 0 7 >..**,: - ~ ~ ~ b ~ . u ~ ~ S , c i ~ ,l r w a ~ ~ ~ i . / "Thosewho are dearest to me and who shall be "On the day ofjudgment nothing in the closest to me in the gathering on the Day ofJudgement scales (of Divine justice) shall be are those who shall be better than others in their moral weightier than a mum ins cordiality behavior" and courtesy:Allah very much dislikes one who speaks obscenely" (lami Tirmidhi) 1 The cordial and courteous behavior mentioned in these Prophetic sayings have a wide range of connotations, but cordiality to others and courtesy are Abu Hurairah says that once our Prophet upon important constiments of moral behaviour and these
  • merits mentioned above are true of them too. simple means provided one is prepared for it. (31)GOOD BEHAVIOUR TO (32)MEETING FOR ALLAH CO-TRAVELLERS Meeting a Muslim for Allah only is an act of great merit. Meeting for Allah means meeting not for the Just as Allah has ordained many neighborly sake of any mundane gain, but for Allahs pleasurerights, similarly has he defined many rights of co.- only; for instance one may go to meet a learned mantravellers. Co-traveller is the one whom one may not or a sage in order to learn something for self-know before hand but in whole company one travels; improvement or one may meet someone to please hime.g. the one sitting near in buses, trains, ship and believing that giving pleasure to a Muslim pleasesaeroplanes. Such a person has been termed in the Allah. Both these cases are meetings for Allah and, Quran,i.e. one who is a temporary neighbor. This co- Allah willing, shall earn much merit.traveller should not be put into any trouble by onesactions; this is his right. Some do not hesitate to put Abu Hurairah has quoted the following words ofother to much trouble for their own comfort; they or Prophet - upon whom be eternal peace:should ponder the fact that every journey endssomehow sooner or later, but even in this short period,if ones action cause trouble to the co-travellers a greatsin shall be recorded in his name. And since this sin "One, who visits a sick person or goesinvolves human rights it would not pardoned by merely to meet his brother for Allah, is calledseeking of Divine pardon unless the aggrieved person by a (hidden) caller who says to himpardons it. Usually one does not meet ones co- Blessed art Chow, blessed is thinetravellers again, nor arc their addresses known so that going, thou past made thyself a homeone may ask them for forgiveness. Once the journey in one stage of the Paradise".is over, it is almost impossible to beg their forgiveness. (Tirmidhi Wa-qal: Hasan)Hence one should take great care nor to cause anytrouble, pain or injury to ones co- travellers. This hadith shows that meeting a Muslim for the sake of merit also increase ones good deeds in the On the other hand, co-travellers are to be treated Record. But it should be noted that this order relateswith great kindness, consideration, courtesy and only to meeting those whose company does not causecordiality and one should try to give them every any religious loss; but if it is feared that the meetingpossible comfort or at least be cordial to them. This is would cause one to be involved in a sin or to bean act of great merit which can be earned by very adversely affected, or one would be compelled to listen
  • Ito tirades against third persons or lose much time in (34)REMOVING HARMFULsenseless talk, then such meeting must be avoided. THINGS FROM THE WAY (33) RESPECT TO GUESTS Removing dirt and filth and other troublesome things like thorns or fruit peels or skins on which Showing respect and appropriate hospitality to someone may slip from the way is a very good deed.guests is an important part of our religious behavior Our Prophet upon whom be eternal blessings has beenand has been much emphasized. Our Blessed Prophet quoted by Abu Hurairah as follows:said, according to Abu Hurairah, that <,< ,/ +P > + @J 9 " / 4 18g64~4~u16i / P 99, "Hewho believes in Allah and the Day of Judgement should treat his guest "Beliefhas more than seventy divisions with respect and courtesy" (Bukhari I of which the highest is the assertion and Muslim) I that there is no god but Allah and the lowest is to remove something that This injunction tells us to greet our guest causes pain or trouble and filth fromcordially, to offer him food if it is time for eating. In I I I the way"fact one hadith tells us to prepare special food for theguest on the first day provided one can afford it. This In another hadith related by Abu Hurairah, thehas been called jaiza in kladith (SahihBukhari: from Messenger of Allah saidAbi Shuraih) However, unnecessary and senseless show and "Removingfilth (orpa in - giving thing)pomp and observance of formalities and customs from the way is a sadaqah (i.e. it earnshould be avoided. First of all, one should care for the mere like sadaqah)".guests comfort: hence one should not insist uponfeeding him if that would cause him pain or trouble. i (Bukhari and Muslim)In such a case his comfort and will should be 11 Ayesha (may Allah be pleased with her) quoted the Holy Prophet - may he be ever in peace - asrespected. Guests too should not unnecessarily burden thehost and should not overstay; it has been expresslyforbidden by a hadith in Sahih Muslim.
