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  1. 1. Challenges of MaintainingExcellence in Higher Education: Role of AIU Prof. Beena Shah Secretary General Association of Indian Universities New Delhi E.Mail ID: 1
  2. 2. The Sustainable Excellence in Higher Education: Main AspectsAddress the status of Higher Education inthe CountryChallenges faced by HEIs and sustain forlong term on global standardsSuggestions that can Improve the Qualityof Higher EducationInterventions & Guidance to Overcomethe Challenges in Today’s ChangeProcess E.Mail ID: 2
  3. 3. History of Indian EducationAncient Period – It was Based on Caste and Social StatusEducation was only for Brahmins and rulers familyMughal Period – Education was Elitist basedBritish Period – Colonial rule contributed to an legacy ofEducation System but reinforced pre - existing elitisttendenciesModern Period- Pt. Nehru envisaged India as a seculardemocracy and used education as a tool to achieve economicprosperity & social equity, imbued with inclusiveness andnational pride.Since the era of Rajeev Gandhi, various innovative reformswere implemented. In continuation, Right to Education Bill2009 has been executed in the whole country. XIth 5-yr Plan isdedicated to education. Education budget in Higher Educationis enhanced 10 times to the Xth 5-yr Plan. 3 E.Mail ID:
  4. 4. Modern Higher Education SystemAcademic Qualification Framework E.Mail ID: 4
  5. 5. Institutional Framework: University Act/LegislationSl. University Act/LegislationNo.1. Central University Act of Parliament2. State University State Legislative Act3. Deemed University Central Govt. notification4. Open Central/State Respective Act University5. Institutes of National Act of Parliament Importance6. Other Institutions State Legislative Act and affiliated to the University7. Autonomous College Status given by UGC E.Mail ID: 5
  6. 6. Regulatory Framework Central Government Regulatory Body  Brief FunctionUGC – UGC Act 1956 Responsible for Coordination, determination, and maintenance of standards and release of grants to universities /institutions and research organizationAICTE - Act 1987 Regulates technical Education i.e. Mgmt., Engg., etcMCI - MCI Act 1956 Regulates medical Education and grants registration for(amended in 1993) medical professionalsDEC- IGNOU Act 1985 Regulates ODL education programmesPCI- Pharmacy Act Regulates Pharmacy Education and grants registration for1948 Pharmacy professionalsINC- INC Act 1947 Regulates Nursing Education and grants registration for qualified nursesCOA- Architects Act Regulates architectural Education and grants registration for1972 architectsBCI- Advocate Act Regulates promotes and maintains standards of legal 61961 Education E.Mail ID:
  7. 7. Contd… Regulatory Frame WorkDCI‐ Dentists Act‐ 1948 Regulates Dental  Education ICAR‐ Has  established  various  research  centres  in  order  to  meet  agricultural research and agriculture Education NCTE‐ NCTE Act 19 Regulate and facilitate planned and coordinated  development  of the teacher education systemCCH‐ CCH Act 1973 Regulates  Homeopathy  Education  and  grants  registration  for  Homeopathic professionalsCCIM‐ CCIM Act 1970 Regulate Indian medicine education and grants registration for  Indian medicine professionalsRCI – RCI Act 1992 Has  twin  responsibility;  standardizing  and  regulating  the  training  of  personnel  and  professional  in  the  field  of  rehabilitation and special educationNCRI‐ Promote rural higher EducationSCHE Each states of India has its own higher education council which  prepare  coordinated  programmes  of  development  of  higher  education  7 E.Mail ID:
  8. 8. Status ofHigher Education E.Mail ID: 8
  9. 9. Growth in Number of Universities  E.Mail ID: 9
  10. 10. Growth in Number of Higher Education  Institutes (HEIs) Number of Colleges 10 E.Mail ID:
  11. 11. Type of InstitutionsType of Institutions No of Institutions 2006 2011Central Universities 20 42State Universities 217 260Deemed Universities 104 130Institute Established Under State 5 10LegislationsInstitutions of National Importance 13 41Private Universities 8 64Total 373 547Colleges 17625 25951Grant Total 18365 27045 11 E.Mail ID:
  12. 12. Breakup of Universities (2011)Type of Universities Number of Percentage UniversitiesConventional Universities 280 51.18Technical Universities 138 25.22Medical Universities 45 8.22Agricultural Universities 42 7.67Open Universities 15 2.74Law Universities 14 2.55Sanskrit Universities 13 2.37Total 547 100 12 E.Mail ID:
