Siyakha Nentsha: building assets and reducing vulnerability in KwaZulu Natal
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  • HIV is the big story. This chart, not ours year oldsThis data is from 2004 but for kzn things haven’t changed much since that time and more importantly you can see the trends, which are still in place. Girls have a much higher risk than boysHIV can be a cause and a consequence of movement.
  • Relative prosperity compared to neighboring countries make SA a magnet for other immigrants from around the region but there are huge disparities in the country (click) and extremely high unemployment (data), especially among young people and particularly in KZN.SA is a Relatively prosperous country in SSA which makes it a magnet for migration in the reason but nevertheless, but it has huge income inequality and lots of poverty. Also, very high migration. This is especially the case for young people in KZN.
  • Age of consent, marriage, voting, everything
  • So just to show you where we are on thThe program I’m going to tell you about took place in a traditional zulu area called Engonyameni, just outside the township of Umlazi. e map….
  • School enrollment quite high in this area and this captures most adolescents in the area. One school ward. Facilitators chosen through competitive process, from community, paid, continuously trainedLearn about skills and practice them. For example, using english, practicing being assertive, communicatingCertificate, SAQA, an asset young people can use to get jobs
  • Go quickly through the longitudinal results. Don’t yet have the FGDs translated. Possibly relevant for migration work we have the GPS. And for many learners we have a limited set of information on the learners. Talk about results here—moving, death, pregnancy.
  • 1400 young people, followed over two rounds
  • Girls on left, boys on right, if both, in middleBirth certificates and IDs especially important for accessing social grants, bank accounts, et.
  • These are the kinds of challenges migrating young people will have to deal with30% boys and 22% girls say they want to be living in this community in five years
  • AnecdotallyThis is mostly boys—they’re more likely to have ID to have been job seeking and to have social networks that would enable them to migrate for workFor girls some are moving away because of pregnancy, education seeking.


  • 1. Building assets and reducing vulnerability in KwaZulu Natal
    Migration and Adolescents
    March 24, 2011
    Paris, France
    Eva Roca
  • 2. General context in KZN
    Kleinschmidt, Pettifor et al, 2007
  • 3. General context in KZN
  • 4. Legal context
    Children’s Act April 2010 (18)
  • 5.
  • 6. Semi-rural KwaZulu Natal
    Peri-urban, close to Durban but culturally far
    Even those who don’t move have unstable lives
  • 7. Vulnerabilities put adolescents at risk for HIV
    Living in poverty
    Being socially isolated
    Loss of one of both parents
  • 8. Project team
  • 9. SiyakhaNentsha
    Schools, facilitators
    Boys and girls
    Participatory reflective learning, action-oriented
  • 10. Preparing for opportunities and risks
    HIV and STIs teenage pregnancy early unplanned parenthood
    school dropout loss of one or both parents
    employment and training opportunities social grants
    social support citizenship
    language skills
  • 11. Randomization
  • 12. Measures
    Longitudinal survey
    Focus group with participants, parents, and mentors
    GPS coordinates at R2
    A third round
  • 13. Who are the participants?
  • 14.
    • HIV/AIDS and RH: knowledge, skills and behaviors, including adoption of safer sexual behaviors and service use
    • 15. Economic skills: ability to plan and manage personal and familial finances, identify and access available services, FET opps, social benefits; articulate a plan for pursuing future livelihood-enhancing opportunities
    • 16. Social networks and support: access to friends, adult role models and individuals/groups who can assist with crisis management and provide links to opportunities
  • Measures
  • 17. Changes seen post-program
    Sexual debut
    Secondary abstinence,
    fewer partners
    Condom confidence
    Improved budgeting and planning skills
    Pursuing income-generating activities
    Having savings
    Social capital
    Higher self-esteem
    Birth certificate
    Social grants
    SA ID
    Gender attitudes
  • 18. How is all this relevant for migrants?
    Many young people hope to migrate in next 5 years.
    Similar challenges
  • 19. Some learners are alreadyon the move
    Mostly within KZN
    Because parents migrate
    Because caregivers die
    To change schools
  • 20. Data that might be relevant for migration
    GPS coordinates
    Household composition and size
    Relationahip to head of household
    Type of work involved in
    Compensation for work
    Have CV, ID, birth certificate
    Knowledge of income-generating opportunities
    Have friends that would provide food if hungry, place to sleep, borrow money
    Types of organizations belong to
    Who expects to share money earned
    Have money keep in case of emergency
    Have bank account
    Know requirements for social grants
    Have a goal
    Where would like to be in 5 years
    Emotional well-being
    Speak and read English
  • 21. Selected resources
    Hallman, K. 2010, in press. “Social exclusion: The gendering of adolescent HIV risks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in J. Klot and V. Nguyen eds., The Fourth Wave: An Assault on Women - Gender, Culture and HIV in the 21st Century. Social Science Research Council and UNESCO.
    Hallman, K. 2008.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS Bulletin, 39(5), November 2008.
    Bruce, J. and Hallman, K. 2008. “Reaching the girls left behind,” Gender & Development, 16(2): 227-245.
    Hallman, K and Roca, E. 2007. “Reducing the social exclusion of girls,”
    Hallman, K. 2007. “Nonconsensual sex, school enrollment and educational outcomes in South Africa,” Africa Insight (special issue on Youth in Africa), 37(3): 454-472.
    Hallman, K. 2005. “Genderedsocioeconomic conditions and HIV riskbehavioursamongyoung people in South Africa,”African Journal of AIDS Research 4(1): 37–50.Abstract:
  • 22. Thank you!
    Our funders: ESRC/Hewlett Joint Scheme
    & DFID via the ABBA RPC