  • 0 / / ,D /r/*//////&/<t5,1 if$%iUl~l$!&b-?&3 UI-b way or place as to block others path or to make it I / " / , ,/ e :/>& ,, < ,, # J&Uu,lsjJzUirb 91,/ qal*pdw" difficult for them and it is a sin. Similarly driving in * /#/ D 26 9" , ~ & ~ l ; ~ l ~ $ d a way which is in any way troublesome for others js-r.w-+j, , , "0 ?</<P<?< is also a sin. ,Q,&& m*)) "Everyoneof the human race has three Traffic rules have been formulated and hundred and sxty joints. So anyone who promulgated to organize traffic on the roads; their speaks greatness of Allah, praises Allah observance is not merely Iegally compulsory but also and says There is no god but Allah and a religious duty. If one observes these rules and laws "SubhanAllah" and seeks forgiveness of in order to promote discipline in the sbciety and Allah and removes a stone or thorn or a public welfare, then these acts shall be rewarded. bone from the path of people, orders a And if these rules are not observed then the sin good deed or forbids (others)from a bad shall be twice as great: for causing trouble to the one and reaches the three hundred and people and again for disrupting discipline and sixty mark, he shall verily remove himself breaking laws. - away from the chastisement of hell". It is indeed a matter of regret that today such According to another hadith, our Holy Prophet bad acts are no longer considered sinful and evensaid that once a man saw a thorny branch on his path educated persons commit these sins thoughtlessly.and removed it in order to save others from pain (due May Allah grant us the right understanding of ourto being pricked by it) and Allah was pleased by his religion and the opportunity to act according to it.this deed and pardoned him. In another hadith, it isrelated that our Holy Prophet said, that he saw the (35)AVOIDANCE OF QUARRELman walking about in the Paradise. These ahadith show how important it is in Islam Quarrel is very much disliked by Allah and ato keep the roads and paths clear. Even removal of a quarrelsome person has been decried in Quran; inthorny branch, which is a very minor act, has beenpromised so much reward and merit. When so much I contrast, forbearance, equanimity and avoidance of quarrel arc attributes pleasing to Allah anti he whoemphasis has been laid on removing things of pain has them is rewarded for them. Abdullah ibn Abbasfrom the path, it can be imagined how great a sin it has related that addressing a man of Abd-al-Qaiswould be to make a path dirty and give trouble to .: ,/ , / / tribe, our blessed Holy Prophet said: &&dl, -,passers by. Causing trouble to passers by also includes J1+#,>975>L ,I<,parking ones vehicle (car,motor cycle etc.) in such a SI;~I,&I 8 CuJlL4.m - 8 -
  • "You have two traits that Allah likes While acquisition of knowledge is a duty, forbearance and dignity" observance of religious duties in the light of this (Sahih Muslim) knowledge has obviously been promised much reward and merit. Every act of learning Faith is a So if someone be in the right and yet does he good deed in itself and hay been much lauded inrelinquish his right solely in order to avoid strife Quran anti also hadith. For instance, according toand quarrel or make peace, such a man has been Abu Darda, our eternally blessed Prophet said that:given glad tidings by our Prophet may he beeternally blessed, who has been quoted as followsby A ~ urnamah: , ,, . ,- O D c U , J 0 .I I, / dj / / / , / +~YJ+ t W/*J~~ 4* , / bc16 " guarantee a home on the v6rges of "Forthe one who walks a path in order Paradise him who gives up quarrel to acquire some knowledge. Allah even though he may be in the right" makes the path to Paradise easy; and (SunanAbu Daud) angels being pleased with this deed of How fortunate a man who has been given glad the seeker after knowledge, spreadtiding and even guaranteed a home in the Paradise! their wings in his path".May Allah grant such an opportunity to all Muslims, (Abu Daud; Tirmidhi)amin! This encompasses not only those seekers of knowledge who study religion in a regular way but (36) TO LEARN MATTERS also those who seek answers to their problems by OF FAITH going to a learned person or by sitting in a sermon. Anas has quoted the following words of the Holy Prophet: ,= , , ,. It is the duty of every Muslim to know as much .-9l4@i+1&ji:- , ,, R 0 4about his Faith as to enable him to lead his life e2according to it, it is not necessary for everyone to He who goes out of his home to seekbecome a theologian, only necessary learning isnecessary; e.g. important points about prayers, hajjand zakat (poor-due) and what is allowed and whatis forbidden in matters of everyday life II knowledge is in the way of Allah till he returns. (Jami-Tirm idhi) Thus whatever step one takes to learn any aspect
  • of the faith o Islam would, Allah willing, earn hlm f I whom be peace, addressed Ali as follows:the merit and reward due to a seeker of knowledge:even study of religious books, provided they arcgenuine, earns for one the same merit and reward. I u J a s 6 ~+ # #A 8428H f i l ~ & l ~ 1 L + . U~WUY ~ ~ 8<,sd 8 "If Allah gives guidance to even one 0 @Hence one should choose ones books in consultation person throughyou it is far better for youwith a learned man. One should never pass up an than red camels (Bukhari and Muslim).opportunity to learn anything of the faith. It will Red camels were highly prized among the Arabs.increase knowledge, improve ones life and increases Thus this hadith means that if your teaching benefitthe good in ones record. Knowledge is an unboundedocean and the more one learns the more becomes his , someone it is better than all wealth in the world.thirst for knowledge, and it should be so. Hadith tells Hence whenever one gets a chance to teachus that one who is greedy for knowledge is never others, particularly ones own wife and children, anysatiated. He is ever seeking more knowledge and thus aspect of religion, one should avail it and continuethe acquisition of merit goes on and on. I doing this good deed because it is a perpetual source of merit. ( 3 1 ) TEACHING RELIGION ( 3 8 ) RESPECT FOR ELDERS Although piety and knowledge are the true Teaching religion is for more meritorious an act attributes of greatness in Islam, the youngsters havethan learning religion, provided one does not expound been enjoined to give due respect to their elder. Ourreligious to show off his own erudition but teaches to Prophet - upon whom be peace - went to the extentbenefit others. Abu Umamah has quoted the following * ?8words of our Prophet - may he be eternally blessed: of saying that d g 8j + dfij0 < 8 , 0 8 / , ( # , # , 0 6 L+-.~, # r He is not of us who does not have kindness for our young and respect for our old" (Abu Daud and Tirmidhi) Allah the Most High and His angels and Grey-haired folk have been specially indicated all creatures of the Heavens and earth as objects if our respect in hadith. Abu Musa Ashari even the ants inside their ant-holes relates that our Prophet - may he be eternally blessed shower mercy on those who teach things - said: ,+ ./.- &I + ! & ~ ~ ~ ~ U , ~ O I o + ! ~OWr ~r l c / // $ of benefit to other. (Jame Tirmidhi) Sahl bin Sad relates that once our Prophet upon
  • 88 "Respectfor a grey-haired Muslim is a part of (40)KINDNESS TO CHILDRENrespect for Allah [Abu Daud) Another Prophetic saying has been related by Kindness to children is a Prophetic sunnah, as mentioned earlier: our Prophet said that he was not one of us who did not have kindness for the younger ones. "For youth who respects an old man because ofhis age. Allah appoints people Hadith quotes our eternally Prophets words as who shall respect the young man in his follows: when I hear a child crying while I am leading old age. the prayer I shorten them so that the childs mother may not be agitated by the childs crying. It was a custom of our eternally blessed Prophetthat if a younger member of a delegation began to Our Prophet took children in his arms, kissedspeak, the holy Prophet asked him to let the elders them and talked to them in a light vein. All thesespeak first. This shows the great emphasis, laid by acts are sunnah and to do them with the intent ofour blessed Prophet upon respect for elders which is following the sunnah is meritorious and recoending.highly merited and rewarded. (41)ADHAN: CALLING TO PRAYER Calling to prayer, i.e. adhan is a custom of Islam and Prophetic sayings attribute many merits to the (39) RESPECT FOR ISLAMIC act. According to a hadith quoted by both Bukhari and Muslim, our Holy Prophet -- upon whom be WAYS AND CUSTOMS peace - has said that if people knew the real reward and merit of calling to prayer, everyone would try All those things which symbolize Islam and to give the call and lots would have to be drawn.Muslim, e.g. Quran, Kaaba, Mosque, holy places, Nowadays muezzins are appointed in mosquesprayers, adhem, etc. should be respected, this too is to give the call to prayer, but if one prays at a place Ad* /JC, /y < L 8 -an act of high merit, as the Quran s a y s : * $ ~ ~ ~ $ other than mosque where the sound of the call has ~$I(S+&~!?+JI not reached, he should observe sunnah by giving the call and earn the merit thereof.
