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2011.05 Marketing
 

2011.05 Marketing

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    2011.05 Marketing 2011.05 Marketing Presentation Transcript

    • Marketing
      Stephan Langdon, MBA, M.Ed.
    • Week 5
    • Chapter Five
      Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior
    • Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior
      Model of Consumer Behavior
      Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Types of Buying Decision Behavior
      The Buyer Decision Process
      The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
      Topic Outline
    • Consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers—individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption
      Consumer market refers to all of the personal consumption of final consumers
      Model of Consumer Behavior
    • Model of Consumer Behavior
    • Buyer characteristics and the buyer decision process are two parts of _______.
      buyer’s black box
      buyer’s white box
      buyer’s red box
      buyer’s shopping box
    • Buyer characteristics and the buyer decision process are two parts of _______.
      buyer’s black box
      buyer’s white box
      buyer’s red box
      buyer’s shopping box
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior
    • Consumer purchases are influenced by cultural, _______, personal, and psychological characteristics.
      cost
      social
      health
      profit
    • Consumer purchases are influenced by cultural, _______, personal, and psychological characteristics.
      cost
      social
      health
      profit
    • Culture is the learned values, perceptions, wants, and behavior from family and other important institutions
      Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Subculture are groups of people within a culture with shared value systems based on common life experiences
      and situations
      Hispanic
      African American
      Asian
      Mature consumers
    • Four examples of subculture groups include Hispanic, African American, Asian American, and ________.
      middle-class
      mature consumers
      RVers
      echo boomers
    • Four examples of subculture groups include Hispanic, African American, Asian American, and ________.
      middle-class
      mature consumers
      RVers
      echo boomers
    • Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences are called ________.
      cohorts
      generations
      subcultures
      affiliate groups
    • Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences are called ________.
      cohorts
      generations
      subcultures
      affiliate groups
    • The fastest-growing and most affluent subculture in the United States is the _____ population.
      Hispanic
      African American
      Asian American
      mature
    • The fastest-growing and most affluent subculture in the United States is the _____ population.
      Hispanic
      African American
      Asian American
      mature
    • Social classes are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors
      Measured by a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth, and other variables
      Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
    • Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors is referred to as ________.
      subculture
      families
      social class
      reference groups
    • Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors is referred to as ________.
      subculture
      families
      social class
      reference groups
    • Which of the following is not one of the major American social classes?
      Upper class
      Working class
      Lower-upper class
      Lower-working class
    • Which of the following is not one of the major American social classes?
      Upper class
      Working class
      Lower-upper class
      Lower-working class
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Groups and Social Networks
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Word-of-mouth influence and buzz marketing
      Opinion leaders are people within a reference group who exert social influence on others
      Also called influentials or leading adopters
      Marketers identify them to use as brand ambassadors
      Groups and Social Networks
    • A person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, or other characteristics, exerts social influence on others is called a(n) ________.
      opinion leader
      mature consumer
      marketer
      upper class citizen
    • A person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, or other characteristics, exerts social influence on others is called a(n) ________.
      opinion leader
      mature consumer
      marketer
      upper class citizen
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Online Social Networks are online communities where people socialize or exchange information and opinions
      Include blogs, social networking sites (facebook), virtual worlds (second life)
      Groups and Social Networks
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Family is the most important consumer-buying organization in society
      Social roles and status are the groups, family, clubs, and organizations that a person belongs to that can define role and social status
      Social Factors
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Age and life-cycle stage
      RBC Royal Band stages
      Youth: younger than 18
      Getting started: 18–35
      Builders: 35–50
      Accumulators: 50–60
      Preservers: over 60
      Personal Factors
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Occupation affects the goods and services bought by consumers
      Economic situation includes trends in:
      Personal Factors
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics
      Measures a consumer’s AIOs (activities, interests, opinions) to capture information about a person’s pattern of acting and interacting in the environment
      Personal Factors
    • The VALS classification system measures a person’s ________.
      income
      occupation
      lifestyle
      personality
    • The VALS classification system measures a person’s ________.
      income
      occupation
      lifestyle
      personality
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Personality and self-concept
      Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to consistent and lasting responses to the consumer’s environment
      Personal Factors
    • A person’s _____ is his/her unique set of psychological characteristics that are relatively consistent and lasting.
      self-esteem
      self-concept
      lifestyle
      personality
    • A person’s _____ is his/her unique set of psychological characteristics that are relatively consistent and lasting.
      self-esteem
      self-concept
      lifestyle
      personality
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
    • Which of the following is not one of the five brand personality traits?
