IAU_KU_2011_Tupan

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IAU_KU_2011_Tupan

  1. 1. IAU International Conference Nairobi Strategies for securing access and success in higher education How do governments act to reach these objectives? Mary Tupan-WennoExecutive Director ECHO, Center for Diversity Policy, Netherlands President European Access Network
  2. 2. Why and how do governments act tosecure access and success of all students in higher education?Is Government policy enough to achieve more equity?
  3. 3. Why equity policy in higher education?• Factual reasons: demographic and economic developments, shortages in graduates of certain disciplines• Ideological reasons: accessibility higher education, social justice, equal opportunities etc.
  4. 4. Dutch context
  5. 5. Demographic development in theNetherlands 1996 – 2050 Population in the Netherlands by Dutch and Non Dutch 1996 - 2050 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Dutch Non Dutch 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1996 2000 2004 2006 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050Source: Central Bureau for the Statistics
  6. 6. The Netherlands: a changing society 2011: 11%(non western) ethnic minorities
  7. 7. The Netherlands: a changed society the urban area 2011: 35%(non western) ethnic minorities
  8. 8. Share of (non western) ethnic minoritiesin education (2006/2007) urban non urban • Primary education 55% 10% • Secondary education 50% 11% • Higher education 30% 12%
  9. 9. Enrollment Randstad: universities of applied sciences, cohort 1997 - 2008 Verdeling instroom G5 HBO naar etniciteit80%70%60%50%40% Autochtoon Allochtoon NW-allochtoon30%20%10%0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 cohort 1997 - 2008
  10. 10. Enrollment Randstad: research universities, cohort 1997 - 2008 Verdeling instroom G5 WO naar etniciteit80%70%60%50%40% Autochtoon Allochtoon NW allochtoon30%20%10%0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Cohort 1997 - 2008
  11. 11. Graduation rates (ba) Randstad: universities of applied sciences, cohort 1997 - 2002 Studentrendement (n+2) G5 HBO totaal80%70%60%50% Autochtoon40% NW-allochtoon30%20%10%0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 cohort 1997 - 2002
  12. 12. Graduation rates (ba) Randstad: research universities, cohort 1997 - 2003 Studentrendement G5 WO bachelor (n+2) naar etniciteit80%70%60%50% Autochtoon40% NW-allochtoon30%20%10%0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 cohort 1997 -2003
  13. 13. Government policy on equity Netherlands Factual reasons Ideological reasons Policy focus1990 – 2000 Shortages of HE graduates on Access undergraduate, National the labourmarket Equity Institutional Demographic developments Ethnic minorities2001 - 2007 Demographic developments Access undergraduate, National Retention gap Equity Institutional Labourmarket demands Ethnic minorities2008 – 2011 Increasing gap in retention & Access undergraduate Urban Achievement Access graduate, Institutional Labourmarket demands Equity Ethnic minorities Bologna social dimension2012- Low achievement rates in general Labourmarket demands Bologna social dimension
  14. 14. OECD: Thematic review of tertiaryeducation in the NetherlandsFor those who have the right preparation, are theright age, and have the right kind of familysituation, there are abundant opportunities withinthe tertiary education system of the Netherlands.But potential students from underserved groupswho lack necessary language skills, educationalpreparation, or have no family members tosupport them, have more difficulty entering thesystem and are less successful in completing TE.
  15. 15. OECD• In most countries there is little information to assess the extent of inequities in tertiary education and there is little emphasis on equity of outcomes• There is strong evidence that access to and participation in tertiary education is associated with the socio economic background of students• Some countries face challenges in making tertiary education accessible to students with an immigrant background• The inclusion of ethnic minorities poses serious challenges in some countries
  16. 16. We know too little of the students weperceive as being a problem in terms of data. We know almost nothing about the worlds students represent, their struggles, their dreams and hopes and their life stories.
  17. 17. How inclusive should equity policy be?
  18. 18. Social identities of all students & professionalsEdwin Hoffman Ethnic group Socio economic position GenderEducation Person Sexualbackground orientation Family Religious group Age
  19. 19. Effective policy & practice in HE institutions culture sense of belonging of students & staff structure images & expectations
  20. 20. How? Creating a culture of high expectations and success:the Pedagogy of excellence University of California Los Angeles
  21. 21. Pedagogy of excellence• High expectations building on students strengths instead of deficiencies• High level of support (peer mentoring, -tutoring, - academic counseling)• Early outreach and academic preparation• Creating a campus climate where students feel included and involved create a sense of belonging• Awareness on students cultural and social identity
  22. 22. Implementation in the Netherlands• 2002 – 2005 pilots at 7 universities across the country• 2006 – 2008 programs at 21 universities across the country• 2009 – 2011 programs at 10 universities in the urban areas All with the aim to improve study success of all students and to create a more inclusive higher education.
  23. 23. Effective policy & practice in HE institutions culture sense of belonging of students & staff structure images & expectations
  24. 24. Thank you very much!marytupan@echo-net.nl www.echo-net.nl www.ean-edu.org

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