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Present perfect slides

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  • 1. PRESENT PERFECT
  • 2. FORM [HAS/HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE] EXAMPLES:YOU HAVE SEEN THAT MOVIE MANY TIMES.HAVE YOU SEEN THAT MOVIE MANY TIMES? YOU HAVE NOT SEEN THAT MOVIE MANY TIMES.
  • 3. USE : Unspecified Time Before Now
  • 4. UNSPECIFIED TIME BEFORE NOW. THEEXACT TIME IS NOT IMPORTANT. YOUCANNOT USE THE PRESENT PERFECTWITH SPECIFIC TIME EXPRESSIONS SUCHAS: YESTERDAY, ONE YEAR AGO, LASTWEEK, WHEN I WAS A CHILD, WHEN ILIVED IN JAPAN, AT THAT MOMENT, THATDAY, ONE DAY, ETC. WE CAN USE THEPRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFICEXPRESSIONS SUCH AS: EVER, NEVER,ONCE, MANY TIMES, SEVERAL TIMES,BEFORE, SO FAR, ALREADY, YET, ETC.
  • 5. I HAVE SEEN THAT MOVIE TWENTY TIMES.I THINK I HAVE MET HIM ONCE BEFORE.THERE HAVE BEEN MANY EARTHQUAKES INCALIFORNIA.PEOPLE HAVE TRAVELED TO THE MOON.PEOPLE HAVE NOT TRAVELED TO MARS.HAVE YOU READ THE BOOK YET?NOBODY HAS EVER CLIMBED THAT MOUNTAIN.A: HAS THERE EVER BEEN A WAR IN THE UNITEDSTATES?B: YES, THERE HAS BEEN A WAR IN THE UNITEDSTATES.
  • 6. HOW DO YOU ACTUALLY USE THEPRESENT PERFECT?THE CONCEPT OF "UNSPECIFIED TIME" CANBE VERY CONFUSING TO ENGLISHLEARNERS. IT IS BEST TO ASSOCIATEPRESENT PERFECT WITH THE FOLLOWINGTOPICS:*EXPERIENCE*CHANGE OVER TIME*ACCOMPLISHMENTS*AN UNCOMPLETED ACTION YOU AREEXPECTING*MULTIPLE ACTIONS AT DIFFERENT TIMES
  • 7. YOU CAN USE THE PRESENT PERFECT TO DESCRIBE YOUREXPERIENCE. IT IS LIKE SAYING, "I HAVE THE EXPERIENCE OF..."YOU CAN ALSO USE THIS TENSE TO SAY THAT YOU HAVE NEVERHAD A CERTAIN EXPERIENCE. THE PRESENT PERFECT IS NOTUSED TO DESCRIBE A SPECIFIC EVENT.EXAMPLES:I HAVE BEEN TO FRANCE.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCEOF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, ORSEVERAL TIMES.I HAVE BEEN TO FRANCE THREE TIMES.YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THESENTENCE.I HAVE NEVER BEEN TO FRANCE.THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THEEXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.I THINK I HAVE SEEN THAT MOVIE BEFORE.HE HAS NEVER TRAVELED BY TRAIN.JOAN HAS STUDIED TWO FOREIGN LANGUAGES.A: HAVE YOU EVER MET HIM?B: NO, I HAVE NOT MET HIM.
  • 8. CHANGE OVER TIMEWE OFTEN USE THE PRESENT PERFECT TOTALK ABOUT CHANGE THAT HAS HAPPENEDOVER A PERIOD OF TIME.EXAMPLES:YOU HAVE GROWN SINCE THE LAST TIME I SAWYOU.THE GOVERNMENT HAS BECOME MOREINTERESTED IN ARTS EDUCATION.JAPANESE HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MOSTPOPULAR COURSES AT THE UNIVERSITY SINCETHE ASIAN STUDIES PROGRAM WASESTABLISHED.MY ENGLISH HAS REALLY IMPROVED SINCE IMOVED TO IRELAND.
  • 9. ACCOMPLISHMENTSWE OFTEN USE THE PRESENT PERFECTTO LIST THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OFINDIVIDUALS AND HUMANITY. YOUCANNOT MENTION A SPECIFIC TIME.EXAMPLES:MAN HAS WALKED ON THE MOON.OUR SON HAS LEARNED HOW TO READ.DOCTORS HAVE CURED MANY DEADLYDISEASES.SCIENTISTS HAVE SPLIT THE ATOM.
  • 10. AN UNCOMPLETED ACTION YOU AREEXPECTINGWE OFTEN USE THE PRESENT PERFECT TOSAY THAT AN ACTION WHICH WE EXPECTEDHAS NOT HAPPENED. USING THE PRESENTPERFECT SUGGESTS THAT WE ARE STILLWAITING FOR THE ACTION TO HAPPEN.EXAMPLES:JAMES HAS NOT FINISHED HIS HOMEWORK YET.SUSAN HASNT MASTERED JAPANESE, BUT SHECAN COMMUNICATE.BILL HAS STILL NOT ARRIVED.THE RAIN HASNT STOPPED.
  • 11. WE ALSO USE THE PRESENT PERFECT TOTALK ABOUT SEVERAL DIFFERENT ACTIONSWHICH HAVE OCCURRED IN THE PAST ATDIFFERENT TIMES. PRESENT PERFECTSUGGESTS THE PROCESS IS NOT COMPLETEAND MORE ACTIONS ARE POSSIBLE.EXAMPLES:THE ARMY HAS ATTACKED THAT CITY FIVETIMES.I HAVE HAD FOUR QUIZZES AND FIVE TESTS SOFAR THIS SEMESTER.WE HAVE HAD MANY MAJOR PROBLEMS WHILEWORKING ON THIS PROJECT.SHE HAS TALKED TO SEVERAL SPECIALISTSABOUT HER PROBLEM, BUT NOBODY KNOWS WHYSHE IS SICK.
  • 12. WHEN WE USE THE PRESENT PERFECT IT MEANS THATSOMETHING HAS HAPPENED AT SOME POINT IN OUR LIVESBEFORE NOW. REMEMBER, THE EXACT TIME THE ACTIONHAPPENED IS NOT IMPORTANT..SOMETIMES, WE WANT TO LIMIT THE TIME WE ARE LOOKING INFOR AN EXPERIENCE. WE CAN DO THIS WITH EXPRESSIONS SUCHAS: IN THE LAST WEEK, IN THE LAST YEAR, THIS WEEK, THISMONTH, SO FAR, UP TO NOW, ETC.WE ARE LOOKING IN FOR AN EXPERIENCE. WE CAN DO THIS WITHEXPRESSIONS SUCH AS: IN THE LAST WEEK, IN THE LASTYEAR, THIS WEEK, THIS MONTH, SO FAR, UP TO NOW, ETC.
  • 13. EXAMPLES:HAVE YOU BEEN TO MEXICO IN THELAST YEAR?I HAVE SEEN THAT MOVIE SIXTIMES IN THE LAST MONTH.THEY HAVE HAD THREE TESTS IN THELAST WEEK.SHE GRADUATED FROM UNIVERSITYLESS THAN THREE YEARS AGO.SHE HAS WORKED FOR THREEDIFFERENT COMPANIES SO FAR.MY CAR HAS BROKEN DOWN THREETIMES THIS WEEK.
  • 14. NOTICE"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different inmeaning. "Last year" means the year before now, andit is considered a specific time which requires SimplePast. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago untilnow. It is not considered a specific time, so it requiresPresent Perfect.Examples:I went to Mexico last year.I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEARBEFORE THIS ONE.I have been to Mexico in the last year.I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE ATSOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO ANDNOW.

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