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  • 1. IAU/KU International Conference 2011Nairobi – KenyaNovember 15, 2011Higher Education in São Paulo,Brazil – Planning and DevelopmentFernando Ferreira CostaUniversity of Campinas – UnicampPresented by:Marcelo Knobel
  • 2. Higher Education in Brazil 2010• Population: 191 million• GDP = U$ 2.1 trillion (U$11,000 GDP/capita)• Higher Education • 2,378 institutions (278 public) • 190 universities (101 public) • 6.3 million undergrad students enrolled • 5.4 million in presential programs • 76% of enrollments in the private system • 50%in for-profit institutions• Net enrollment ratio (18-24 cohort): 15% • Gross enrollment ratio: 27%• Federal system • 58 universities, 37 Technological Institutes and 4 Colleges • 930,000 undergraduate students • 820,000 in presential programas • 15% of total undergraduate enrollment
  • 3. Higher Education in São Paulo 2010• 22% of the Brazilian population: 41 million• 33% of Brazilian GDP = U$ 700 billion (U$17,000 GDP/capita)• Almost 50% of Brazilian Science• Higher Education • 26% of all enrollment = 1.63 million students (1.47 million in presential programs) • 32% of graduating class (2010): 260,000 of 830,000 total • Net enrollment ratio: 18% (34% gross enrollment ratio) • 85% in private HEIs (3/4 of those in for-profit system) • Small federal participation, only 1.5% of enrollments• State Public HE system • Best university system in Brazil • 3 universities, 28 campi, 120,000 undergrad students, 50,000 grad students • 50 Technical Colleges (FATECs), 50,000 students• But still, only 14% of all enrollment is in public institutions
  • 4. Where are we?• Campinas ▫ Metropolitan area 19 municipalities 2.8 million people (2009) HDI = 0.835 São Paulo State: 0.833 Brazil: 0.819 GNP = R$ 70.7 billion (2007) 7.8% of São Paulo State 2.7% of Brazil
  • 5. Unicamp• Public State University • Budget: 2.1958% of net state VAT • No tuition feesBudget (2010)• R$ 1.545 billion from the State • 85% salaries• R$ 542 million other sources, mainly research contracts
  • 6. The University• Founded in 1966• 6 campuses • 3.5 million m2• 22 Academic Units• 3 Hospitals • 778 beds
  • 7. Personnel (2010)• Faculty: 1750 • 98% PhD • 90% of the PhDs full time• Staff: 7916 • 3370 in hospitals
  • 8. Students (2010)
  • 9. Graduate Titles Granted
  • 10. Excellence in Research: 10% of Brazil
  • 11. Undergraduate Access Applicants: 30% from public schools 70% from private schools Admitted: 30% from public schools70000 70% from private schools60000 However, 85% of the50000 students from the state are from public schools4000030000 Applicants Places2000010000 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  • 12. 187 registered companies 21 Graduated Companies6826 workers employed 10 Incubated Companies+ de R$ 1 billion fibras ópticas
  • 13. Brazil’s HE system - 1960-2010• 1960: less than 200,000 students enrolled in HE• 1960-1980: enrollment grew to 1.4 million (600%)• 1980-1994 • longest period of economic stagnation in Brazil’s history • there was little development in HE, public or private• 1995-2010 • Political stability and economic growth • Increasing demand for qualification • Expansion of private sector • New National Law of Education (1996) • New paths for diversification of system • Deregulation • Universalization of basic education (1st-8th grades) • Expansion of secondary education ---> Increasing demand for Higher Ed
  • 14. Undergraduate Enrollment 1980-2010 (Presential Programs) Enrollment in HE - Brazil 1980-2010 6.000.000 TotalGrowth 1980‐1994 1994‐2010 5.000.000 PublicPublic 40% 100% Private 4.000.000Private 10% 300% 3.000.000Total 21% 220% 2.000.000 1.000.000 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
  • 15. Recent TrendsFast grow sectors•Vocational/Professional HE: 3-year programs•Distance Learning HE Type of program 2005 2010 Variation Vocational/Professional  Brazil 210,000 540,000 160% HE São Paulo * 240,000 ‐ Distance Learning HE Brazil 114,000 930,000 720% São Paulo 4,600 150,000 3,160% * Data not available, but it is fair to assume that the vocational/professional HE sector in SP has expanded at least at the same rate as nationwide in the 2005-2010 period
