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    IAU_KU_2011_Tibugari IAU_KU_2011_Tibugari Presentation Transcript

    • Government support for UniversityEducation: which way for Women’s University in Africa? Handsen Tibugari Lecturer Women’s University in Africa Zimbabwe handsentibugari@gmail.com
    • OUTLINE• The University Education Sector• Public Universities• Private Institutions• Women’s University in Africa• Major Trends• Lessons• Recommendations
    • Zimbabwe University Education• 14 universities: • 9 public (state), 5 private universities• Administered by Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education’s Division of University Education• Links local & international universities, compiles & maintains databases on university education
    • • Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education monitors quality of university education• Universities have Internal Quality Assurance Departments to monitor quality
    • • Access - one university in each province• The Ministry targets to increase access to university education from the current 40% to 60% by 2012 and 60% to 90% by 2013• Government policy also allows establishment of private universities
    • Public Universities• Public universities receive Government grants• Students in public universities can be cushioned by the Cadetship Scheme, which covers 75% of fees• Upon completion of studies, recipients serve the country and are bonded for a period equal to the duration of the period they are engaged as cadets
    • Private Institutions• Private schools & private teachers’ colleges receive per capita and salary grants from government• Private universities not government funded• 4 church based• High fees - large portion of their income• Additional income from churches
    • The Women’s University in Africa• Not-for-profit university• Not church based• Established to address gender disparity and foster equity in university education• 85% women and 15% men• Reasonable fees to accommodate economically disadvantaged
    • Institution Fees/semesterState Universities 400.00 – 700.00Catholic University 750.00Africa University 1 250.00Solusi University 1 400.00Women’s University in 700.00Africa
    • • Student population – 2 000• Graduation rate – 95%• Vision 2015 - Growth with Quality• Target enrolment – 4 500• Flexible lecture timetables• Plans for satellite campuses, University to the people
    • WUA Sources of Income• 95% of income from students’ fees• 5% from gifts and donations• Grant - African Capacity Building Foundation• 9 PhD scholarships for academic staff• More than 90 scholarships for women students• Is equipping Agriculture Laboratory• Bus for students, computers, E-books• Staff exchange/contact visits
    • • Limited revenue sources• Lessons from public universities?
    • Major Trends Social transformation ESAPResuscitation UnderfundingImproved funding Near collapseImproved conditions
    • 1980s• Socialist ideology• One public university• High expenditure 14 - 23% in 1979/80 – 1980/81 (Nherera, 2005)
    • 1990s• Shift towards capitalist society• Growing debt• ESAP-1991• Cutbacks in education expenditure• Expenditure not to exceed 18%• 4 new public universities
    • University EstablishedNational University of Science 1991and TechnologyBindura University of Science 1996EducationZimbabwe Open University 1998Midlands State University 1999Africa University 1992Solusi University 1994Competition for government resources
    • 2000-2009• Land reform• Economic isolation• Price controls• Recession• Reduced HE expenditure• (40% of income 2009)• More public universities – competition for resources
    • 2000 - 2009Institution EstablishedChinhoyi University of Technology 2001Great Zimbabwe University 2002Lupane State University 2004Harare Institute of Technology 2005Catholic University in Zimbabwe 2001Women’s University in Africa 2002
    • Effects on educationEconomic hardships• High student dropout rates >20% in 5• Temporary suspension of programmes – lack of qualified lecturers• Temporary closure of institutions (e.g.. UZ)• Closure of students’ halls of residence
    • • Government budgetary constraints and hyperinflation – salaries unattractive• Mass exodus of skilled academics (Prof I.D.T. Mpofu - IDT Feed Formulation Software 2006 – University of Namibia)• Many universities recruited Teaching Assistants to assist with practicals• Ended up teaching full course loads
    • Lessons• Reliance on limited revenue sources not sustainable• Can compromise access and quality• Government funding policies can change
    • Recommendations• Need for universities to diversify revenue• Room for WUA to diversify revenue e.g.: - Strategic Business Unit projects, Research - Consultancy, Alumni (VP)• Government extend cadetship scheme – needy students - salary grants for staff