      Ruggedness
      Sophistication
      Self-concept
      Sincerity
    • Which of the following is not one of the five brand personality traits?
      Ruggedness
      Sophistication
      Self-concept
      Sincerity
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Psychological Factors
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction
      Motivation research refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations
      Psychological Factors
      Motivation
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Maslow’s
      Hierarchy of Needs
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are psychological, safety, ________, esteem, and self-actualization.
      social
      economic
      lifestyle
      education
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are psychological, safety, ________, esteem, and self-actualization.
      social
      economic
      lifestyle
      education
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world from three perceptual processes
      Selective attention
      Selective distortion
      Selective retention
      Psychological Factors
    • The process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world is ________.
      sensation
      learning
      perception
      motivation
    • The process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world is ________.
      sensation
      learning
      perception
      motivation
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Psychological Factors
      Selective attention is the tendency for people to screen out most of the information to which they are exposed
      Selective distortion is the tendency for people to interpret information in a way that will support what they already believe
      Selective retention is the tendency to remember good points made about a brand they favor and forget good points about competing brands
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Learning is the change in an individual’s behavior arising from experience and occurs through interplay of:
      Psychological Factors
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Belief is a descriptive thought that a person has about something based on:
      Knowledge
      Opinion
      Faith
      Psychological Factors
      Beliefs and Attitudes
    • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      Attitudes describe a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea
      Psychological Factors
    • Types of Buying Decision Behavior
    • Types of Buying Decision Behavior
      Four Types of Buying Behavior
    • A consumer purchasing fine furniture (which is expensive and for which a brand’s name matters) would probably result in ________ buying behavior.
      dissonance-reducing
      variety-seeking
      complex
      habitual
    • A consumer purchasing fine furniture (which is expensive and for which a brand’s name matters) would probably result in ________ buying behavior.
      dissonance-reducing
      variety-seeking
      complex
      habitual
    • ________ buying behavior is characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.
      Dissonance-reducing
      Variety-seeking
      Complex
      Habitual
    • ________ buying behavior is characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.
      Dissonance-reducing
      Variety-seeking
      Complex
      Habitual
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      Buyer Decision Making Process
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      Occurs when the buyer recognizes a problem or need triggered by:
      Internal stimuli
      External stimuli
      Need Recognition
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      Information Search
      Sources of Information
      Personal sources—family and friends
      Commercial sources—advertising, Internet
      Public sources—mass media, consumer organizations
      Experiential sources—handling, examining, using the product
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      How the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices
      Evaluation of Alternatives
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      The act by the consumer to buy the most preferred brand
      The purchase decision can be affected by:
      Attitudes of others
      Unexpected situational factors
      Purchase Decision
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      The satisfaction or dissatisfaction that the consumer feels about the purchase
      Relationship between:
      Consumer’s expectations
      Product’s perceived performance
      The larger the gap between expectation and performance, the greater the consumer’s dissatisfaction
      Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort caused by a post-purchase conflict
      Post-Purchase Decision
    • The Buyer Decision Process
      Customer satisfaction is a key to building profitable relationships with consumers—to keeping and growing consumers and reaping their customer lifetime value
      Post-Purchase Decision
    • The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
      Adoption process is the mental process an individual goes through from first learning about an innovation to final regular use.
      Stages in the process include:
    • What are the two largest statistical populations in the adoption process?
      Innovators and early majority
      Early adopters and early majority
      Early majority and late majority
      Innovators and laggards
    • What are the two largest statistical populations in the adoption process?
      Innovators and early majority
      Early adopters and early majority
      Early majority and late majority
      Innovators and laggards
    • The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
      Influence of Product Characteristics
      on Rate of Adoption
    • The Company’s Macroenvironment
      Cultural Environment
      Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values
      People’s view of nature
      Some feel ruled by it
      Some feel in harmony with it
      Some seek to master it
      People’s view of the universe
      Renewed interest in spirituality
    • A woman who drives a hybrid car, consistently recycles, and buys “earth-friendly” products is acting out her view of ________.
      cost
      non-profit organizations
      others
      nature
    • A woman who drives a hybrid car, consistently recycles, and buys “earth-friendly” products is acting out her view of ________.
      cost
      non-profit organizations
      others
      nature
    • Which of the following are included in the major forces affecting a company’s macroenvironment?
      Marketing mix, positioning, price
      cultural, political/legal, economic
      Marketing concept, goal setting, cultural
      Baby boomers, minimum wage rates, product/service
    • Which of the following are included in the major forces affecting a company’s macroenvironment?
