Francisco Marmolejo                                                                         4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizon...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                       4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona....
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                              4/11/2011...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                  4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu                             ..and...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                 4/11/2...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                             4/11/2011f...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                       4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu                             ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                      4...
Francisco Marmolejo                      4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu                    Source: IAU (2010)http://w...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                         4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu                             Fonte:        ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                       4/11/2011fmarmol...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu                   ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                              4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu      ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                   4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                             4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                         4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizon...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                4/11/2011fmarmole@email...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                           4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu         ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                          4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizo...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                                       ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                              4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu      ...
Francisco Marmolejo                                                                                     4/11/2011fmarmole@...
Francisco Marmolejo          4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu             31
Francisco Marmolejo          4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu             32
Francisco Marmolejo                                                           4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu         ...
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GMA IV_Marmolejo

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GMA IV_Marmolejo

  1. 1. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Global Meeting of Associations of Universities and other Higher Education Institutions Delhi, India. April, 2011 Francisco Marmolejo Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration The University of Arizonahttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 1
  2. 2. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu • More than 3.3 million students. . 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2004 2006 2008 Source: OECD and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (for data on non-OECD countries and up to 1975). • It is forecasted that by 2020 the number will increase to 7 million international studentshttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 2
  3. 3. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu http://www.beerkens.info/blog/atom.xml …Demographic Distribution 18 16 2005 14 2006 12 2008 1998 10 2002 8 6 4 2 0 Chile Luxemburgo México Dinamarca Rep.Checa España Grecia Rep.Eslovaca Polonia Australia Suiza Austria Belgica Inglaterra Alemania Francia N. Zelanda Suecia Corea Irlanda Noruega Islandia Holanda Hungria Finlandia Canada Turquia OECD Portugal EEUU Japón Italia OCDE. Education at a Glance. 2004 and 2006http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 3
  4. 4. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Austria Other OCDE 2% Italy 9% Swiss 2% 2% U.S.A. Belgium 33% 2% Spain 2% Japan 4% France England 9% 13% Germany Australia 12% 10% OECD. Education at a Glance 2005http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 4
  5. 5. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Other partner  countries 16% Other OCDE Korea U.S.A. Sweden 1% 7% 18% 1% Netherlands 1% U.K. Belgium 10% 1% Switzerland Germany 1% 7% France China Austria 7% Australia Canada 1% Spain 2% 7% 5% New Zealand Italy 2% 2% Russian Fed. 2% South Africa 4% Japan 2% 4% OECD. Education at a Glance 2010 2002 2008 Austria Other OCDE Sweden 2% Italy 9% Other partner  1% 2% Swiss U.S.A. Other OCDE countries 2% Korea U.S.A. 18% 7% 16% Belgium 1% 33% 2% Netherlands Spain U.K. 2% 10% Belgium 1% Japan 1% 4% Germany Switzerland 7% Austria China 1% France France 2% England 7% Canada 1% 9% 13% 5% New Zealand Australia Australia Italy 2% Germany 10% 7% South Africa 12% Russian Fed. Japan 2% 4% 4% 2% Spain 2% OECD. Education at a Glance 2005 and 2010http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 5
  6. 6. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Major players: U.S.A., U.K. and Australia Middle powers: France, Germany, Spain, Italy Evolving destinations: Canada, New Zealand, Japan Emerging contenders: Malaysia, China, Singapore Source: Verbik, L. et al. (2007) International Student Mobility: Patterns and Trends. The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education Korea:  4.6% India:  6.8% China:   17.1% Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2010http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 6
  7. 7. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu ..and fields of studyhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 7
  8. 8. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu USE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE COUNTRIES IN INSTRUCTION All or nearly all education programs Australia, Canada, Ireland, N.Zealand, U.K., U.S.A. Many education programs Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden Some education programs Belgium (Fl.), Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, Slovak R., Switzerland, Turkey None or nearly no education programs Austria, Belgium (Fr.), Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Russian Federation Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2006 and 2010http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 8
  9. 9. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu TUITION FEE STRUCTURE  COUNTRIES Higher tuition for international students than for  Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Ireland,  domestic students Netherlands, New Zealand, Slovak Republic, Turkey,  United Kingdom1, United States Same tuition for international and domestic  France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,  students Portugal, Spain, Switzerland No tuition for either international or domestic  Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,  students Sweden A worldwide “industry” generating more than 20 billion USD annually Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2006 and 2010http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 9
  10. 10. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Cultural/experiential  Increased  Mobility still mostly: “Brain‐drain” goals and means: commodification: Questionable  For the better‐off  Quality  practices. (The  Brain‐circulation? students Assurance “bubble” effect) The role of  The “time‐ To the better‐off  governments,  compression”  Money talks countries  companies and  factor universities Regulations? Students traveling abroad for a short period of time with their “imported” teacher, remaining together, continuing to speak mainly their own language even while abroad, and having just a superficial glimpse at the foreign culture and peoplehttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 10
  11. 11. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu More than half of the U.S. students who go  abroad only participate in a short term  program (IIE, 2010)  Cultural/experiential  Increased  Mobility still mostly: “Brain‐drain” goals and means: commodification: Questionable  For the better‐off  Quality  practices. (The  Brain‐circulation? students Assurance “bubble” effect) The role of  The “time‐ To the better‐off  governments,  compression”  Money talks countries  companies and  factor universities Regulations?http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 11