  13. 13. Number of Higher Education Institutions (Global Scenario 2010) 2011 13 E.Mail ID:
  14. 14. Student Enrolments (in Millions) in Higher Education (Global Scenario 2009) * 14India 2010 E.Mail ID:
  15. 15. Gross Enrolment Ratio in Higher Education (Global Scenario 2010) 26% 21%Developed countries avg. GER   54.6%   Countries in transition  36.3 %  Global  15Avg    40%     E.Mail ID:
  16. 16. Challenges in Higher Education1. Access2. Equity3. Quality Perspective4. Funding5. Imbalances in Student Mobility6. Faculty Shortage7. Declining Trend of Enrolment in Conventional Programmes8. Rapid Privatization9. Entry of Foreign Universities 16 E.Mail ID:
  17. 17. 1. Access 17E.Mail ID:
  18. 18. 1.(a) Growth of Student Enrolment (in million) E.Mail ID: 18
  19. 19. 1.(b) Students/Women Enrolment Faculty-wise: 2008-2009Faculty Total %age Women %age Enrollment of total Enrollment of totalArts 5875532 43.07 2772580 49.08Science 2612406 19.15 1129255 19.99Commerce/ Management 2486901 18.23 915719 16.21Education 286478 2.10 180771 3.20Engineering/ Technology 1313706 9.63 276806 4.90Medicine 446087 3.27 202803 3.59Agriculture 80482 0.59 15253 0.27Animal Husbandry Science 21827 0.16 4519 0.08Law 381971 2.80 89256 1.58Others 136418 1.00 62140 1.10Total Enrolment 13641808 100.00 5649102 100.00 E.Mail ID: sgoffice@aiuweb.orgSource: UGC Annual Report 2008‐2009 19
  20. 20. 2. Equity 20E.Mail ID:
  21. 21. 2. EquityLarge variations are in the enrolment ratioamong various categories of populationbased on Gender, Socio-Economic Status,Locality (Rural/Urban/Remote/ Tribal, etc.) E.Mail ID: 21
  22. 22. 3. QualityPerspective 22 E.Mail ID:
  23. 23. 3.(a.1) Regulation of Higher Education InstitutionsScreening to Maintain the Quality1.Central/State Govt. – Permission to Establish2.UGC – Approval to award the degree3.16 regulatory Bodies – Permission to Start Courses under their preview4.Accreditation Agencies: NAAC, NBA, AB, DEC, etc.- To assess and acredit the Higher Education Institutions under their preview E.Mail ID: 23
  24. 24. 3.(a.2) NAAC Grading: Determinants of Quality and Quality Gaps in Universities E.Mail ID: 24
  25. 25. 3.(a.3) NAAC Grading of Universities and Colleges 2010 E.Mail ID: 25
  26. 26. 3.(b) Governance: HEIs Governance be role models of corporate governance including ethical standard, openness and transparency. The main obstacle are: a) Involvement political and non academic persons in Governing Council/Executive Council b) Absence of Academic Committees c) Inadequate Student Involvement in Governance d) Insufficient cooperation between Industry & Other Stakeholders e) Absence of Merit-based incentive scheme (including fixed and variable pay concept) f) Lack of Autonomy and Freedom of Work due to Control and Interference of Govt. g) Absence of Collegiate Spirit among faculty h) Education being a concurrent subject many times differences arise between centre and state Govts. 26 E.Mail ID:
  27. 27. 3.(c) Content, Curriculum and DeliveryIn view of Quality Perspective- What is taught & how to be taught are very important Quality, Relevance and Flexibility are essential component in curriculum and content development Lack of ICT Infrastructure, trained man power and adaptability will are factors prolonged adoption of reformed Pedagogy in classrooms EDUSAT, Virtual Classrooms Teaching & ODL System are yet to take momentum Transition from Conventional Pedagogy to Online, Electronic Media 27 E.Mail ID:
  28. 28. 4. Funding 28 E.Mail ID:
  29. 29. 4.(a) Central government Total Expenditure on  Higher Education (In Rs. Billion) 29 E.Mail ID:
  30. 30. 4.(b) Central Government Fund Distribution over  Different Sectors of Higher Education (2009) E.Mail ID: 30
  31. 31. 4.(c) Public Expenditure on Higher Education as a %age of GDP (Global Scenario) E.Mail ID: 31
  32. 32. 5. Imbalance inStudent Mobility 32 E.Mail ID:
  33. 33. 5.(a) Mobility of Indian Students to Foreign Countries (2009-10) Country Numbers USA 104,897 Australia 79,000 UK 27,500 Canada 9,600 France 1,700 Germany 4,500 Japan 546 Malaysia 2,000 NZ 6,000 Thailand 357 Taiwan 500 Total 236600Due to racial attacks – declined in 2008‐09 – 94,000  33 E.Mail ID:
  34. 34. 5.(b) International Students in Indian Universities Continent wise (2008-09) Continents 2008-09 Asia 16004 Africa 4193 America (N & S) 614 Europe 304 Australasia 66 Miscellaneous 597 Total 21778Source: AIU Database;  Received Information from 127 univs  34 E.Mail ID:
