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  • 1. MongoDB From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia MongoDB MongoDB Logo.png Developer(s) MongoDB Inc. Initial release 2009 Stable release 2.4.8 / 1 November 2013 Preview release 2.5.2 / 26 August 2013 Development status Active Written in C++ Operating system Cross-platform Available in English Type Document-oriented database License GNU AGPL v3.0 (drivers: Apache license) Website www.mongodb.org MongoDB (from "humongous") is a cross-platform document-oriented database system. Classified as a NoSQL database, MongoDB eschews the traditional tablebased relational database structure in favor of JSON-like documents with dynamic schemas (MongoDB calls the format BSON), making the integration of data in certain types of applications easier and faster. Released under a combination of the GNU Affero General Public License and the Apache License, MongoDB is free and open source software. First developed by 10gen (now MongoDB Inc.) in October 2007 as a component of a planned platform as a service product, the company shifted to an open source development model in 2009, with 10gen offering commercial support and other services.[1] Since then, MongoDB has been adopted as backend software by a number of major websites and services, including Craigslist, eBay, Foursquare, SourceForge, and The New York Times, among others. MongoDB is the most popular NoSQL database system.[2] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Licensing and support 3 Main features 4 Criticisms 5 Language support 6 Management and graphical front-ends 6.1 MongoDB tools 7 Production Deployments 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links History[edit] Development of MongoDB began in 2007, when the company (then named 10gen) was building a platform as a service similar to Windows Azure or Google App Engine. [3] In 2009, MongoDB was open sourced as a stand-alone product[4] with an AGPL license. From version 1.4 (March 2010), MongoDB has been considered production ready.[5] The latest stable version, 2.4.8, was released on November 1, 2013. Licensing and support[edit] MongoDB is available for free under the GNU Affero General Public License.[4] The language drivers are available under an Apache License. In addition, MongoDB Inc. offers commercial licenses for MongoDB.gh[6] Main features[edit] The following is a brief summary of some of the main features:[7] Ad hoc queries MongoDB supports search by field, range queries, regular expression searches. Queries can return specific fields of documents and also include user-defined JavaScript functions. Indexing
  • 2. Any field in a MongoDB document can be indexed (indices in MongoDB are conceptually similar to those in RDBMSes). Secondary indices are also available. Replication MongoDB provides high availability and increased throughput with replica sets. [8] A replica set consists of two or more copies of the data. Each replica may act in the role of primary or secondary replica at any time. The primary replica performs all writes and reads by default. Secondary replicas maintain a copy of the data on the primary using built-in replication. When a primary replica fails, the replica set automatically conducts an election process to determine which secondary should become the primary. Secondaries can also perform read operations, but the data is eventually consistent by default. Load balancing MongoDB scales horizontally using sharding.[9] The user chooses a shard key, which determines how the data in a collection will be distributed. The data is split into ranges (based on the shard key) and distributed across multiple shards. (A shard is a master with one or more slaves.) MongoDB can run over multiple servers, balancing the load and/or duplicating data to keep the system up and running in case of hardware failure. Automatic configuration is easy to deploy, and new machines can be added to a running database. File storage MongoDB can be used as a file system, taking advantage of load balancing and data replication features over multiple machines for storing files. This function, called GridFS,[10] is included with MongoDB drivers and available with no difficulty for development languages (see "Language Support" for a list of supported languages). MongoDB exposes functions for file manipulation and content to developers. GridFS is used, for example, in plugins for NGINX[11] and lighttpd.[12] In a multi-machine MongoDB system, files can be distributed and copied multiple times between machines transparently, thus effectively creating a load balanced and fault tolerant system. Aggregation MapReduce can be used for batch processing of data and aggregation operations. The aggregation framework enables users to obtain the kind of results for which the SQL GROUP BY clause is used. Server-side JavaScript execution JavaScript can be used in queries, aggregation functions (such as MapReduce), and sent directly to the database to be executed. Capped collections MongoDB supports fixed-size collections called capped collections. This type of collection maintains insertion order and, once the specified size has been reached, behaves like a circular queue. Criticisms[edit] MongoDB uses a readers-writer lock that allows concurrent read access to a database but exclusive write access to a single write operation.