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  1. 1. Kabiru KinyanjuiIAU 2011 Conference, Kenyatta University,  16th – 18th November 2011 Safari Park Hotel 1
  2. 2. Three preliminary observations: Persisting Faith in Higher Education Higher Education a privileged of the few Paucity of dataKey Issues: Equitable Access Quality in Higher Education Indications of Success The Way Forward 2
  3. 3. Persisting Faith in Higher Education “We are in a transition period where intellectual capital, brainpower, is replacing financial and physical as the key to our strength, prosperity, and well being. In a very real sense, we are entering a new age, an age of knowledge, in which the key strategic resources necessary for prosperity has become knowledge itself, that is, educated people and their ideas. As our society becomes ever more knowledge-intensive, it becomes ever more dependent upon those social institutions that create knowledge, that educate people, and that provide them with knowledge and learning resources throughout their lives.” James J. Duderstadt, 2010. A University for the 21st Century. pp 13-14. “Higher education has the potential of providing African-led solutions to African problems in the spirit of Africa’s collective vision.” African Union, The 2nd Decade of Education for Africa, 2007. “Kenya will provide globally competitive quality education, training and research to her citizens for development and enhanced individual well- being…. Public and private universities will be encouraged to expand enrolment, with an emphasis on science and technology courses” Kenya Vision 2030, Chapter 5,sec1. 3
  4. 4. HE a Privilege for the Few: Higher Education refers to “post secondary education (or study beyond the level of post secondary education,)where degree, diploma, or a certificate is awarded at the end of study.”(AU,2007). It includes universities polytechnics and technical colleges and other specialized training institutions after secondary education. (Association of African Universities, 2006) In 2010, there were 357,488 students who sat for Kenya Certificate for Secondary Education (KCSE). This represented about 10 percent of the age cohort 18-24. 27% of the KCSE candidates (97,134) scored grade C+ and above qualifying them for consideration for university education in Kenya( public and private) and foreign universities and colleges However the majority of the secondary school leavers with (grade C and below) were destined to compete for access to middle level colleges, training colleges, technical institutions, formal employment, self-employment, or remain unemployed. This is annual circle. Hence in discussing equitable access we need to recognize that only a small proportion of African youth age between 18-24 are accessing HE. (World Bank 2009, Accelerating Catch-up: Tertiary Education for Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp 51) 4
  5. 5. This year there were 413,696 candidates taking KCSE, weestimate that 30%will qualify to be considered for universityeducation and other tertiary institutions in Kenya.The rest will join the swelling ranks of youth searching for thefew opportunities in the economy.The picture in some sub-Saharan African countries is similarto the Kenyan situation, while in others is worse- especiallythose emerging from wars and conflicts.According to UNESCO,2011 EFA Global MonitoringReport, only 6% of the age cohort have access to tertiaryeducation, compared to 70% in North America andWestern Europe. 5
  6. 6. Paucity of data In carrying out research of HE in the region one encounters the challenge of accurate and up-to-date data on all aspect of the development of HE The PUIB report recommended that management information system for the entire education system in Kenya needed to be put in place both at national and institutional levels. This would be a starting point of any credible research of HE A discourse on issues of equity and quality in HE need systematic, accurate and in-depth data to come to grips with these concepts and prevailing trends The paucity of data encountered has constrained the kind of analysis required in discourses of this kind. Lack of update research looking into these issues in any serious depth is also a limiting factor. 6
  7. 7. This leads us to three critical Questions of this presentation: Are the limited opportunities for HE equitably distributed? Are those few accessing HE, experiencing or exposed to the desired quality and relevant education? Are students accessing HE prepared prior to entry, upon entrance, and when exposed to higher education experience for success expected of them at this level of education( acquisition of requisite knowledge, skills, values and preparation for life)? 7
  8. 8. Paucity of data In carrying out research of HE in the region one encounters the challenge of accurate and up-to-date data on all aspect of the development of HE The PUIB report recommended that management information system for the entire education system in Kenya needed to be put in place both at national and institutional levels. This would be a starting point of any credible research of HE A discourse on issues of equity and quality in HE need systematic, accurate and in-depth data to come to grips with these concepts and prevailing trends The paucity of data encountered has constrained the kind of analysis required in discourses of this kind. Lack of update research looking into these issues in any serious depth is also a limiting factor. 8
  9. 9. Given the value associated to Higher education in distribution of various societal goods and opportunities( employment , incomes, power and influence, self- actualization, etc), equity in HE is an issue of paramount economic , social and political concern. Expansion of HE in the world and especially in developing countries last two decades has been remarkable. In SSA, the enrollments in tertiary education increased from 2,136,000 in 1999 to 4,140,000 in 2007 (UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report , 2010 ) The expansion is attributed to growth of enrolments in both public and private institutions In the past two decades enrollments in Africa have expanded annually at 8.7% ,compared to 5.1% for the world as a whole, and have tripled since 1990, to more than 4 million students (Altbach & Salmi, 2011 and UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Reports, 2009 and 2010 ) The number of tertiary institutions now surpasses 650 mark (some 200 public and 468 private) .The private sector has established itself as an important part of the tertiary system, accounting for about 18 percent of enrollments in the region. 9