  • Abu Saeed Khudri once said to Abdullah the Paradise which is reserved for only one of Allahsson of Abdur Rahman ibn Sasaa "I see that you are bond men and I hope it will be me who shall get it.very fond of goats and the desert. Henceforth Thus he who prays for Vaseela for me shall havewhenever you are among your goats or in the desert right to my interceasing for Divine pardon." (Sahihand give the call to prayer. call loudly because Muslim)whosoever shall hear the call. jinns or men or other It is because of this that our blessed Prophetthings, would bear evidence for the giver of the call has taught us a prayer which includes prayer foron the day of Judgement. Having said this, Abu I - 0 s : G 1Saeed Khidri added that the had heard it from the Vaseela: L % I ~ ~ I , , L ~ ~ * & ~ ~ ~ + 8 C 0Messenger of Allah, upon whom b e eternal . I > ; t ~ & + d *i, /w ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ /#*4#0~ 0 -/ ,0B <0 - 8 0 ,blessings. J -:ql*~&]td&;&&ii J* This shows the merits of giving the call the Jabir relates that our blessed Prophet has saidprayer. that whosoever recited this prayer after adhan would RESPONDING TO ADHAN (42) be assured of our Prophets intercession on the day of Judqement (BuMari) To show respect for adhan, one should keep as quiet as possible while the call is being given; and it has been emphasized by our Holy and blessed / Moreover, reciting the following words after adhan is also recommended bv hadifh :,,-12, 2 Prophet that each word of adhan should be & y . # ; F W J ~ J ,4 3, # , J & u ~ J #. ) responded to, i.e. the hearer should repeat each Saad ibn Waqqas has quofed our bleded Prophetword that the giver of the call utters. However. when as saying that he who utters the above words after .r~,J&&5&t&* and are said, the adhan is pardoned (Sahih Muslim).responder should say ~ ) @ I ~& 3 ~; 3 ; ; . g % 3 ~ Responding to adhan and then reciting the aboveAnd in the fajr prayer when the giver of the call prayers does not take much time; one has only tosays one should respond with % 9 remember and get into the habit to earn much merit A52 Abdullah ibn Omar has relates that our and reward. Unless there is a genuine reason, oneblessed Prophet said as follow: "When you hear must observe these instructions.azan, repeat the words after the muazzin then send In this connection it should be noted that if onedarud unto me because on him who sends one hears adhans from several mosques one after thedarud unto me Allah sends ten mercies. Then pray other, he should recite the recommended prayers afterfor "Vaseela" for me because that is a stage of the the first adhan only; this completes the observance of sunnah.