  35. 35. 5.(c) International Students in Indian Universities Top Ten Countries (2008‐09) Countries 2008-09 Iran 2972 Ethiopia 1937 United Arab Emirate 1726 Nepal 1711 Afghanistan 1192 Saudi Arabia 1043 China 873 Sri Lanka 742 Bhutan 680 Kuwait 490 Total 13366 35Source: AIU Database E.Mail ID:
  36. 36. 5. (d) International Students in Indian Universities (Top ten Universities)  (2008‐09) Universities Male Female Total University of Pune, Pune --- --- 3507 University of Mysore, Mysore 894 585 1479 University of Delhi, Delhi 699 525 1224 Manipal University, Manipal 583 641 1224 Osmania University, Hyderabad 946 221 1167 Symbiosis International University, Pune 622 485 1107 VIT University, Vallore 348 106 454 Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 336 114 450 Alagappa University, Karaikudi 253 186 439 Indira Gandhi National Open University, Delhi 3907 1954 5861 Total 8588 4817 16912Source: AIU Database 36 E.Mail ID:
  37. 37. 6. Faculty Shortage: Lucrative salaries & glamour particularly in the Industries of Private Sector and Multinational companies, it has become for universities to attract the talent E.Mail ID: 37
  38. 38. 7. Declining Enrolment in Traditional Fields of Knowledge 8. Privatization: increasing rapidly due to- 1. Inadequate number of Quality Institutions 2. Out of the Entrants appeared in Entrance test only 1% in IIMs & 2% in IITs could get admission. 3. Lack of resources to meet out the increasing demand for Higher Education Therefore, Liberal Policies introduced for private sector to share the responsibility Even now self financed programmes permitted in public funded universities/collegesDue to faculty shortage unable to maintain quality 38 E.Mail ID:
  39. 39. 8.(a) Share in % age of Public Sector in Higher Education E.Mail ID: 39
  40. 40. 40E.Mail ID:
  41. 41. 9. Entry of Foreign Universities:Why Need FEP in India? Liberalization, Globalization & Internationalization of Higher Education have opened gates To cope with rising demands of Higher Education, and with changing scenario in education world over To meet the demand of students to provide access into quality institutions To enhance accessibility from GER 12.5%, in higher education institutions to – 15 percent by 2015 30 percent by 2020 Quality Assurance in higher education is a major global concern for Competitive environment, FEPs are the best bet International Mobility with respects to students, teachers and even the institutions have taken place in a very high magnitude 41 E.Mail ID:
  42. 42. 9.a Entry of Foreign Universities:Favorable Points for Foreign Educational Institutions in India India has more than 55 million population of 17-25 years age group. The youth population has sound knowledge of English languageWhat is desired from FEP(s)? Programmes offered by FEP should be in conformity with the standards in their parent country and laid down by competent authority in India i.e.- curriculum, duration, faculty, etc. FEPs should not be concentrated up to metros or big cities but also encouraged by giving incentives to open their institutes in the rural/remote areas of our country E.Mail ID: 42
  43. 43. Suggestions to Improve the Quality of HigherEducation Action Research in Education Action research provides a positive avenue for empowerment, engagement, creativity and generation of new knowledge for discarding the bonds of restrictive legislation, bureaucratization, and isolation To resolve Faculty Development & Research Issues Adequate Use of ICT in delivery of Education Strong Liaison between Institutions and Corporate for funding & Joint Collaborations E.Mail ID: 43
  44. 44. Higher Education be Affordable 44 E.Mail ID:
  45. 45. 45E.Mail ID:
  46. 46. InterventionsThrough ReformsTo Address Challengesin Higher Education 46 E.Mail ID:
  47. 47. Intervention through Reforms in Higher Education Education for all is the basic objective behind Reforms, Conforming to Millennium Development Goal Right to Education Act 2009 executed in the whole country and Rs. 17100 Billion allocated in the XIth plan budget for execution National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established in 2005 to review status of Higher Education in the country and give the recommendations E.Mail ID: 47