[13] Before version 2.2, this lock was implemented on a per-mongod basis. Since version 2.2, the lock is implemented at the database level.[14] One approach to increase concurrency is to use sharding.[15] In some situations, reads and writes will yield their locks. If MongoDB predicts a page is unlikely to be in memory, operations will yield their lock while the pages load. The use of lock yielding expanded greatly in 2.2.[16] Another criticism related to scalability is that only 2GB of memory may be used on 32-bit systems, rather than the 4GB theoretically available; more memory is available on 64-bit systems.[17] In some cases, this was due to the use of MongoDB on 32-bit systems and their inherent memory limitations.[18] MongoDB recommends users provide sufficient RAM for their working set.[19] Some users encounter issues when their working set exceeds available RAM and the system encounters page faults. MongoHQ, a provider of managed MongoDB infrastructure, recommends a scaling checklist for large systems.[20] Language support[edit] MongoDB has official drivers for a variety of popular programming languages and development environments.[21] Web programming language Opa also has built-in
  • 3. support for MongoDB, which is tightly integrated in the language and offers a type-safety layer on top of MongoDB.[22] There are also a large number of unofficial or community-supported drivers for other programming languages and frameworks.[21] Management and graphical front-ends[edit] MongoDB tools[edit] In a MongoDB installation the following commands are available: mongo MongoDB offers an interactive shell called mongo,[23] which lets developers view, insert, remove, and update data in their databases, as well as get replication information, set up sharding, shut down servers, execute JavaScript, and more. Administrative information can also be accessed through a web interface,[24] a simple webpage that serves information about the current server status. By default, this interface is 1000 ports above the database port (28017). mongostat mongostat[25] is a command-line tool that displays a summary list of status statistics for a currently running MongoDB instance: how many inserts, updates, removes, queries, and commands were performed, as well as what percentage of the time the database was locked and how much memory it is using. This tool is similar to the UNIX/Linux vmstat utility. mongotop mongotop[26] is a command-line tool providing a method to track the amount of time a MongoDB instance spends reading and writing data. mongotop provides statistics on the per-collection level. By default, mongotop returns values every second. This tool is similar to the UNIX/Linux top utility. mongosniff mongosniff[27] is a command-line tool providing a low-level tracing/sniffing view into database activity by monitoring (or "sniffing") network traffic going to and from MongoDB. mongosniff requires the Libpcap network library and is only available for Unix-like systems. A cross-platform alternative is the open source Wireshark packet analyzer which has full support for the MongoDB wire protocol. mongoimport, mongoexport mongoimport[28] is a command-line utility to import content from a JSON, CSV, or TSV export created by mongoexport[29] or potentially other third-party data exports. mongodump, mongorestore mongodump[30] is a command-line utility for creating a binary export of the contents of a Mongo database; mongorestore[31] can be used to reload a database dump. Production Deployments[edit] Some of the prominent users of MongoDB include:[32] MetLife uses MongoDB for “The Wall," a customer service application providing a "360-degree view" of MetLife customers.[33] Craigslist stores over 2 billion records in MongoDB.[34] SAP uses MongoDB in the SAP PaaS.[35] Forbes stores articles and companies data in MongoDB.[36] The New York Times uses MongoDB in its form-building application for photo submissions.[37] Sourceforge uses MongoDB for its back-end storage pages.[38] Codecademy[39] Shutterfly uses MongoDB for its photo platform. As of 2013, the photo platform stores 18 billion photos uploaded by Shutterfly's 7 million users.[40][41] The Guardian uses MongoDB for its identity system.[42] CERN uses MongoDB as the primary back-end for the Data Aggregation System for the Large Hadron Collider.[43] Foursquare deploys MongoDB on Amazon AWS to store venues and user check-ins into venues.[44] eBay uses MongoDB in the search suggestion and the internal Cloud Manager State Hub.[45] See also[edit]
