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    Politics 2011.03 Politics 2011.03 Presentation Transcript

    • Politics and Processes
      Week 3
    • Organizational Structure
      2
      Effective structures provide:
      Stability
      Flexibility
      Structural stability provides:
      The capacity required to consistently and predictably manage daily work routines
      Structural flexibility provides for:
      The opportunity to explore competitive possibilities
      The allocation of resources to activities that shape needed competitive advantages
    • Functional organizational structure
      Employees are grouped together according to their similar tasks, skills or activities. Functional structures are suitable for SMEs with high level of specialization.
      The decision making is centralized at the top of the organization.
    • Benefits of functional organizational structure
    • Disadvantages od functional design
    • Divisional organizational structure
      It is suitable for medium sized to big companies,
      Expanding geographically or on customer base.
      A Divisional design means that all activities needed to produce a good or service are grouped into an anonymous unit.
    • Differences between functional and divisional design
      Functional designs are based on groupings by input;
      Each department is not an independent profit center;
      Divisional design considers output such as product, customer or location.
      Each division is independent profit center;
    • Forms of divisional responsible design
    • Strengths of divisional design:
    • Weaknesses of divisional design
    • Hybrid design
      Hybrid design is one that has divisional units but also have functional departments specialized and centralized in the headquarter.
    • Matrix design
      It implements functional and divisional structures simultaneously in each department.
      The worker in each department is being supervised by two bosses at the same time.
    • Strengths of matrix design
    • Weaknesses of Matrix Design
    • Group task
      Give example of organizations having functional, divisional design.
      For which industry is functional design more appropriate and when divisional is suitable?
    • Nokia Structure
    • SUPPORTING ENTITIES
    • Hierarchical
      Functional
      Matrix
      Product
      Ringed- Fence (Virgin)
      Keiretsu
      Book
      Additional
    • Zaibatsu
    • Rich Merchants in Edo Period (Gosho)
      MITSUI
      -17c From Matsuzaka
      -Kimono trade & money exchange in Edo, Kyoto, Osaka – huge success
      <Transition to Meiji>
      Manager: Rizaemon Minomura
      -Cope with bakufu policy
      to protect Mitsui business
      -Support and work with
      new government
      -Internal reform: from gosho to zaibatsu
      -1876 Establish Mitsui Bank & Mitsui Trading Company
      Sumitomo
      -16c Adopt Western copper refining, copper trade (Kyoto)-17c Move to Osaka
      -Besshi Copper Mine (under Bakufu’s commission)
      <Transition to Meiji>
      Manager: Saihei Hirose
      -Avoiding gov’t confiscation-Introducing Western mining technology to renovate Besshi
      -Business diversification
    • Yataro Iwasaki(1835-85)
      Seisho (政商) from Tosa, founder of Mitsubishi Zaibatsu
      Shipping company--grew fast with government support (receiving gov’t ships, contract for military transport)
      Established Nippon Yusen (NYK Line), fierce battle with Kyodo Unyu (anti-Mitsubushi company), 1883-85
      Expanded to many areas: trade, banking, shipbuilding, coal, mining (later, more)
    • Keiretsu
    • DKB
      Asahi Mutual Life Insurance (DKB)
      The Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company (DKB)
      Daiichi Sankyo
      Dentsu (DKB)
      Fujitsu (Furukawa)
      Hitachi (Hitachi)
      Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI)
      Isuzu (IHI)
      ITOCHU (DKB)
      JFE Holdings (Kawasaki)
      Kawasaki Heavy Industries (Kawasaki)
      Kao (DKB)
      K Line (Kawasaki)
      Kobe Steel (Suzuki)
      Meiji Seika (DKB)
      Mizuho (Mizuho Financial Group)
      Seibu Department Stores (DKB)
      Sojitz (Suzuki)
      Sompo Japan Insurance (DKB)
      Taiheiyo Cement (Asano)
      Tokyo Dome (DKB)
      The Tokyo Electric Power Company (DKB)
      Tokyo FM (DKB)
      Yokohama Rubber Company (Furukawa)
    • DKB
      Asahi Mutual Life Insurance (DKB)
      The Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company (DKB)
      Daiichi Sankyo
      Dentsu (DKB)
      Fujitsu (Furukawa)
      Hitachi (Hitachi)
      Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI)
      Isuzu (IHI)
      ITOCHU (DKB)
      JFE Holdings (Kawasaki)
      Kawasaki Heavy Industries (Kawasaki)
      Kao (DKB)
      K Line (Kawasaki)
      Kobe Steel (Suzuki)
      Meiji Seika (DKB)
      Mizuho (Mizuho Financial Group)
      Seibu Department Stores (DKB)
      Sojitz (Suzuki)
      Sompo Japan Insurance (DKB)
      Taiheiyo Cement (Asano)
      Tokyo Dome (DKB)
      The Tokyo Electric Power Company (DKB)
      Tokyo FM (DKB)
      Yokohama Rubber Company (Furukawa)
    • Keiretsu Structure
    • Horizontal keiretsu (kinyû keiretsu)
      Affiliated `brother and sister` companies spanning different industries
    • Horizontal Keiretsus
      Typical of a Japanese horizontal keiretsu is Mitsubishi where the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi sits at the top of the keiretsu.
      Also part of the core group is Mitsubishi Motors and Mitsubishi Trust and Banking followed by Meiji Mutual Life Insurance Company which provides insurance to all members of the keiretsu.