  48. 48. Access and Expansion Aspects -1500 universities and 3500 colleges of higher educationManifold increase in the quality institutions viz IITs, IIMs,NITs, IIITs, AIIMs and Central UniversitiesEmphasis given to address the gender, regional,geographical and social inequality gapsDue emphasis is given to issues of access, equity, relevance,quality, governance and networking of higher educationinstitutions through ICT as well as enhancement to GrossEnrolment Ratio (GER)Preparing frameworks for Public Private Partnership inHigher EducationOpening of 500 new polytechnics, 210 new CommunityColleges in un-served districts E.Mail ID: 48
  49. 49. (contd...)The Government of India, took immediateaction on the recommendations of NKCToday we have 15 IITs, 4 IIITs, 13 IIMs, 20NITs, 30 Central Universities. In majority NewUniversities are established in rural areas16 World Class Universities and 3 IndianInstitute of Science Education and Research(IISERs), 3 AIIMs, are about to come E.Mail ID: 49
  50. 50. Equity Aspects - (contd...) Setting up of Equal opportunity Office in the universities to look into aspects of inclusiveness, affordability and all schemes for disadvantaged group be operational To reduce the gap and enhance the quality and excellence between have & have nots are also covered by UGC for receiving grant GoI, Facilitated Soft Education Loan to aspirants of Higher Education through Loan Guarantee Authority E.Mail ID: 50
  51. 51. (contd...)Financial Aspects - The 11th five year plan of India is designated as the Education Plan Enhanced budget for education manifold from Rs. 540,000 million in Xth Plan to RS 2370,000 (> 4 times) Million in the XIth Plan Enhanced budget for higher education from Rs 80,000 million (in the Xth Plan) to Rs 849,430 million(> 10 times) in the XI Plan Provision made for Special support to universities/colleges of rural/remote areas 51 E.Mail ID:
  52. 52. (contd...)Sustainable Quality Maintenance – 9 Universities, 100 colleges recognized as potential for excellence by UGC 500 centres/departments identified under special assistance programme by UGC in universities For quality improvement and uniformity, UGC has issued guidelines to bring some Academic and administrative reforms viz Entrance Test is mandatory for admission in M. Phil. and Ph. D. programmes Semester system, credit transfer and credit accumulation are to be adopted by all universities including conventional universities Accreditation made mandatory for all Higher Education Institutions Encouraged Networking through WWW, WAN & LAN to enhance the efficiency and quick information downloading & transmission 52 E.Mail ID:
  53. 53. Proposed Bills for Bringing Regulatory Reforms in the Higher Education Sector Legislation ObjectiveNCHER-2000 Single super regulator for higher educationFEI (regulation of Entry and To regulate the entry and operation ofoperation) Bill - 2010 FEIsThe Educational Tribunals Bill - Settlement of education disputes2010The Universities for Innovation Bill - To provide regulatory framework for2010 establishing world class universitiesNational Accreditation Regulatory To regulates process of accreditationauthorityThe prohibition of unfair Practices To prohibit unfair practices in thein Technical & medical educational institutions under referenceinstitutions and Uni. -2010All are under process of approvaL/implementation 53 E.Mail ID:
  54. 54. Role of AIU 54 E.Mail ID:
  55. 55. Role of AIU in Sustainable Quality MaintenanceAIU is a 85 year old autonomous body of HigherEducationEstablished on March 23, 1925 name as IUB at theirown initiative of 14 Indian UniversitiesSteadily till 1945 IUB became stronger, popular andestablished a place of immense importance in HigherEducation and Proved its existence as authenticspokesperson of universities.In 1973, IUB renamed as AIU with same motto – “FromAssociation is Born Integration”AIU, being an Apex body of Higher Educationrepresents Indian Universities at National/ Internationalforums E.Mail ID: (contd…) 55
  56. 56. Continued…. To Coordinate and Establish Liaison between Univs., Govts. (State/Federal) and Agencies (National/International). Provides active support to its members for quality assurance, teaching, training and research. Internationalization of education, equivalence of degrees between Indian and foreign universities, harmonization of Higher Education in global perspective are the top priorities of AIU. E.Mail ID: 56
  57. 57. Continued…. Maintains Standards & Autonomy of Universities. AIU is the only organization in the country which certifies equivalence to foreign and Indian degrees/ diplomas in general & technical education. Facilitates and Provides services for equivalence of degrees to Federal Govt.: Employment Agencies/ Recruitment Boards and Indian Banks Organizes Capacity Building Training Programmes, Research Conventions, Workshops/ Conferences, etc. to improve Quality of Teaching, Examination, Research and Scholarly Publications. E.Mail ID: (contd…) 57