  • 16. Planning HE in São Paulo (SP)Two plans were developed during the past decade regarding the expansion and qualification of theHE system in SP, regarding undergraduate education:•2001: Expansion of the Public HE System in SP • Developed by the Council of Rectors of the three state universities • Restricted to the state public sector • Main focus were the 3 state universities • Main objective: to expand enrollment in the public state system by about 28% • Time span: 2001-2006•2005-2006: Director Plan for the HE System in SP • Developed by a Commission designated by the State Governor • All sectors, including the other public and the private system, were considered in the plan • All sectors had dedicated plans designed for them, focus was on vocational/professional education, in particular the state system of Technological Colleges • Main objective: to reach Net Enrollment Ratio of 30% by 2020 • Time span: 2006-2020 R. H. L. Pedrosa, A Director Plan for the public HE system in São Paulo [In Portuguese]. Revista Ensino Superior, N.2, Unicamp, 2010. http://www.revistaensinosuperior.gr.unicamp.br/noticia.php?id=12 R. H. L. Pedrosa, Master planning in Brazilian HE: expanding the 3-year public College system in the state of São Paulo. Center for Studies in Higher Education, Berkeley, 2010. http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/publications.php?id=362
  • 17. Planning HE in São Paulo (SP)The Director Plan 2006-2020, aiming at a better system which would provide access to a largergroup of the state young population, called for action by the State Administration in the followingareas:•State universities • Keep the autonomy of the universities (established in 1989) • Keep their research orientation • Limited enrollment growth•State technological colleges • Strong expansion of enrollment: from 25,000 in 2006 to about 200,000 in 2020 • Strengthen their commitment to local economy • Possible integration with municipal system•Federal system • Call for more federal investment in São Paulo, which was (and still is) very low, relatively to the State’s role in Brazil•Private system • Call for initiatives that would qualify the system, like a scholarship system tied to academic and governance improvements
  • 18. The State Universities in São Paulo 1989-2009• 1989 was the year the state universities were granted full autonomy, including budgetary autonomy• The autonomy decree specified a fixed percentage of the state tax revenues that should be directed to the system, still the only system in the country with such a provision• As seen from the graphs, enrollment doubled in the period and indexed publications grew 10-fold • The three SP universities are responsible for more than 40% of all doctorates and indexed published research in Brazil • The Director Plan called for maintenance of the autonomy system • It also supported increased emphasis on the graduate/research character of the state universities • Regarding undergraduate enrollments, any expansion should take the research mission of the universities into consideration
  • 19. The State Technological Colleges• Started in 1969, but only in the last 10 years has seen relevant growth• Offers 3-year programs with direct links to job market (but also in some traditional areas, like health)• Spreaded across the state, each campus offers programs related to the local economy• State inverstment has grown 5-fold in the Fatec system from 2005-2010 • No cuts in the state universities’ budgets• Employability 1 year after graduation: 92% • Some programs reach 96% or more: construction, information systems• Average monthly salary 1 year after graduation • $1,700 PPP (purchasing power parity) • About 75% of average salary in traditional academic careers (follows OECD countries’ average)
  • 20. State Technological Colleges - FATECs Vacancies, enrollment, units – 1990-2010• The FATEC system has already reached the number of campuses that was State Technological Colleges (FATECs) in São Paulo Spots, enrollment and campi proposed by the Director Plan, about 50 1990-2010• Still, the state administration has 50.000 60 proposed the number to grow to about 60 Spots 45.000 by the end of 2014 Enrolment 50 40.000 Number of FATEC campi Number of FATEC campi• For the FATEC system to reach the Spots and enrolment 35.000 proposed enrollment figure of 200,000 40 30.000 students enrolled by 2020, as the Director Plan indicates, it needs only to expand the 25.000 30 enrollment numbers to about 4,000 per 20.000 campus, on average 20 15.000• If economic growth continues at the 10.000 10 present rate of 3-4%/year, it is possible 5.000 that the state budget will allow for the investments necessary to reach the 0 0 proposed goal 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
  • 21. IAU/KU International Conference 2011Nairobi – KenyaNovember 15, 2011Higher Education in São Paulo, Brazil –Planning and Development Thank You!Marcelo KnobelUniversity of Campinas – Unicampknobel@reitoria.unicamp.br