  10. 10. Table 1. Total Number Students enrolled in Tertiary Education (1999, 2006 and 2007) 160,000,000 140,000,000 120,000,000 Enrollments 100,000,000 80,000,000 60,000,000 1999 40,000,000 2006 20,000,000 2007 0 Developed  Developing  Sub‐Saharan  World Countries Countries Africa 1999 92,273,000 36,358,000 47,229,000 2,136,000 2006 143,723,000 43,961,000 85,331,000 3,723,000 2007 150,498,000 44,420,000 91,331,000 4,140,000 Source: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2009 and 2010 10
  11. 11. Table 2. Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Tertiary Education in 1999, 2006 and 2007Source: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2009 and 2010 11
  12. 12. Enrolment into Universities, Selected African Countries,  1999 & 2009Global Education Digest, 2011 12
  13. 13. But who has benefitted from the recent expansion of higher education?Gender Equity: While globally the increased places in tertiary education went to women (World Bank, 2011,World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development, pp 59-61), gender inequalities have persisted in most countries in sub- Saharan Africa However, in 2008/ 2009 Cape Verde, Mauritius, Namibia and Tunisia data indicated these countries had surpassed gender parity mark, with more women than male students enrolled at tertiary level. Other countries on progress towards gender parity were Uganda and Cameroon (MDG Report 2011,p.38) There is an emerging challenge of men accessing higher education and especially in private higher education institutions. 13
  14. 14. Table 3. Gender Parity Index (F/M) in Tertiary Education (1999, 2006 and 2007)Source: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2009 and 2010 14
  15. 15. Table 4. KCSE Candidates, C+ and above 2008 to 2011Year Total  C+ and  Gender JAB Intake JAB Intake Candidates above C+ and  (%) above (%) Male Female2008 305,015 72,649 28.3 No 44,310 28,339 24,058 7.88 (%) 60.9 39.02009 337,404 81,048 24.0 No 50,109 30,939 24,221 7.17 (%) 61.8 38.22010 357,488 97,134 27.2 No 60,200 36,934 n/a n/a (%) 61.9 38.02011* 413,696 123,953* 30* No n/a n/a n/a n/a (%) n/a n/aSource: Kenya Certificate for Secondary EducationNB: * estimates N/A-Data not yet available 15
  16. 16. JAB Admissions into selected Degree programmes by  Gender, 2007‐2010 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female No 874 595 734 538 738 565 779 539 BEd(Arts) (%) 59.5 40.5 57.7 42.3 56.6 43.4 59.1 40.9 BEd No 617 218 571 217 402 169 591 218(SCI) (%) 73.9 26.1 72.5 27.5 70.4 29.6 73.1 26.9 No 397 257 360 183 314 305 340 230B Com (%) 60.7 39.3 66.3 33.7 50.7 49.3 59.6 40.4 No 113 91 154 98 123 123 126 132Law (%) 55.4 44.6 61.1 38.9 50 50 48.8 51.216
  17. 17. 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female No 140 90 119 46 118 89 172 89MB.BCh (%) 60.0 39.1 72.1 27.9 57 43 65.9 34.1Computer No 197 62 201 49 185 62 193 59Science (%) 76.1 23.9 80.4 19.6 74.9 25.1 76.6 23.4Engineering No 810 159 819 187 764 249 834 220 (%) 83.6 16.4 81.4 18.6 75.4 24.6 79.1 20.9 17
  18. 18. Observations on data given in slides 14, 15 and 16 Overall performance of girls in KCSE over the years indicate their performance was far below that of boys Less proportion of girls compete for degrees which require high level of achievement in KCSE such as medicine, law, commerce and engineering In 2008 to 2011, less than 30% of women had access to BEd (Science), Computer Science and Engineering degree courses. While Law, BCom and BEd (Arts) degrees courses indicated close to gender parity. 18
  19. 19. Class: Family background and ability to pay : There is an emergent middle class in Africa, and its expanding (Mckinsey 2010, ADB 2011). The socio-economic background of the parents (education, occupation status and wealth) has become critical factors of who gets into good quality pre-school, primary and secondary education and eventually into universities. Anecdote evidence indicates that the students from poor socio- economic background are being edged out into entry to HE and in particular in high-valued professional education (HE loans notwithstanding). The high social differentiation and stratification in the society is being reproduced in the education system, and in turn reproducing and reinforcing societal inequalities. In Kenya, evidence seems to indicate that entry to professional degree programmes is becoming an exclusive domain of a few well resourced national secondary schools located in the capital and around the Nairobi metropolis. 19
  20. 20. Inequalities in access to HE are reinforced by the current self-sponsoredprogrammes (Module II or parallel degree programmes),catering mainlyfor those who are able to pay market fees and are often preferred becauseof the resources they generate particularly in the public universities.We have no data at the moment but the trend seem likely to become thedominant mode of access to HE in Kenya and other East African countries .This process is often referred to as “commercialization and privatizationof university education”(Mamdani,Mahmood, 2007;Derek Bok, 2003).In many African countries basic, primary and secondary education both(public and private) is highly differentiated. Children coming from high socio-economic backgrounds tend to access high quality primary and secondaryeducation giving them an advantaged in access to HE.In Kenya, the education system has become highly differentiated with privateacademies catering students from high SES, enabling them to have adisproportionate share in access to high quality national secondary schoolsand in turn giving them an advantage in performance and consequently 20access to HE.