      Mitsubishi Shoji is the trading company for the Mitsubishi keiretsu.
    • Vertical Keretsu
    • Vertical Keiretsu
      Group of companies within the horizontal keiretsu such as Toyota.
      Toyota's success is dependent on suppliers and manufacturers for parts, employees for production, real estate for dealerships, steel, plastics and electronics suppliers for cars as well as wholesalers.
      All ancillary companies operate within the vertical keiretsu of Toyota but are members of the larger horizontal keiretsu, although much lower on the organizational chart.
    • Vertical Integration
    • Nokia
    • 1865 – From the foundations to becoming a major industrial force
      Nokia Ab. was created in 1865, when Fredrik Idestam established a paper mill at the Tammerkoski Rapids in south-western Finland. Nokia was named for the river, next to which the pulp mill was created.
      1967- a merger with Rubber Works and Finnish Cable Works
      Nokia Ab, Finnish Rubber Works (1882) and Finnish Cable (1912) Works (jointly owned since 1922) formally merge to create Nokia Corporation. At the time, Nokia Ab was the smallest of the three. Since then, the process of integration of five businesses (rubber, cable, forestry, electronics, power generation) started.
    • 1968-1991 for a pioneering role in the early evolution of
      mobile communications
      The newly formed Nokia Corporation was ideally positioned for a pioneering role in the early evolution of mobile communications. As European telecommunications markets were deregulated and mobile networks became global, Nokia led the way with some iconic products, like:
      1987 - Nokia launches the MobiraCityman, the first handheld NMTphone (Nordic Mobile Telephone, the first mobile phone network ever)
      1991 - Nokia equipment is used to make the world’s first GSM call.
    • 1992 essential strategic decisions
      Nokia decided to focus on its telecommunications business. This was probably the most important strategic decision in its history.
      1994 - first satellite call
      The world’s first satellite call is made, using a Nokia GSM handset.
      1997 - Nokia’s Snake Game
      Nokia 6110 is the first phone to feature Nokia’s Snake Game. Snake and its successors are now available on an estimated 350 million mobile phones.
    • 1998 - NOKIA BECOMES THE WORLD’S LEADER IN MOBILE PHONES.
      1999 – the first WAP handset
      Nokia launches the Nokia 7110, the world's first WAP handset.
      2002 – the first 3G phoneNokia launches the Nokia 6650, its first 3G phone.
      2005 -billionth phoneNokia sells its billionth phone – a Nokia 1100 in Nigeria. Global mobile phone subscriptions pass 2 billion.
    • Ch 3 Organizational Culture
    • Henry Mintzberg on Culture
      “Culture is the soul of the organization — the beliefs and values, and how they are manifested. I think of the structure as the skeleton, and as the flesh and blood. And culture is the soul that holds the thing together and gives it life force.”
    • Organizational Culture
      The pattern of shared values, beliefs and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way to think and act within an organization.
      Culture is shared
      Culture helps members solve problems
      Culture is taught to newcomers
      Culture strongly influences behaviour
    • Characteristics of Organizational Culture
    • Characteristics of Organizational Culture
    • Cultural Artifacts
      Stories
      Rituals
      Material Symbols
      Language
    • Revolutionary Change
      Example: Nokia transformation from a cabling company into a (mobile) phone giant
    • Mary Jo Hatch: Cultural Dynamics
      Source: Mary Jo Hatch (1993)
    • Cultural Dynamics
      Culture as a continuous collection of concurrent processes
      Developed from Edgar Schein’s „Iceberg” model
      Full description: Mary Jo Hatch (1993) „The Dynamics of Organizational Culture” The Academy of Management Review 18/4: 657-693. Available in J-Stor Database
    • Manifestation
      Source: Mary Jo Hatch (1993)
    • Manifestation
      Cultural assumptions are made visible in the perceptions, cognitions, and emotions of organizational members
      The implementation of values maintains and shifts culture’s assumptions.
      Example: Assumption of people’s laziness leads to the culture valuing control (people need to be made to work).
    • Realization
      Source: Mary Jo Hatch (1993)
    • Realization
      Values are made real by transforming expectations into artifacts (social or material reality: rituals, stories, humour, physical objects).
      Artifacts support or subvert cultural values
      Example: Introduction of a computer network (change in artefacts) causing members to view communication positively (change in values)
    • Managing Culture
      Symbolization
      Source: Mary Jo Hatch (1993)
    • Symbols and Artifacts
      Artifact is the physical form of an object, or a behavioural expression of a ritual
      Symbol is an object (or a ritual) representing some value or meaning beyond its physical form. It is never completely fixed: It not only represents some existing value, but also allows its user to supply part of the meaning
    • Symbolization
      Artifacts are imbued with meaning beyond their physical form. They become symbols
      The literal form of an artifact affects its symbolic meaning
      Example: If a large desk is seen as a status symbol, the manager might be expected to spend his/her time sitting behind the desk rather than walking around.
    • Interpretation
      Source: Mary Jo Hatch (1997)
    • Interpretation
      Symbols are contextualized in the broader cultural frame.
      Different symbols are harmonized into a coherent framework (both the framework and the symbols are adjusted in the process)
      Example: Internet has been adopted to represent Western democracy’s commitment to freedom of expression
    • What are the cultural Artifacts of
      Virgin
      Nokia
      CESA