      Marketing mix, positioning, price
      Cultural, political/legal, economic
      Marketing concept, goal setting, cultural
      Baby boomers, minimum wage rates, product/service
    • Responding to the Marketing Environment
      Views on Responding
    • A company has several options with regard to its marketing environment. A strong company takes a(n) ________ approach.
      proactive
      reactive
      ingenuous
      peaceful
    • A company has several options with regard to its marketing environment. A strong company takes a(n) ________ approach.
      proactive
      reactive
      ingenuous
      peaceful
    • A company’s macroenvironment consists of all of the following except ________.
      demographic forces
      economic forces
      competitive forces
      technological forces
    • A company’s macroenvironment consists of all of the following except ________.
      demographic forces
      economic forces
      competitive forces
      technological forces
    • Marketing Information and Customer Insights
      Fresh and deep insights into customers needs and wants
      Difficult to obtain
      Not obvious
      Customer’s unsure of their behavior
      Not derived from more information but better information and more effective use of existing information
      Customer Insights are:
    • Marketing Information and Customer Insights
      Companies are forming customer insights teams
      Include all company functional areas
      Use insights to create more value for their customers
      Customer controlled could be a problem
      Customer Insights
    • Marketing Information and Customer Insights
      Marketing Information Systems (MIS)
      Marketing information system(MIS) consists of people and procedures for:
      Assessing the information needs
      Developing needed information
      Helping decision makers use the information for customer
    • Marketing Information System
    • In a marketing information system, the first step is ________.
      distributing data to managers
      forming focus groups
      determining the marketing mix
      assessing information needs
    • In a marketing information system, the first step is ________.
      distributing data to managers
      forming focus groups
      determining the marketing mix
      assessing information needs
    • A marketing information system begins and ends with information from ________.
      customers
      databases
      administrators
      users
    • A marketing information system begins and ends with information from ________.
      customers
      databases
      administrators
      users
    • Assessing Marketing Information Needs
      MIS provides information to the company’s marketing and other managers and external partners such as suppliers, resellers, and marketing service agencies
    • Assessing Marketing Information Needs
      Balancing what the information users would like to have against what they need and what is feasible to offer
      Characteristics of a Good MIS
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketers obtain information from
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Internal databases are electronic collections of consumer and market information obtained from data sources within the company network
      Internal Data
    • Marketing managers can access and work with information in the _______ database to identify opportunities and threats and to evaluate performance.
      internal
      external
      cost
      profit
    • Marketing managers can access and work with information in the _______ database to identify opportunities and threats and to evaluate performance.
      internal
      external
      cost
      profit
    • Which of the following is a problem with using internal databases?
      The information was collected for another reason.
      The information is in the wrong format.
      The information may be incomplete.
      All of the above
    • Which of the following is a problem with using internal databases?
      The information was collected for another reason.
      The information is in the wrong format.
      The information may be incomplete.
      All of the above
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing intelligence is the systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about consumers, competitors and developments in the marketplace
      Marketing Intelligence
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization
    • The systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about your competitors is referred to as ________.
      marketing concept
      marketing strategy
      marketing intelligence
      focus groups
    • The systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about your competitors is referred to as ________.
      marketing concept
      marketing strategy
      marketing intelligence
      focus groups
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Steps in the Marketing Research Process
    • The marketing research process includes four steps. The final step of this process is ________.
      defining your problem
      developing a plan to collect data
      collecting and analyzing data
      interpreting and reporting your findings
    • The marketing research process includes four steps. The final step of this process is ________.
      defining your problem
      developing a plan to collect data
      collecting and analyzing data
      interpreting and reporting your findings
    • What is often the hardest step in the marketing research process?
      Defining the problem
      Developing the research plan
      Implementing the research plan
      Reporting the findings
    • What is often the hardest step in the marketing research process?
      Defining the problem
      Developing the research plan
      Implementing the research plan
      Reporting the findings
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Defining the Problem and Research Objectives
    • ________ research is marketing research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships.
      Causal
      Exploratory
      Descriptive
      Written
    • ________ research is marketing research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships.