  • 93 READING THE QURAN (43) which are unknown and so it is impossible to understand it. Thus our blessed Prophet, by giving Quran is Allahs greatest gift to the entire this examples proved that reward for reading ormankind. It must be read, understood and acted upon, reciting Quran does not depend uponbut mere reading and reciting of Quranhave also been understanding it, but mere reading or recital isdesignated by Allah as acts of merit that deserve rewarding in itself.rewards. Mere recital of the words of the Quran isenough to invoke Allahs mercy, but many think, Hence every Muslim, before busying himselffoolishly or unknowingly that reading of Quran with other work, must read sonic portion - one parawithout understanding what it says is of no use. or half or one quarter or even one rukuof the QuranThey think the Divine book is like a other books without fail; this shall assuredly earn him everwritten by men which have to be understood. But increasing merit every day.Quran, a Divine Book, is different; it guarantees Moreover, every Muslim must commit towell-being and success in this life as well as the memory some surahs for ready recital withoutafterlife and mere reading or reciting it is in itself having to open the book. According to Ibn Abbas,rewarding and meritorious. our blessed Prophet has said Abdullah ibn Uasud relates that our blessed He whose mind does not have someProphet has said portion of Quran is like an empty house". (44) READING AND RECITAL OF SURAH FATEHA AND Hewho reads one word of Allahs book gets SURA IKHLAS one merit which is in fact equal to ten merits. I do not say that is one word, is one word, is one word and is one word". Although reading or reciting any part of Quran (Tirmidh i) is an act of merit, but reading or reciting of certain surahs have been indicated by our blessed Prophet This shows that if anyone recites only, it is as particularly meritorious and rewarding. Amongenough for thirty merits to be recorded. It also proves the short surahs. Surah ikhlas has been indicatedthat mere reading or recital without understanding as much rewarding; indeed, it has been said in someis also rewarding since is a word the meanings of
  • 94hadiths to be equivalent to one-third Quran. / *( JJ<<<, -b J < > Abu Hurairah has related that once our revered I / ~ l ; b ; t ? ~ 7 ~ ~and blessed Prophet said to the companions "Come "One who performs ablution and doestogether, 1 shall recite one-third Quran before you". well expunges sins from his body evenSome companions collected and the Holy Prophet under his nails"came out of his house and recited and went back. Another hadith relates that once our Prophet,Shortly he came out and said. "1 had said that I upon whom be showered Divine Blessings eternally,shall recite one-third Quran before you. Remember, said to the Companions, "Do I tell you the things duethis is equal to one-third Quran" to which Allah the Most High eradicates (your) sins (Muslim and Tirmidhi). and elevates (you)?" The Companion said 0 Abu Darda has related that once, addressing the Messenger of Allah. Do tell us". The Holy Prophet, becompanions, our eternally blessed Prophet asked "Can he blessed, said To perform complete ablution in spiteanyone of you not recite one-third Quran in one of not wanting it, to take many steps to the mosque,night?" She Companions sail "How can anyone recite and to wait for next prayers after one prayer. this actone-third Quran in one night?" The Holy Prophet said is as sublime as jihad." (Muslimand Tirmidhi)"Recite v u ~ . ; t r + ~ equal to one-third it is 9 2 J- This means that even when one does not feelQuran" (Sahih Muslim). like performing ablution due to, say, cold weather etc. This why Surah ikhlas is recited three times to its performing is as meritorious and rewarding asbless the dead. guarding the frontier in jihad. Correct ablution means ablution as prescribed in the sunnah. Hence one must follow and observe the prescribed method of ablution (45)CAREFUL ABLUTION and if one does not know it, he must learn it. (WADHU) (46)MISVAK Ablution or wadhu wit11 full observance of its rules according to sunnah is a sublime act for which The eternally blessed Messenger of Allah has hadith has promised many merits and rewards. highly contended the use of miswak (to clean the Uthman ibn Affan relates that our eternally blessed teeth). Ayesha - may Allah be pleased with her - has Prophet has said: related that the blessed Messenger of Allah has said:
  • saying these words and according to Tirmidhi one should also add "Miswak is a means of cleaning the mouth andof earning Divine Pleasure" (Sunan Nasai) , **;q.Ir(i2 .=/a #g *&& ,L / / L,b, , ;/ i / 0 s h 0 0 9H .I;T)L ,, 0 B<< to the above words. Cf& d * / I " , j)~;33.~, & (48) TAHIYYAT-AL-WADHU Praying (with the) use of miswak is seventy times Isuperior to praying without miswak (AI-Torghib p.131v. I with ref. Hakim Alam) Wadhu or ablution may be performed for any purpose. and praying two rakats after every wadhu Use of miswak has been lauded in countless as tahiyyat-a1 wazu is a highly meritorious act.ahadith and it is among the favorite sunnahs of the Ayaba ibn Amir has related that the blessed Prophetblessed Messenger of Allah. It has advantage in this said "When one performs ablution and performs itlife and in the after-life too! It is a simple and easy well and then prays two rakats in such a way thattask which can acid to our merits. his face and also his heart are turned to Allah. Paradise becomes a certainly for him" (41) DHIKR AFTER ABLUTION (Muslim. A bu Da ud. Nasa i) (WADHU) Abu Hurairah has related that the eternally blessed Messenger of Allah said to Bilal, Tell me from which of your acts you expect most merit. because Omar relates that our Prophet - upon whom during Meraj (Assertion) 1 heard your footsteps in frontbe eternal peace - said that for one who, after careful of me". Bilal submitted The act due to which I expectand correct ablution, recites: maximum mercy from Allah is that whenever during day or night. 1 have performed ablution. I have prayed - J J J / / O ,# # + / 0 3 ~ $d ~3 *-l / /> I as much as I could". (Bukhariand Muslim) It takes two or three minutes in praying two all eight doors of the Heaven are opened so that he may enter by whichever door he wants. rakats after Wadhu, but it is immensely rewarding. (Sahih Muslim) So one should do it. If it in time of (one of the five compulsory) prayers, then it is better to pray two The tradition according to Abu Daud also adds rakats tahiyyat-a1 Wadhu first, but if there is no time that one should look up towards the sky when for it then ford or sunnah should be performed with