  • 4. Portal icon Free software portal Apache's Erlang-based CouchDB (open source) Apache's Cassandra (open source) Apache's Java-based HBase and Accumulo (open source) Basho Riak (open source, Apache License 2.0) TokuMX performance engine for MongoDB (open source) Apache's Java-based ElasticSearch (open source) References[edit] Jump up ^ "10gen embraces what it created, becomes MongoDB Inc.". Gigaom. Retrieved 27 August 2013. Jump up ^ "DB-Engines Ranking". Retrieved 8 September 2013. Jump up ^ MongoDB daddy: My baby beats Google BigTable ^ Jump up to: a b The MongoDB NoSQL Database Blog, The AGPL Jump up ^ The MongoDB NoSQL Database Blog, MongoDB 1.4 Ready for Production Jump up ^ MongoDB Support by 10gen Jump up ^ MongoDB Developer Manual Jump up ^ [1] Jump up ^ [2] Jump up ^ GridFS article on MongoDB Developer's Manual Jump up ^ NGINX plugin for MongoDB source code Jump up ^ lighttpd plugin for MongoDB source code Jump up ^ FAQ: Concurrency Jump up ^ FAQ Concurrency - How Granular Are Locks Jump up ^ FAQ Concurrency - How Does Sharding Affect Concurrency Jump up ^ FAQ Concurrency - Do Operations Ever Yield the Lock Jump up ^ 32-bit Limitations Jump up ^ Does Everybody Hate MongoDB Jump up ^ What is the Working Set Jump up ^ Optimizing Your MongoDB Dataset ^ Jump up to: a b "MongoDB Drivers and Client Libraries “ MongoDB Ecosystem 2.2.2". Mongodb.org. Retrieved 2013-07-08. Jump up ^ / (2012-11-27). "The database · MLstate/opalang Wiki · GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved 2013-07-08. Jump up ^ mongo - The Interactive Shell Jump up ^ HTTP Console Jump up ^ mongostat Manual Jump up ^ mongotop Manual Jump up ^ mongosniff Manual Jump up ^ mongoimport Manual Jump up ^ mongoexport Manual Jump up ^ mongodump Manual Jump up ^ mongorestore Manual Jump up ^ Production Deployments Jump up ^ MetLife Uses NoSQL For Customer Service Breakthrough Jump up ^ Lessons Learned from Migrating 2+ Billion Documents at Craigslist Jump up ^ The Quest to Understand the Use of MongoDB in the SAP PaaS Jump up ^ Supporting Distributed Global Workforce of Contributors with MongoDB Jump up ^ NYT + MongoDB in Production Jump up ^ Scaling SourceForge with MongoDB Jump up ^ How Codeacademy is Using MongoDB Jump up ^ Real World NoSQL: MongoDB at Shutterfly Jump up ^ Here's How We Think Of Shutterfly's Stock Value Jump up ^ MongoDB at The Guardian Jump up ^ Holy Large Hadron Collider, Batman! Jump up ^ Experiences Deploying MongoDB on AWS Jump up ^ MongoDB at eBay Bibliography[edit] Banker, Kyle (March 28, 2011), MongoDB in Action (1st ed.), Manning, p. 375, ISBN 978-1-935182-87-0 Chodorow, Kristina; Dirolf, Michael (September 23, 2010), MongoDB: The Definitive Guide (1st ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 216, ISBN 978-1-4493-8156-1 Pirtle, Mitch (March 3, 2011), MongoDB for Web Development (1st ed.), Addison-
  • 5. Wesley Professional, p. 360, ISBN 978-0-321-70533-4 Hawkins, Tim; Plugge, Eelco; Membrey, Peter (September 26, 2010), The Definitive Guide to MongoDB: The NoSQL Database for Cloud and Desktop Computing (1st ed.), Apress, p. 350, ISBN 978-1-4302-3051-9 External links[edit] Official website MongoDB Manual Designing for the Cloud at MIT Technology Review A vendor-independent comparison of NoSQL databases: Cassandra, HBase, MongoDB, Riak (NetworkWorld) Categories: Free database management systemsDocument-oriented databasesDistributed computing architectureStructured storageNoSQL Navigation menu Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages ??????? ????????? Català Deutsch Español ????? Français ??? ??????? Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Magyar Nederlands ??? Polski Português ??????? ????? Türkçe ?????????? ?? Edit links This page was last modified on 12 December 2013 at 18:05. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a nonprofit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki
  • 6. Wesley Professional, p. 360, ISBN 978-0-321-70533-4 Hawkins, Tim; Plugge, Eelco; Membrey, Peter (September 26, 2010), The Definitive Guide to MongoDB: The NoSQL Database for Cloud and Desktop Computing (1st ed.), Apress, p. 350, ISBN 978-1-4302-3051-9 External links[edit] Official website MongoDB Manual Designing for the Cloud at MIT Technology Review A vendor-independent comparison of NoSQL databases: Cassandra, HBase, MongoDB, Riak (NetworkWorld) Categories: Free database management systemsDocument-oriented databasesDistributed computing architectureStructured storageNoSQL Navigation menu Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages ??????? ????????? Català Deutsch Español ????? Français ??? ??????? Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Magyar Nederlands ??? Polski Português ??????? ????? Türkçe ?????????? ?? Edit links This page was last modified on 12 December 2013 at 18:05. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a nonprofit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki