EFL collaborative learning in the virtual environment in the light of sociocultural theory principles

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  • 1. I ENCONTRO NACIONAL DE ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LÍNGUAS E A TEORIA SÓCIO-HISTÓRICO- CULTURAL E DA ATIVIDADE: O RESGATE DO DIÁLOGO EFL collaborative learning in the virtual environment in the light of sociocultural theory principlesIsis da Costa Pinho (UNISINOS/UFRGS)Marília dos Santos Lima (UNISINOS)
  • 2. Motivation To foster aTo integrate digital tools’ collaborative potentials to his perspective in the use educational goals, of technology as a tooladjusting his plan to his for language learning students’ profile in the production of content The foreign language new teacher needs To promote both To create opportunitiescommunication skills and to develop an authoring, creative and critical use digital fluency in the use of language through of digital tools for a FL technology in tasks that multimedia expression challenge learners to expand their knowledge
  • 3. Objective• This is a qualitative case study that aims to investigate the production of collaborative EFL tasks (SWAIN, 2000) in a virtual environment, focusing on the mediation of collaborative interaction and technology in the learning process.
  • 4. Theoretical Framework Computing in Education Research ​Second and Foreign Language Acquisition Research Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Complex Systems Theory
  • 5. Principles of Vygotsky’s SocioculturalTheory • FL teaching and learning processes are fostered by tasks centered in the exploration, interaction and production of language, where collaboration and negotiation of meaning and form support computer-mediated communication (VYGOTSKY, 1978, 2003; LANTOLF, 2000; 2000; 2006, SWAIN, 1985; 2010; OHTA, 2000) .
  • 6. Foreign Language Learning Collaborative interaction Zone of Proximal Development Negotiation and Assistance Noticing, knowledge testing and error correction
  • 7. Complex Systems Theory of Larsen-Freeman and Cameron (2008)• The interaction with the other involves the mobilization, interpretation and coordination of contributions in a constant transformation of learners and their knowledge in the construction of a collective perspective of the task.
  • 8. SL/FL Acquisition Research• Collaborative dialogue is an interaction support established between learners during language production, in which language functions as a sociocognitive tool and a product of learning. In this interaction meanings are coconstructed, appropriated by the learners and reused in future tasks (SWAIN,1995, 2000).
  • 9. Computing in Education Research Technology has a great potential for FL learning, since it is a rich multimedia and diversified resource of language input, as well as a space nurtured by the interaction between users in the production and sharing of knowledge.
  • 10. Methodology• The participants in this study were 6 undergraduate English students at a private university in southern Brazil.• The data generation took place during a three- class production in the computer lab where the idea was to promote FL learning through language and technology use in collaborative tasks.
  • 11. Methodology• The data analysis focused on the oral tasks that were at the core objective of each class. In these tasks students had to watch Youtube short videos and discuss them through Skype based on key questions.
  • 12. MethodologyOral TaskWatch the video Strangers and discuss thefollowing questions on Skype:- What is interesting about the video?- What cultural groups can you identify?After the discussion, you are going to narrate thestory portrayed in the movie to someone whohasnt seen it.
  • 13. Methodology• After the chat, the 3 dyads were asked to listen to their recordings and to discuss over Skype (via chat) their production, the task, and their learning.• Also, at the end of the classes, students answered a questionnaire that sought to investigate their perceptions on the positive and negative aspects of the tasks, their learning, and possible modifications.
  • 14. Methodology• Data analysis focused on the mediation of collaborative interaction and technology in the FL learning process.
  • 15. MethodologyThe analysis sought to address the following questions:• Is the nature of interaction established in the tasks collaborative?• Are there occasions of language assistance between learners during the tasks?• Are there evidences of noticing, knowledge testing and error correction?• What are the learners’ perceptions on the tasks, their learning and the use of technology?
  • 16. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Vicky and CristineVicky: Since many time ago. so:, we can see a Muslin, a Jewish, and aã:: a big group of skinheads in this video. What happened Cristine?Cristine: Ã:: the first guy was reading a newspaper, ã:::=Vicky: = Is a Muslinguy?Cristine: Yeah. And ã:: the other man was jus- Just seat in the train, andlook other guy. Yes?
  • 17. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Vicky and CristineVicky: Ã:: (2.0) [(xx)]Cristine: [ and] his phone started ringing,Vicky: Yeah. When- when he think he would escape of that situation, from that situation,=Cristine: = his phone started ringing,=Vicky: = with a: with a ty[pical]Cristine: [pica::l] song a typicalsong?Vicky: Jewish song. [Yeah?]Cristine: [Yeah.]Vicky: >that we don’t know the name.< ã:: in-=Cristine: = and the skinheads start to face him,
  • 18. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Mathias and NiltonMathias: What do you think about? I think this summarizes. Isn’t it?Nilton: Yes.Mathias: Can you add something? Something else?Nilton: Well. I don’t know. Well you gonna see that they only realize the boy was ajew because of the cell phone. Because he:: he hid the necklace he had.Mathias: And also:: ã:: if you analyze deeper the film, it’s about pressure as well. it’sabout culture pressure. And it’s about racism.Nilton: Yeah.Mathias: Ã:: and how groups ã had meet ã: have to live in the same area but don’tget on. Basically it’s about intolerance.
  • 19. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Mathias and NiltonMathias: cultural groups? What cultural groups can you identify? We can identify white,<white right-wing> groups, okay?Nilton: What’s this?Mathias: Right-wing is someone who is ã:: we have left-wing and right-wing. Basically osesquerdistas e os::direitistas xx okay? So they are from the <white right-wing groups>,a::nd they could be even like fro::m ã:: national party for some countries, in England theyhave P.N.P. Peoples National Party, national front. Which is very very heavy. In France, Idon’t know, but a:: I believe- I think that definitely they are pro ã:: pro <nazi> I think- verynazi. Well, they still- ã: they graffiti all the swastika there so. And then the other group is::ã:: <oriental muslin>, >maybe muslins< and ã:: jewish. really. You know? Jewish andMuslin. Because they-=
  • 20. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2Group Francisca and AngélicaFrancisca: Allright. So the jewish and the muslin are in the train, and then fourskinheads show up and then the jewish tried to hide the star that he has in hisnecklace,Angélica: Yes.Francisca: Ã:: and then they start- the skinheads start disturbing the [two of them.]Angélica: [ye::::s] he:>I don’t know how to say-< I don’t know the name of this sign. I know it’s a nazisign, but I don’t know what’s the name.Francisca: Nazi cross::.
  • 21. Oral taskClass 1: Task 2.Group Francisca and AngélicaFrancisca: Ah okay. Allright so::>let’s see.< What’s interesting about the video in your opinion?Angélica: <I think it’s the fact> right? That they need to join first to: escape from the nazi ((pronounces neizi))Francisca: Nazi. ((pronounces natzi))Angélica: Nazi = ((repeats the correct pronunciation))Francisca: =It’s weird, right? °yes.° YES I think that’s the most interesting because even that they aredifferent, because one is Muslin and the other is a Jewish, they had to get together to escape from the:skinheads, right?=Angélica: = and they are STRANGERS, right? They didn’t know each other. It’s nice.Francisca: °It’s very interesting.°Angélica: What else?
  • 22. Learner’s perception on the task• Participants pointed out that the task had clear instructions to guide their work, as well as an interesting combination of videos and oral discussion.
  • 23. Learner’s perception on the task• The tasks promoted English practice since the students could observe how they were talking and learned from their mistakes and collective correction and work. Learning happened, they said, through a more fun and interesting interaction since they felt they were sharing.
  • 24. Learner’s perception on the task• Moreover, they said that committed many errors in the oral task, since unlike the writing task, there was no time for speech rehearsal and edition. However, they could learn to think about how to fix those errors in the chat or for future tasks.
  • 25. Learner’s perception on technology• Interesting to note that the students at the end of the classes felt they had learned not only the foreign language itself, and how to collaborate with colleagues, but, mainly, that learning a FL through technology is possible, fun, and can be done in their future practice as English teachers.
  • 26. Learner’s perception on technology• According to the students, the exploration and use of digital tools and different Web content to perform creative and interesting tasks motivated them to learn, and inspired them to make a pedagogical use of technology.
  • 27. Conclusion• The results suggest that there was collaboration based on evidences of participation requests, acceptance and appropriation of contributions leading to EFL coconstruction.
  • 28. Conclusion• Furthermore, the challenging task of discussing a video on Skype led to mutual assistance between the students to maintain the focus of their production and improve it.• By seeking to express meaning in the FL, the learners focused on the form, noticing gaps in their production, and correcting each other.
  • 29. Conclusion• The perceptions of the participants suggest that the tasks enabled them to work on their linguistic difficulties, to see the benefits of collaboration for their learning, and to think about new possibilites technology can give to their future work as teachers.
  • 30. ReferencesLANTOLF, J. P. (Ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.LANTOLF, J. P. Sociocultural Theory and L2: State of the Art. SSLA, v. 28, pp. 67-109, 2006.LARSEN-FREEMAN, Diane; CAMERON, Lynne. Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press, 2008. 287p.OHTA, A. S. Rethinking interaction in SLA: Developmentally apropriate assistance in the zone of proximaldevelopment and the acquisition of L2 grammar. In: LANTOLF, J. Sociocultural Theory and Second LanguageLearning. Oxford: OUP, 2000.SWAIN, M. Three Functions of Output in Second Language Learning. In: COOK,G.; SEIDLHOFER, B. (Ed.)Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson, Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, p.125-144, 1995.SWAIN, M. The Output Hypothesis and Beyond: Mediating Acquisition Through Collaborative Dialogue. In: J.P.LANTOLF, Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press p. 97-114,2000.SWAIN, M. Integrating Language and Content Teaching Through Collaborative Tasks. The Canadian ModernLanguage Review, v.58, n.1, pp.44-63, set. 2001.VYGOTSKY, L. S. Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA.: HarvardUniversity Press, 1978.VYGOTSKY, L. S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.VYGOTSKY, L. S. The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. V.1. Thinking and Speaking. New York, N.Y.: PlenumPress, 1987.VYGOTSKY, L. O Instrumento e o símbolo no desenvolvimento da criança. In: A formação Social da Mente: Odesenvolvimento dos processos psicológicos superiores. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1998, pp.25-40.VYGOTSKY, L. S. O desenvolvimento da percepção e da atenção. In: Vygotsky, L. S. A formação social damente.São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2003, pp.41-49.
  • 31. Transcriptions’ convention adapted from Schnack, Pisoni andOstermann (2005) [texto] Falas sobrepostas <texto> Fala mais lenta = Fala colada °texto° Fala com volume mais baixo . Entonação descendente TEXTO Fala com volume mais alto do que no contexto anterior e posterior ? Entonação ascendente texto Sílaba, palavra ou som acentuado - Interrupção abrupta na fala : Alongamento de som Setas ↓↑ Aumento ou diminuição da entonação @@@ Pulsos de risada >texto< Fala mais rápida ((texto)) Comentários do(a) transcritor(a) XXX Palavras que não foram possíveis de transcrever (texto) Dúvidas na transcrição (3.0) Pausa , Entonação contínua