  • (additional)intent of tahiyyat-al-wadhu. This might (50) INTENT OF PTEKAFcare the merit due to tahi yyat-al-Wadhu. Whenever one enters a mosque either to pray or (49) TAHIYYAT-AL-MAS JID for any other purposes one should have the intent of obseming Itekaf as long as he would remain in the Praying two rakats with the intent of tahiyyat- mosque. This shall earn him the merit and reward ofal-masjid immediately upon entering a mosque is Itekafindicated in hadith, as our blessed Messenger of Allahsaid "When anyone of you comes into a mosque, he (511 PRAYING IN FIRST R O Wshould pray two rakats" (Tirmidh i) Although tahiyyat-ul -masjid should be prayed Congregational prayer is twenty seven timesseparately, but if the tune for fard or sunnah has come, superior to praying alone, and in congregationalthen the niyyat for tahiyyat al-masjid should be added prayer, praying in the first row is of such a great meritto fardh or sunnah as the case may be. If is hoped that our blessed Prophet has saidthat thus one would be able to get the merit of tahiyyatal-masjid. The correct way to pray tahiyyat-al-masjid is to "If you know how superior is the firstperform it upon entering the mosque before sitting row lots would have to be draw^"down. But if one sit down first for some reason, then (Sahih Muslim).too he can pray tahiyyat-al-masjid. Abu Umamah has relates that the blessed However, if the time is really too short to perform Messenger of Allah has said "Allah and His anglestahiyyat-al-masjid then one should at least recite the shower mercies on the first row"following: (Musnad-e-Ahmed). G , ,, ,, >"D!.J &&I> / J 8 LJ,/ / 1 , &l~!dl~~c~&l,,ku~~~fr./ # ; Arabd bin Sariyah has related that our eternally blessed Prophet sought Divine pardon dl&, //C $$$-,A,+ ;, Jj / thrice for the first row and only once for the second This Kalima should be recited as long as one is row. (Nasaiand Ibn Majah)sitting in the mosque, as this has been equated in Hence one should try to be in the first row inhadilh to partaking of the fruits of paradise. every congregational prayer, or at least whenever
  • 100there is a chance. But, it is not permitted to force of the imam but if there arc more people on theones way into the first row in such a way as to right than on the left, standing on the left iscause trouble to others. Abbas has quoted the according to ahadith twice as meritorious.following Prophetic words: (See A1 Targhib li a1 Mundhiri, p. 2217, vol.1 ,/<,, cit. ibn Hazim). - ~ 8 -~ < 4 4 / 5 0 .;#s<f I f , Ow$ ~ 4 ~ - 5 ~ /,/r/,t ~ ~ ~ ~ C L J ~ Y I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - J3Yl+Jlx14ul, # C b (53)ISHRAQ PRAYER He who leaves the first row for liar of causing trouble to others is given trice Isharay is a nafl prayer which is performed a the merit of the first row by Allah (a1 bit after the sunrise when the sun is somewhat high, Targhib, p.285. vol. I. ref. Tabrani wa that is, usually twelve minutes after sunrise. It has fi asnadihi dhuf). only two rakats but ahadith arc replete with the high merits of this prayer. Abu Hurairah relates that (52) FILLING THE GAP IN lI our Prophet - upon whom be eternal Peace - has said that "He who says Ishraq prayers without fail PRAYER ROW. 1 shall have his lesser sins forgiven even though they I may be as numerous as foam specks on the surface Keeping the rows in congregational prayer I of the sea" (Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah) Istraight and filling of gaps therein have been highly Abu Hurairah has also related that the eternallyemphasized and described acts of great merit. blessed Prophet once sent some companions onAbdullah ibn Omar has related that our blessed jihad. They returned soon and with much booty.Prophet has said: Someone expressed his surprise and said that he > ,/+, 1 , ,, , f / had never seen a military expedition return so soon &I-~U*~W and with so much booty. The Holy Prophet said He who joins a row (i.e. fill tis gap) is "Should I not tell you about the men who would rewarded by Allah with His closeness come back even sooner and with still more booty?," (Nasai) then he said "He who performs his ablution moll, then Abu Jahifah relates that our eternally blessed completes his fajr prayer and then (after sunrise) Prophet said that he who fills the gap in a prayer 1 1 performs his ishraq prayer, come, sooner and with row is pardoned by Allah (Targhib ref. Bazzar). In greater booty" general it is more meritorious to stand on the right m g h i b p.427. vol I ref. Abu Yate ba Isnad-e-Sahib).
  • 102 We have already cited the tradition related by sunnah and following it is mentorious and rewarding.Abu Dhar Ghifari that tells us that man has three Abu Ayyub Ansari has related that our blessed Prophethundred and sixty joints in his body and to rid each of has said that:them from hell-fire, he should do at least three hundredand sixty good deeds, which were subsequentlydescribed by our Holy Prophet. He said that sayingSubhan Allah once in one good deed, saying a1 HamduLillah is another and saying La naha fllallah is thethird: to bid someone do good is a good deed and tostop someone from sin is also a good deed. Then after "If one bathes on Friday and puts onreciting the whole list, our Prophet said: perfume if he has it and wears good clothes, then goes out of the house and into the mosque, then says as many IAnd in place of all these good deeds, rakats as he can, but causes no trouble two rakats prayed at the time of ishraq to anyone and keeps silence till the can also suffice (Sahrh Muslim) prayer is over, this act of his atones This clearly means that these two rakats are for all lesser sins from this Friday toequivalent to three hundred and sixty good deeds. the next"The best way of performing Ishraqprayers is to sit in (Targhibref.Musnad-e-Ahmad)place after fajr prayers and do dhikr and then leave Abu Umarnah has related that our Prophet - uponafter saying ishraq prayers when the sum has risen. whom be eternal peace - said "Bathing on Friday pullsgut if one cannot follow this, then he can say ishraq out sin from the roots of hair". ( Tibrani)prayers after coming back home or after doingsomething he has to do. After bathing on Friday and putting on perfume, one should hurry as soon as possible to the mosque. A hadith says that on Fridays angels stand on the (54)BATHING AND USE OF portals of mosque and record the names of those who PERFUME ON FRIDAY conic early. The first arrivals earn merit equivalent to the sacrifice of a camel, the next equivalent to the sacrifice of a cow, the third equivalent to that of a Bathing on Friday has been highly commended raim; those who come fourth earn merit equivalent toin ahadith. One should have the intent of bathing on the sadaqah of a fowl and the last ones earn meritFriday while taking his bath. Wearing a perfume is a