  21. 21. Regional: Regional imbalances in HE are rooted in historical, cultural, economical and political development in colonial and post colonial periods. Uneven colonial penetration and economic development has persisted in most of African the countries. This is the case in Kenya. Poverty and marginalization in various regions tend to perpetuate regional inequalities in access to basic education and eventually HE. The cumulative effects of colonial and post-colonial policies, conflicts and wars have tended to manifest regional inequalities not only in provision of basic education but also HE. 21
  22. 22. As observed in Africa, only a small proportion of age cohort 18-24have access to HE. This is below the global trend and emergingeconomies.Despite high rate expansion of HE in Africa in last ten years,gender disparities continue to be prevalent particularly inaccess to professions and scientific fields( Lumumba N’DriT.Assié, 2007;Jonathan, Adams et.al, 2010)To come into grips with inequality in access to HE there is need foraccurate and up-to-date data . This should be catered for throughaccurate and up-date Education Management Information Systemand through research. Research of this kind can facilitatedecomposition of inequalities in HE to bring out the emergingdimensions and complexities. Once the problem data is overcomewe could discern the various aspects of inequalities (rural vs urban,urban rich and poor, marginalized communities, etc) 22
  23. 23. The concept of quality in higher education is a complex to define, measure and programme for it. Quality defines the relationship between idealized expectations and actual outcomes (PUIB, 2006). Quality in HE is a multi dimension concept that embrace all functions and activities of a higher education institution (AU, 2007) Critical components that determine quality of HE: • The quality of students admitted: • The caliber of staff available, their Motivation and Commitment • Diversity and international character of student body and staff and programmes • The curriculum offered: content ,coverage and quality of delivery • Infrastructure (ICT hubs, laboratories, libraries, lecture theater halls, etc). 23
  24. 24. Critical components that determine quality of HE: • Leadership, and Governance of the institutions • Management of the people, programmes and processes • Level of Funding: staff remuneration, staff development implementation of curriculum, development and maintenance of the infrastructure , • Graduate Schools and Institutes • Research: relevance and output, graduation processes & community service • the integrity and implementation of the existing Quality Assurance(QA) mechanisms , monitoring and evaluation systems, internal and external . 24
  25. 25. Global perspective: Globalization and especially global ranking, has both direct & indirect impact on higher education, its quality and quality assessment. Quality in higher education has assumed great significance in recent times in the context of “knowledge Society” Hence competition for students, staff, research funding: Quality a critical factor Increasing commercialization of higher education -Emergence of cross-border institutions, Distance learning and Utilization of ICT, institutional collaboration: student and teacher mobility (N.V. Varghese, 2009) Educated populations today are global citizens, so it becomes necessary to seek international recognition and legitimatization through quality assessment and certification according to “international standards” 25
  26. 26. Some Observations on Quality: An African Perspectives Rapid expansion of Higher Education Institutions of Learning spurred by competition for limited places or opportunities as a result of increased secondary school populations,( African population predominantly youthful) Commercialization and “vocationalization” of institutions: “…the recent wave of entrepreneurial behavior is a response to the reductions in government support for higher education that began in the 1970s” (Derek Bok,2003. Universities in the Market place: The Commercialization of Higher Education).The establishment of Module II for students willing to pay but missed access to public HEIs in the first merit selection could be compromising the quality of student body in the institutions. Weak Accreditation processes: eg Mode of introduction in curriculum for instance Engineering, Medical and Law courses without blessings of professional bodies. Such curricula attractive fee paying students interested in entering high status professions. Inadequate and outdated equipment & facilities : limited access to ICT, research laboratories, limited access to journals, 26
  27. 27. Neglect of development of academic communities: remunerationand rewards systems, Staff development and Capacitydevelopment, Lack of vibrant intellectual communities and networks,“Travelling’ lectures and falling standards” Daily Nation, pg 1-2October 17, 2011, emphasizing the straddling phenomenon,common in the region: The current staff strikes Limited funding of research: Heavy teaching load, ascendency ofdonor funding, Consultancy syndrome- individualization of researchenterprise. Declining staff output on Research and publications.Limited resource attention given to graduate education: grayingintellectuals and professors, academic community overwhelmed bythe rapidly changing higher education landscape. Weak national QA institutions: Government Leadership andstakeholder commitment required for quality advancement throughcomprehensive, independent and effective external QA mechanism.Going beyond accreditation and licensing of private universities. 27