  58. 58. Continued…. Publishes  Universities  Handbook,  Newsletters,  Books,  AIU  News Weekly Journal, Monographs, etc. Promotes International Cooperation between AIU & International Associations/Agencies for active academic partnership between Foreign and Indian Universities in areas of common interest Maintains Up-to-date data bases of accomplishment of Universities and its dissemination to user agencies AIU Organizes & Promotes Inter University Sports and Youth Welfare Programmes for all round personality development of students Organizes roundtable meetings of VCs at Zonal and National levels on emerging areas of Higher Education E.Mail ID: 58
  59. 59. Networking of Institutions (Inter & Intra)1. Between Department within University 2. Between/among universities a) Within Country b) Indian & Foreign Aspects of Academic Cooperations Sharing of Infrastructure Mobility of Students/Faculty Knowledge Sharing Joint Research Projects Joint Publications Joint Seminar/Workshops/Training Programme Technology Transfer Cooperations in Youth Affairs & Sports Activities E.Mail ID: 59
  60. 60. MoUs between AIU and International OrganizationsSl. Name of Organization Sl. Name of OrganizationNo. No.1. Universities Australia 5. Danish School of Education, (earlier AVCC) University of Aarthus, Cophenhagen2. Rectors Conference of 6. Association of Universities in Germany (HRK) Netherlands (VSNU)3. Indo French Consortium 7. Association of Universities and of Universities (IFCU) Colleges in Canada (AUCC)4. Institute of International 8. Universities Scotland (US) Education (IIE), New 9. Foundation of International York Cooperation in Higher Education of Taiwan (R.O.C.) (FICHET) 60 E.Mail ID:
  61. 61. Indian Ocean Rim – Association for Regional Cooperation  (IOR‐ARC)1. Educational exchanges amongst the IOR‐ARC countries  have made rapid strides in the recent years. 2. Australia  and  Singapore  are  the  most  favorites  destination  for higher education among the IOR‐ARC3. India  is  a  substantial  recipient  of  large  number  of  students from Iran, UAE, Oman,  Mauritius and Yemen,  Sri Lanka4. Indian  Government  continues  to  facilitate  and  further  strengthen  these  exchanges  for  greater  people‐to‐ people contacts India E.Mail ID: 61
  62. 62. AIUInterface with International Organisations International Sports World Bank, Federation, Brussells Washington (FISU) (WB) University Mobility in United Nations the Indian Ocean Educational, ScientificUMIOR Rim and Cultural (UMIOR) Organisation, Paris (UNESCO) Commonwealth of Institute of Learning, Canada International (COL) Education, New York (IIE) International Association of Association of International Universities (IAU) Educators (NAFSA) E.Mail ID: 62
  63. 63. The Main Features of MoUsExchange of students/Research ScholarsExchange of Faculty/Technical staffJoint Research Activities-Projects, PublicationsJoint Educational Programmes-Dual/JointDegreeExchange of VisitsJoint Seminars E.Mail ID: Contd… 63
  64. 64. To promote equivalence of degree/diploma, mutualcredit recognition of programmes between Indian andforeign universitiesPromote Mutual Credit Recognition between MemberInstitutions of AIUPromote Open Access to Scientific and ScholarlyPublicationsInformation Sharing between Associations &UniversitiesLinkage Internet Websites for DisseminateInformationInternships, Research Cooperations and JointCapacity Building ProjectsTo explore cultural and sporting exchange through linkswith the common wealth/world university games E.Mail ID: 64
  65. 65. Organized International Forum on Higher EducationNov. 27, 2006 University of Mumbai, MumbaiNov. 27, 2007 Anna University, ChennaiNov. 18, 2008 North Eastern Hill University, ShillongNov. 14, 2009 Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar Nov. 12-14, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, 2010 Pune E.Mail ID: 65
  66. 66. If universities are to contribute their best, it cannotbe by each university contributing individually … Ithink, it will be possible for us in the universities, tocome to some agreed solutions on major problemsand if this is done, ….. We shall be serving a veryuseful purpose. Sir A. L. Mudaliar                           Former President, AIU E.Mail ID: 66
  67. 67. E.Mail ID: 67
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