  • 104 105equivalent to the sadaqah of an egg. But when the (56) TO HURRY IN IFTARimam comes for the khutba, the angels close theirregister (Bukhari and Muslim) While fasting, one should hurry with iftar after (55) EATING SEHRI IN FAST one is sure that the sun has set. Delaying Iftar without any legitimate cause isnt allowed. Sahl ibn Fasting, whether in Ramadhan or as nafl is a Saad has related that our blessed Prophet has saidgreat act o worship and eating sehri is an act of merit. f People shall be in welfare as long as they hurry inAnas says that our eternally blessed Prophet said "Have iftar (breaking fast) (Bukhariand Muslim)sehri because it brings abundance" (Bukhar i) Abu Hurairah has said that our blessed Prophet Abdullah bin Umar has related that our revered has said that "Those of His bondsmen are dear toand blessed Prophet said: Allah who hurry with iftar (breaking fast)". / / $ //,& 1 #/<JJ, ~ J I & w ~ , ~ ~ , ~ u I ~ ~ ,,,db (Musnade-Ahmad and Tirmidhi) . "Verily Allah and His angels shower mercy on those who have sehri" (57) GIVING IFTAR TO A (Targhibref. Ibn Hibbn and Tabruni ) FASTING MAN Abu Saeed Khudri relates that our blessedProphet has said: Giving Iftar to a fasting man is an act of great 9 ) 0/,/,,$~# // &>>/? R J ~ b i ~ , > / merit. Zaib ibn Khalik Jehmi has related that our JL-I txp.+>, G A ~ L $ $ ~ , ~ I ~ Prophet - upon whom be peace - has said:- , b / J l4~;${yh,5b e 0 n d+* J , i2# g ui i - / S F &*& *9 - 4 // "Sehri is (a source of) abundance, so do not leave it even if you take first "He who gives Star io another fasting one mouthful of watei; because Allah person shall earn reward equivalent to and His angels shower mercy on sehri- a fasting man without detracting from eaters" (ibid ref.Musuad-e-Ahmad and the reward of the latter". lsnadahu Qavi). (Nasai and Tirmidhi) It is better to have sehri in the last part of the Salman Farsi has related that our eternallynight. blessed Prophet has said that, if one breaks the fast
  • 107of another, this act shall be a source of pardon of his "Hewho readies a mujahid (for jihad) or a hajisins and release of his neck from hell-fire, and- he (forhaj) (i.e.helps in providing the means) or looksshall earn the merit of the fast of the fasting man, but afterhis household in his absence or gives iftar to athe reward of the fasting man shall not be reduced". fasting man, earns merit equivalent to that earnedThe companion, upon hearing this submitted: by the man he has helped without the merit of the latter being lessened". (Sunan Nasai) "Some of us do not have enough to break thefast of another". Thereupon our Prophet said "Allah (59) PRAYING FOR MARTYRDOMshall give this reward even to those who give a dateor water or a mouthful of milk to a fasting man". (Sahih ibn Khuzaimah) Martyrdom in the way of Allah is a sublime act, and just as martyrdom has immense rewards and (58) LOOKING AFTER THE merits, praying for it too earns the same merit and reward. Sahl bin Hanif has related that our blessed HOUSEHOLD OF A HAJI OR Prophet has said: MUJAHID L ., 9 3w,L.Ly-:;&,$,;1~& ~, N 6G , 4 i. / I ; 1 , b{&t Haj and jihad both are very sublime acts ofworship, but for those who are unable to perform them, He who prays to Allah for martyrdomAllah has created means whereby they can participate with a true heart, is granted the rankin the merits of these acts. Anyone who helps a man of a martyr even though he dies on hisprepare for jihad or for haj, earns, by the grace of bed (Sahih Muslim)Allah, a part of the merit of these acts of worship. Anas has related that our blessed Prophet hasSimilarly looking after the household of a haji or a said: t*5- ,> + , 1 / , / 1, , J t / < / / u /L,,L&.,~,&~~mujahid and to fulfil their needs also makes a personparticipant in haj or jihad as the case may be. Zaid He who sincerely craves martyrdom isbin Khali,d has related our eternally blessed Prophet granted martyrdom even though hehassaid:"r/ *,,":a L > l ~ i 3 , ~ G>$ 1 ~ ~/ G / Y / e ~ . > 1 t ~ j b ~ ~ not apparently attain it. "ko""#< * / r 5 ? may J~JKOL;, " 4 H 6u&Jgj / , )*/,# , l&&?k * ~i * r I (Sahih Muslim).
  • (60) STARTING WORK EARLY IN and one said Come let us seek Allahs pardon when others are forgetful of Allah". The second man did THE MORNING it. Then one of them died and the other saw him in a dream saying, "Allah had pardoned us on the very Staring work early in the morning has been same evening we lead met in the market".highly lauded in the hadith corpus. Certain adhkar have been specially Our eternally blessed Prophet has said: recommended in hadith. Omar (mayAllah be pleased u,G i $ - + 5 ! ! s 2 ~ ~ l with him) has quoted the following words of our blessed Prophet: "0Allah! Grant abundance to m y ummah in itsworks of early morn ing". The blessed Prophet has also prohibitedsleeping just after fajr prayers prior to sunrise andhas called it a source of poverty. ( Ibn Maja). Once,upon seeing Fatimah - may Allah be pleased with Our Prophet - upon whom be peace - has said that whosoever recites these words upon enteringher - sleeping just after fajr, he woke her up andtold her never to sleep at that time the market is granted a thousand merits by Allah and Allah pardons his thousand (minor) sins and (Targhib, p.191, vol. i, ref. Baihaqi) elevates him by a thousand stages (Tirmidhi) (61) DHIKR O ALLAH DURING F These words should be committed memory and recited off and on during work. BUSINESS (62)TAKING BACK SOLD GOODS Dhikr of Allah at intervals while engaged inbusiness is a source of great reward and merit. It ismentioned in hadith that in a place where people Sometimes a buyer wishes to return a thingare oblivious of dhikr, remembrance of Allah is like he has bought. In such a case the seller is not boundbeing steadfast in jihad when others are running to take it back, but if he does it in view of the buyersaway. (Targhib,p.193, vol. 3, ref. Bazzar & Tabrani). need or his embarrassment, it would be an act of very high merit. Abu Hurairah has quoted the Abu Qalaba, one of the famous followers following Prophetic words:(tabiin) say that once two men met in the market