  28. 28. Foundations of quality in HE Safeguard the quality of basic education and national assessment Invest in quality academic Staff: Development and formation of graduate students (next generation of scholars) through graduate schools. Take measures to Recruit Rewarding , Recognize and Retain qualified personnel for teaching , management and research. Reward excellence in teaching, learning and mentoring of students Strategically investments in infrastructures for enabling quality teaching, learning and research Reclaim research functions of the universities, and Accelerated development of Graduate education Diversify funding , but beware of the perverse impact of commercialization: “…many (critics) are afraid that commercially oriented activities will come to overshadow other intellectual values and that university programs will be judged primarily by the money they bring in and not by their intrinsic intellectual quality.”(Derek, Bok, 2003; Mamdani,Mahmood, 2007) Institute transparent internal QA mechanisms, and open up for external QA assessment s . 28
  29. 29. What constitutes success in HE is problematic and complex: Meeting national goals: undertaking research and innovations required and community service (realization of national Visions: Kenya 2030; Rwanda 2020 and Tanzania 2025): Institutional perspective: realizing the vision and mission of each the tertiary institution (Are the staff enabling the institution realize its mission: achieve goals through transmitting and generating knowledge, teaching and disseminating innovations for change) Individual goals: Are there students successful in acquiring the skills and knowledge and values they require, are they prepared for success in the society that has paid for their education and training. Critical interventions for success- Orientation, mentoring, tutoring, leadership training, accompanying students through various programmes and activities- financial, spiritual, moral guidance, etc Value for they money invested. Regional and international perspective: contribution to generation of knowledge, innovations, creativity, achievement of global and regional competitiveness 29
  30. 30. While measurement of success from variousperspectives is complex and difficult, HE institutionsshould constitute in every four/five years mechanisms ofraising the question of whether they have beensuccessful in implementing their missions and achievingtheir targets. This can be done through internal orexternal mechanisms; National QA mechanism, (ii)Visitation and Inspection and (iii) Global and regionalranking.Whatever mechanism utilized to assess success, itshould involve all stakeholders (students, staff partnersand the community) 30
  31. 31. Access Tackling poverty in the society key to equity: Recognizing the limitations of HE in dealing with inequalities emanating and embedded in the society, HE institutions contribution to intervention programmes to eliminate poverty is critical (MDG goal 1) - through courses offered, interventions given to the disadvantaged and marginalized, relevant research and community service. A Critically Evaluate existing intervention programs to cater for women and students from marginalized communities. Improve on data collection, management and analysis to monitor emerging inequalities (gender, regional, ethnic and class inequalities) and being in forefront in rallying the communities, policy makers, civil society to deal with the issues of access and equity. Diversify access and equity through differentiated Tertiary Education to create necessary skills and competences required by diversified economies and populations 31
  32. 32. Quality: Institutional leadership committed to quality of HE programmes is critical, and should be accompanied by effective governance and management structures and systems to implement changes and reforms necessary for realization of quality objectives at institutional levels. Strengthen mechanisms and processes of institutional QA: Revisit and re-evaluate ongoing commercialization programmes to assess their impact on quality of students recruited, teaching processes and degrees rewarded Strengthen teaching and research functions of HEIs through formation of qualified cadres(4Rs) Pay attention to inputs, processes and outputs that contribute to the quality of HE 32
  33. 33. Effectiveness of HE The overall success of HE is realized when an effective and enabling environment for vibrant, creative and innovative HE is provided for through requisite funding, infrastructural development, academic freedom and autonomy, research engagement; and HEIs interaction with policy makers, scholars, local and international communities and in partnership with private and productive sectors of the society 33
  34. 34. Thank You 34