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  • 1. Marketing Management
  • 2. Peppers and Rogers on “creating customer loyalty”
    The only value your company will ever create is the value that comes from customers—the ones you have now and the ones you will have in the future.
    Businesses succeed by getting, keeping, and growing customers. Customers are the only reason you build factories, hire employees, schedule meetings, lay fiber-optic lines, or engage in any business activity.
    Without customers, you don’t have a business
  • 3. Building Customer Value, Satisfaction & Loyalty
    Customers are value-maximizers
    Form value expectation & act on it
    Buy from firm perceived to offer highest customer delivered value, defined as
    total customer value - total customer cost
  • 4. 5-4
    Traditional Organization versusModern Customer-Oriented Company Organization
  • 5. Pre-purchase Stage
  • 6. Need Arousal
    Decision to buy or use a service is triggered by need arousal
    Triggers of need:
    Unconscious minds (e.g., personal identity and aspirations)
    Physical conditions (e.g., hunger )
    External sources (e.g., a service firm’s marketing activities)
    Courtesy of Masterfile Corporation
  • 7. Information Search
    Evoked set
    a set of products and brands that a consumer considers during the decision-making process – that is derived from past experiences or external sources
    Alternatives then need to be evaluated before a final decision is made
  • 8. Evaluating Alternatives – Service Attributes
    Search attributes help customers evaluate a product before purchase
    Experience attributes cannot be evaluated before purchase
    Credence attributes are those that customers find impossible to evaluate confidently even after purchase and consumption
  • 9. Perceived Risks of Purchasing / Using Services
  • 10. Components of Customer Expectations
  • 11. Service Encounter Stage
  • 12. Service Encounter Stage
    Service encounter – a period of time during which a customer interacts directly with the service provider
    Might be brief or extend over a period of time (e.g., a phone call or visit to the hospital)
  • 13. Service Encounter Stage
    Models and frameworks:
    “Moments of Truth” – importance of managing touchpoints
    High/low contact model – extent and nature of contact points
    Servuction model – variations of interactions
    Theater metaphor – “staging” service performances
  • 14. Moments of Truth
    “[W]e could say that the perceived quality is realized at the moment of truth, when the service provider and the service customer confront one another in the arena. At that moment they are very much on their own… It is the skill, the motivation, and the tools employed by the firm’s representative and the expectations and behavior of the client which together will create the service delivery process.”
    Richard Normann
  • 15. Service Encounters Range from High-Contact to Low-Contact
  • 16. Distinctions between High-Contact and Low-Contact Services
    High-Contact Services
    Customers visit service facility and remain throughout service delivery
    Active contact
    Includes most people-processing services
    Low-Contact Services
    Little or no physical contact
    Contact usually at arm’s length through electronic or physical distribution channels
    Facilitated by new technologies
  • 17. Post-Encounter Stage
  • 18. Pre-purchase Stage
    • Evaluation of service performance
    • 19. Future intentions
    Service Encounter Stage
    Post-encounter Stage
    Post-purchaseStage - Overview
  • 20. Customer Satisfaction with Service Experience
    Satisfaction: attitude-like judgment following a service purchase or series of service interactions
    Whereby customers have expectations prior to consumption, observe service performance, compare it to expectations
    Satisfaction judgments are based on this comparison
    Positive disconfirmation (better)
    Confirmation (same)
    Negative disconfirmation (worse)
  • 21. Conducting Value Analysis
    Managers conduct a customer value analysis to reveal the company’s strengths and weaknesses relative to those of competitors. These steps are to help:
    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
  • 22. Conducting Value Analysis
    Identify the major attributes and benefits that customers value.
    Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes and benefits.
    Asses the company’s and competitor’s performances on the different customer values against their rated importance.
    Examine how customers rate the company against major competitors on individual attributes or benefits.
    Monitor customer values over time
    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
  • 23. Customer Satisfaction
    Satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment
    A customer’s decision to be loyal or to defect is the sum or many small encounters with the company.
  • 24. Tracking Customer Satisfaction
    Companies can monitor the customer loss rate and contact customers who have stopped buying and learn why this happened.
    Companies can hire mystery shoppers to pose a potential buyers and report on strong and weak points experienced in buying the company’s and competitor’s products.
    In addition to tracking customer value expectations and satisfaction, companies need to monitor their competitor’s performance in these areas as well.
    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
  • 25. Recovering Customer Goodwill
    Set up a 7-day, 24-hour toll-free “hotline” (by phone, fax, or email) to receive and act on customer complaints.
    2. Contact the complaining customer as quickly as possible. The slower the company is to respond, the more dissatisfaction may grow and lead to negative word of mouth.
    3. Accept responsibility for the customer’s disappointment. Never ever blame the customer.
    4. Use customer-service people who are empathetic.
    5. Resolve the complaint swiftly and to the customer’s satisfaction. Some complaining customers are not looking for compensation so much as a sign that the company cares.
  • 26. Maximizing Customer Life Time Value
    Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
    Marketing is the art of attracting and keeping
    profitable customers.
    The 80/20 rule states that the top 20 percent of the customers may generate as much as 80 percent of the company’s profits.
    Customer Profitability
    A profitable customer is a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company’s cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer.
  • 27. Customer Portfolios
    Marketers are recognizing the need to manage customer portfolios, made up of different groups of customers. These customers are defined in terms of loyalty, profitability, and other factors.
  • 28. 5-27
  • 29. Measuring Customer Lifetime Values
    Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) describes the net present value of the stream of future profits expected over the customer’s lifetime purchases.
    CLV calculations provide a formal quantitative framework for planning customer investment and helps marketers to adopt a long-term perspective.
  • 30. See Marketing Memo on Measuring CLV
  • 31. The Marketing Memo – calculating CLV
  • 32. Cultivating Customer Relationships
    Maximizing customer value means cultivating long-term customer relationships.
    Companies are moving to more precision marketing designed to build strong customer relationships.
    Mass customization is the ability of a company to meet each customer’s requirements—to prepare on a mass basis individually designed products, services, programs, and communications.
  • 33. Customer Relationship Management
    Customer relationship management (CRM) is the process of managing detailed information about individual customers and carefully managing all customer “touch points” to maximize customer loyalty.
  • 34. Attracting and Retaining Customers
    Companies seeking to expand profits and sales have to spend considerable time and resources searching for new customers.
    Suspects are people or organizations that might conceivably have an interest in buying but many not have the means or real intention to buy.
    Prospects—customers with the motivation, ability, and opportunity to make a purchase.
    Customer churn—high customer defection.
  • 35. Reducing Defection
    The company must define and measure its retention rate.
    The company must distinguish the cause of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better.
    The company needs to estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customers.
  • 36. 5-35
    The Customer Development Process
  • 37. Building Loyalty
    Four important types of marketing activities that build customer loyalty and retention:
    Interacting with customers
    Developing loyalty programs
    Personalizing marketing
    Creating institutional ties
  • 38. Developing loyalty benefits
    Two customer loyalty programs that companies can offer are frequency programs and club marketing programs.
    Frequency programs (FPs)
    FPs– reward for frequent & substantial buys
    Club membership programs
    Club membership - open to everyone, group or those who pay a fee
  • 39. Creating Institutional Ties
    Providing software, special computer links or hardware to customers to help them manage key functions adds to retaining customers.
    Example Nestlé in Asia
    Support retailers
    Help in inventory management
  • 40. Creating structural ties
    Create long-term contracts
    Charge lower price to consumers who buy larger supplies
    Turn product into long-term service
  • 41. Customer Database
    A customer database is an organized collection of comprehensive information about individual customers or prospects that is current, accessible, and actionable, for such marketing purposes as lead generation, lead qualification, sale of a product or service, or maintenance of customer relationships.