  • of the Holy Prophet - upon whom be peace: ..,.# . / S / J ~ :#:LY //; :, 4 ,! /, # , He who takes backa thing sold has ,$+$~%Ul&lal y>5I ~ & I w his s i n s pardoned on t h e Day of Judgement (Abu Daud) - + Y ~ * Y P */,,,~ - 6 % /u ,+.+ .st w * ,J, He who gives time to a poor man or reduces his debt would b e placed b y(63) GIVING LOAN TO THE NEEDY Allah in the shade of His Throne on the day when there shall b e no shade. Giving loan to a needy man is an act of great (Tirmidhi, Wa-qaI. Hasan Sahih)merit. Abdullah ibn Masud has quoted the Prophetic Hadhifah has related that the Holy Prophet haswords "Every loan is a sadaqah", (Baihaqi and said, The soul of a man from among the earlierTabrani) ummahs was taken by, the Angel (of death). He was Some ahadith tell us that the merit of giving asked if he had ever done a good deed. He repliedloans needy man is more than that of a sadagah. that he had been giving loans and had mistreated (Targhib. Tabrani and Baihaqi). his agents to give time to poor (debtors)and to treat kindly the well-to-to. Thereupon Allah the Most This is probably because a loan is usually of High ordered the Angels, You too should treat himamount which is not intended as sadagah, and is kindlyf. And thus was he pardoned.given to needy person, who does not beg, and so itsmerit and reward arc correspondingly higher. (65) TELLING THE TRUTH (64) GIVING GRACE PERIOD TO IN TRADE POOR DEBTOR Trading is a mundane activity, but if it is done with a view to obtain lawful and honest living and In both Quran and hadith, much merit has been to fulfil the lawful needs of oneself and ones ownpromised to those who give time to poor debtors. The family, trading because a source of reward andQuran says:- , ,, . I . s-dci~ /# ,/,P,?/ GEL! G / merit, provided one avoids unlawful activities. 4 6 // ~ 32 Honesty and truth in trading has been much lauded in hadith. Abu Said Khudri has quoted the following Abu Hurairah has quoted the following saying Prophetic tradition:
  • I 113 ordered that knife should be properly sharpened A trader who is truthfuland honest shall before slaughter and every care possible should be be in the company of Prophets, Siddiqun taken of the animal to be slaughtered. (Tirmidhi). and Shuhada (Tirmidh i ). Having mercy on animals, rearing them and giving them comfort is very pleasing to Allah and is PLANTING TREES (66) very meritorious and rewarding. Our Prophet - upon whom be peace - once Planting plants and trees in appropriate places related a story of man of earlier ummahs:He felt greatis an act of great merit. Anas has quoted the following thirst during a journey. After a great search, he foundProphetic saying: a well which lacked a bucket to draw up the water. He went down into the well and slaked his thirst and came out of the well, then he saw a thirty dog licking wet earth. The man felt great pity and felt for the dogs suffering, lie took off his leather socks and, A man plants a tree or sows a field and climbing down into the well, he felt them with water a man or bud eats from it, the tree or and climbed out with socks held in his teeth. Allah field becomes a source of sadaqah for was so pleased with this act that tic pardoned him. him. [Bukhariand Muslim) (Bukhariand Muslim). In other words the merit of advantage taken bya man of beast from a plantation goes continuously tothe planter as a sadaqah jariyah. 1 (68) KILLING HARMFUL ANIMALS Killing harmful animals which cause pain or loss GOOD TREATMENT (67) to men i in act of merit that carps reward, e.g. killing OF ANIMALS of snakes and scorpions has been promised rewards. Once Abdullah ibn Masud was preaching when he saw a snake crawling on a wall; he interrupted his Islam has ordained rights of animals just as there sermon and killed to snake with a stick; then he saidarc rights of men. It is prohibited to unnecessary cause that he had heard the following saying from the Holypain to harmless animals. Even the animals to beslaughtered are to be slaughtered in such a way that Prophet - may he be eternally blessed: 6J / ; , o ?I / / / / / 5 , I,,:, , $&ss 4u&K$.e&iGG~, 0their suffering is maximum. Our blessed Prophet has,
  • One who kills a snake or scorpion acts In other words prevent your tongue from causing as if h e has killed a mushrik whose 1 I pain to others, from backbiting and roam cheating. killing is lawful Aqabah ibn Amir asked the Holy Prophet "What (Targhib, -p. 403 ,vol. 4, ref Bazzar) is the way to salvation?" The Holy Prophet has ordered of lizards. Abu I He saidHurairah has related that the Holy Prophet - may he / /,, / // D / // p&&~//?//////be blessed eternally - has said that he who kills a -0 ,.~,+*&.4,4&15j&&&4 / / - ,lizard with one blow would earn so much merit and "Control your tongue and make yourwho kills it with second blow would earn so much I house sufficient for yourself and weep(here the Holy Prophet enumerated less merits than ever your sins" (AbuDaud and Tirmidhi).before) and who kills it with the third blow wouldearn so much (herethe Holy Prophet enumerated even Making the house sufficient means that onelesser than before. (Sahih Musiim) should not unnecessarily leave his house to go out and get involved in mischief, and weeping on sins Familiarly killing of other dangerous and harmful means ex pressing contrition on ones sins and seekinganimals cares merit. Divine forgiveness of them. (69) CONTROLLING THE TONGUE In another hadith it is related that our blessed Prophet said to Abu Dhar Ghifari, "Should 1 not tell you two things which sit lightly on man but are Tongue is a great gift of Allah. By it one can, if weighty in the scales (on the Day of Judgement)?.Thenone so desires, accumulate incalculable merit for the 1 he said:Hereafter or one can destroy his life in the other world.This is why controlling the tongue has been muchenjoined and reticence has been lauded in ahadith. Xlways be courteous and make a habitAbdullah bin Masood relates that once he asked the of reticence" (Targhib,p. 312, vol. 4 ref.Holy Prophet, "Which is the best deed"" The Holy Tabrani, Abu Laila etc).Prophet said Praying on time". Then he asked Which Once our Prophet - upon whom be peace - saidact is second to it?" The Holy Prophet said: the same to Abu Darda (ibid. Ref. Abu a1 Shaikh). "That people b e safe from your tongue".(Targhib, p. .302, vol.4. ref. Tabrani)