  12. 12. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Share of a country’s national with a university education who live in an(other) OECD country Only 30 % of Africans studying abroad return to the region after graduation Jamil Salmi Note: The emigration rate of highly educated persons from country i is calculated by dividing the highly educated expatriate population from country of origin i by the total highly educated native-born population of the same country (Highly educated native-born(i)= Expatriates(i) + Resident native born(i)). Highly educated persons correspond to those with a tertiary level of education. Source: OECD Database on Foreign Born and Expatriates; Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, 2006 and Cohen D. and M. Soto, 2001, Growth and Human Capital: Good Data, Good Results, OECD Development Centre WP n°179. F. Marmolejo, S. Manley y S. Vincent‐Lancrin Immigration and access to tertiary education: Integration or  marginalisation?”  OECD, 2009http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 12
  13. 13. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Nunnally Johnson The Grapes of Wrath (1940)http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 13
  14. 14. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Competency Important Achieved Ethical commitment 3.76 3.0 Most Commitment to quality 3.72 2.91 important Ability to learn and adapt learning 3.68 2.94 Ability to apply knowledge in practice 3.66 2.84 Ability to identify, pose and solve problems 3.65 2.92 Competency Important Achieved Capacity for research 3.4 2.76 Less Commitment to socio‐cult. environment 3.37 2.71 important Comm. to look after the environment 3.27 2.45 Ability to work in international context 3.15 2.30 Ability to communicate in a 2nd. language 3.11 2.06 Source: Final Report Tuning Latin America. (2007) . http://www.tuning.unideusto.orghttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 14
  15. 15. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Source: IAU (2010)http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 15
  16. 16. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu By the year 2050 the most widely spoken languages in the world will be: • 1 Mandarin • 2 Spanish • 3= English • 3= Hindi/Urdu • 3= Arabic. Even considering English as the lingua franca of business, Mark Davis back in 2004 did an interesting breakdown of the percentages of world GDP by language. He calculated that by 2010 English would represent only 28 percent of the global market, followed by Chinese, Japanese, German and Spanish. Fonte: English Next (2007). The British Council 1400 1200 Arabic Spanish 1000 English Hindu-Urdu 800 Chinese Chinese 600 Hindu-Urdu 400 English 200 Spanish Arabic 0 1950 2000 2050 Source: David Graddol. The Future of English? (London: British Council, 1997). Foreign Policy. Nov-Dec. 2003. No. 139http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 16
  17. 17. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Fonte: English Next (2007). The British Councilhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 17
  18. 18. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Differences in  The endless  history, structure,  dichotomies responses. Proliferation of joint/dual degree arrangements Massive private investment on education Towards more international quality assurance frameworks The role of rankings Increased use of technology as means for “virtual” mobility Still issues to be resolved with credential/credit recognition Some good practices. Some hope http://conahec.orghttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 18
  19. 19. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Transitioning from “traditional” to  “relevant” mobility CONAHEC was created In 1994 as the  U.S.‐Mexico Educational Interchange  Project http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 19
  20. 20. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Collaboration Cooperation Community‐building among higher education  institutions in North America …and beyond http://conahec.org 150+ Institutions and Higher Education Organizations In North America… and beyond • Argentina CONAHEC’s • Brazil Chile memberships’ • • Colombia total enrollment • Ecuador • Honduras represents • Iceland 2.5+ million • Malaysia • Spain students • South Korea On more than 250 campuseshttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 20
  21. 21. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Undergraduate and graduate levels Multi‐institutional, multi‐level Costs. Tuition Swaps  Credit Recognition Electronically based exchange program http://conahec.org “Service Learning” based student exchanges More asymmetrical than today  Faculty exchanges (based on institutional  needs)  Staff exchanges (in conjunction with  Compostela Group of Universities’ STELLA  Program) http://conahec.orghttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 21
  22. 22. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Just a good idea A critical need Source of prestige and “sell” Survival tool Non practical Highly practical Marginal Beneficial A priority for  “tomorrow” Priority for “yesterday” http://conahec.org A new type of  students Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 22
  23. 23. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu ¿Sequential? Multi-task?http://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 23
  24. 24. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Friendster d wA dis teacha wrks S borin. U@? PTMN bout r teacha S lamo. Jst B3 dis teacha. I N2K Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 24
  25. 25. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Where are you? The way this teacher works is Please tell me now boring. Our teacher is an idiot. about this teacher. Just bla, bla, bla. I need to know Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu A new global context Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 25
  26. 26. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Technology Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 26
  27. 27. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Col um Colu mn2 n… ,  ,  99… Gajaraj Dhanarajan Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 27
  28. 28. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Pew Internet & American Life: US educators not Net- savvy Aug 14 2002: A new study from Pew 80 Internet & American Life indicates that 78 percent of middle and 60 high school students in the US use the 40 37 Internet. NO YES However, most 20 63 American teenagers NO claim that educators 0 YES often don’t know how, don’t want, or aren’t able to use online % tools to help them learn or enrich their Source: Market Facts/TeleNation for GTE Directories. USA Today. Sep. 24-98 studies. Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu http://conahec.orghttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 28
  29. 29. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu In a traditional setting:  The University Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 29
  30. 30. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Who needs international education anyway? “In the 21st Century there will be only two  kinds of people: Those who think globally,  and those who are looking for work” Peter F. Drucker Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Preparing students with global awareness and competitiveness but  also with social consciousness and greater sense of social  responsibility? Strengthening the cooperation among higher education  institutions and their surrounding communities, nationally and  internationally? Implementing mechanisms for a better understanding, awareness  and respect? Innovating? Francisco Marmolejo fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 30
  31. 31. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 31
  32. 32. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.eduhttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 32
  33. 33. Francisco Marmolejo 4/11/2011fmarmole@email.arizona.edu Francisco J. Marmolejo Executive Director Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration (CONAHEC) University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0300 U.S.A. Tel. (520) 621-9080 / Fax (520) 626-2675 E.mail: fmarmole@email.arizona.edu WWW: http://conahec.orghttp://www.conahec.orghttp://www.arizona.edu 33

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