  • (70) AVOIDING USELESS TALK (secondly) carry out your contracts; (thirdly) speak the truth (always); AND ACTIVITIES (fourthly)save your (sexual) organs Everything which is of no use in this world or in from (unlawful) acts; (fifthly) keep yourthe next is useless and its avoidance has been enjoined eyes down; and (sixthly) keep your hands (from harming others andin Quran as well as hadith: I /,< , ?5 , r J.r.4, Y I sinning). (Shah-al-Imam li a1 Baihaqi, uw+ 4Jlpuq+Jb 0 / p.320, 321, vo2. 4, hadith 5256) nor one who avoid shun useless (78) BEGINNING FROM conversation THE RIGHT Abu Hurairah has related that our Holy Prophet hassaid: h 0 . - YL c r , S J t P ~ ~ -/ *,/, . 6) 0 0 &* Beginning from right is pleasing to Allah and His blessed Messenger on which one may expect merit A part o f being a good Zuslim is and reward. Ayesha (may Allah be pleased with her) avoiding useless things. (Tirmidhi). has said that our Prophet - be he always blessed - Hence it is the duty of every Muslim to avoid liked to begin from right in everything in wadhu, inuseless works and activities. combing and in putting on :hoes. (71)-(17)SIX GOOD DEEDS ? Abu Hurairah has related the following Prophetic Hadith tells us that our Holy Prophet - upon whombe eternal blessings has pointed out six deeds for whrchhe himself has guaranteed paradise. Ibadah ibn Sanit When you put on your dress, begin -relates the following Prophetic saying:- from the right (Abu Daud and Tirmidhi) and he has also related another Prophetic saylng: "You give me guarantee of six deeds When inyone of you puts on his shots, arid I shall guarantee you Paradise. begin from the right and when he takes (firstly) redeem the trust placed in you; offhis shoes he should begin from the
  • 119 left. (Bukhari and Muslim) Similarly According to this hadith, disrespect for food and eating with the right hand has been commanded by our blessed Holy r drink is a Satanic act, and eating a dropped mail is a respectful act, which shall surely earn merit and Prophet. Ibn Omar has related the reward and one must not feel ashamed of it. However, following Prophetic saying: "When you if to clean it is impossible, then it is quite another eat, eat with your right hand and when matter. you drink, drink with your right hand". (Sahih Muslim) (80) PRAISING ALLAH UPON When something is distributed, it should be SNEEZING AND ITS RESPONSEfrom the right, as this is a Prophetic custom. One should put his left foot first when entering Abu Hurairah has related a Prophetic saying:the lavatory and his right foot when coming out. "Allah likes sneezing and dislike yawning. WhenFollowing this sunnah shall be source of great merit. anyone of you sneezes he should say, &&j and These are minor and simple matters which the hearer thereof should respond &j&+.. asshould be kept in mind and followed. it is a right of the one who sneezes. (Sahih Bukhari). I I There was a time when all observed these norms (19) CLEANING AND EATING A of Islamic behavior, but now none even knows them, .f. hence those norms hence to revived. DROPPED MORSEL I (81) FEAR OF ALLAH Our Prophet - may he be blessed - has alsoinstructed us that if me accidentally drop a morselon the ground, it should be picked up, even washed Allah - by virtue of His Greatness - should be feared, as has been enjoined time and again in Quranif needed, and eaten. Jabir has related the followingProphetic saying: When anyone of you drops a 1 as well as ahadith. Abbas the uncle of our blessedmorsel, he should clean it of any unwanted accretion Holy Prophet has related that once he and others were and eat if and should riot leave it for Satan. Then sitting under the tree with the Holy Prophet when upon finishing, he should like his fingers as he dry leaves began to fall from the tree till only green knows not which part of the I S beneficial for him". leaves remained. The Holy Prophet said. This (tree)is (SahihMuslim). like a believer who trembles with fear of Allah and so sheds his sins leaving behind only good deeds". (A1
  • 120 121Targhib, p. 227. vol. S. ref.Baihaqi) Hadith for having high hopes from Allah- This implies To create fear of Allah, we should think of His that one must try to live according to the DivinePower and Greatness, of the straits of earlier ummahs Commands and when he incuritably commits errors,and of the chastisement mentioned in Quran and he should expect Divine Mercy for it. But if one ishadith for the disobedient ones. This shall create entirely unmindful of Divine commands, does not careAllahs fear in the heart and prevent one from to reform himself, and is driven by worldly and earwrongdoing, sinning and unlawful acts, and one shall desire and yet expects Divine Pardon and Mercy, heattain piety which is the basis of all good and of has been castigated in hadith.deliverance and salvation in this world and in the The right way is to try to reform oneself and tonext. May Allah grant unto us the opportunity for it all balance Allahs fear and good hopes from, Him.Amen. Anas has related that "Once our Prophet - may he be eternally blessed - went to a young man who (82)OPTIMISM AND HOPE was on his death bed and asked him How do you FROM ALLAH feel? The young man said. I have much bope from Allah but I also fear for my sins. The Holy Prophet said, The believer who has these two ideas Beside fear of allah, expecting good from Him is simultaneously at such time, Allah fulfills his hopesan act of subline merit. Abu Hurairah has quoted a and grants him security from fear". flirmidhi)Prophetic saying: b &~~:*+&~lwo~ 5 ,,r C / 1. 1 "Hoping for good is also an act of worship of Allah". (Tirmidhiand Hakim) In a hadith-e-qudsi our blessed Prophet hasquoted the Divine words: J. , /, J $Jb+ !/)J, #, ,# *bbl, e6&*&$ 1 bl I am lOhdt my bondsman thinks of me. And where he remembers Me, there I am with him (Bukhari and Muslim). Many merits have been given is Qnran and G.T.C.