      Causal
      Exploratory
      Descriptive
      Written
    • The objective of _____ is to gather preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest reasons.
      causal research
      competitive research
      descriptive research
      exploratory research
    • The objective of _____ is to gather preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest reasons.
      causal research
      competitive research
      descriptive research
      exploratory research
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Outlines sources of existing data
      Spells out the specific research approaches, contact methods, sampling plans, and instruments to gather data
      Marketing Research
      Developing the Research Plan
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Written Research Plan Includes:
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Secondary data consists of information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose
      Primary data consists of information gathered for the special research plan
      Marketing Research
      Developing the Research Plan
    • ________ consist(s) of information that already exists, having been collected prior to the research plan.
      Primary data
      Secondary data
      Exploratory data
      Focus groups
    • ________ consist(s) of information that already exists, having been collected prior to the research plan.
      Primary data
      Secondary data
      Exploratory data
      Focus groups
    • Research approaches, contact methods, sampling plans, and research instruments are decisions that need to be made in the ______ data collection process.
      secondary
      primary
      external
      internal
    • Research approaches, contact methods, sampling plans, and research instruments are decisions that need to be made in the ______ data collection process.
      secondary
      primary
      external
      internal
    • Developing Marketing Information
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Observational research involves gathering primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations
      Ethnographic research involves sending trained observers to watch and interact with consumers in their natural environment
      Market Research
      Research Approaches
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Survey research is the most widely used method and is best for descriptive information—knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behavior
      Flexible
      People can be unable or unwilling to answer
      Gives misleading or pleasing answers
      Privacy concerns
      Market Research
      Research Approaches
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Experimental research is best for gathering causal information—cause-and-effect relationships
      Market Research
      Research Approaches
    • Experiments involving matched groups of subjects—giving them different treatments, controlling unrelated factors, and checking for different responses—is a type of __________.
      causal information
      descriptive information
      secondary data
      ethnographic research
    • Experiments involving matched groups of subjects—giving them different treatments, controlling unrelated factors, and checking for different responses—is a type of __________.
      causal information
      descriptive information
      secondary data
      ethnographic research
    • The three types of research approaches a marketer may use are ________, ________, and ________.
      surveys; observations; historic reviews
      observations; surveys; databases
      observations; experiments; surveys
      experiments; databases; surveys
    • The three types of research approaches a marketer may use are ________, ________, and ________.
      surveys; observations; historic reviews
      observations; surveys; databases
      observations; experiments; surveys
      experiments; databases; surveys
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research Strengths and
      Weakness of Contact Methods
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Contact Methods
      Focus Groups
      Six to 10 people with a trained moderator
      Challenges
      Expensive
      Difficult to generalize from small group
      Consumers not always open and honest
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Contact Methods
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Online Research
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Sample is a segment of the population selected for marketing research to represent the population as a whole
      Who is to be surveyed?
      How many people should be surveyed?
      How should the people be chosen?
      Marketing Research
      Sampling Plan
    • Which of the following is not one of the decisions a marketer must make when designing a sample?
      Who should be sampled
      How many people should be sampled
      How the people in the sample should be chosen
      What type of research method should be utilized
    • Which of the following is not one of the decisions a marketer must make when designing a sample?
      Who should be sampled
      How many people should be sampled
      How the people in the sample should be chosen
      What type of research method should be utilized
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Sampling Plan – Types of Samples
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Research Instruments
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Research Instruments—Questionnaires
      Closed-end questions include all possible answers, and subjects make choices among them
      Provide answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate
      Open-end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words
      Useful in exploratory research
    • If a marketer wanted to collect large amounts of information at a low cost per respondent, she could use ________.
      personal interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      approach interviews
    • If a marketer wanted to collect large amounts of information at a low cost per respondent, she could use ________.
      personal interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      approach interviews
    • If a marketer wanted to collect information quickly and allow for flexible answers, he should use ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      approach interviews
    • If a marketer wanted to collect information quickly and allow for flexible answers, he should use ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      approach interviews
    • Interviewer bias is often greater with ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      online surveys
    • Interviewer bias is often greater with ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      online surveys
    • If an interviewer wanted to reach the teen market, a fast and low-cost method would be to use ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      online surveys
    • If an interviewer wanted to reach the teen market, a fast and low-cost method would be to use ________.
      telephone interviews
      mail questionnaires
      focus groups
      online surveys
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Research Instruments
    • Developing Marketing Information
      Marketing Research
      Implementing the Research Plan
    • Analyzing Marketing Information
      CRM consists of sophisticated software and analytical tools that integrate customer information from all sources, analyze it in depth, and apply the results to build stronger customer relationships
      Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
    • Analyzing Marketing Information
      Customer Relationship Management
      Touchpoints
    • Distributing and Using Marketing Information
      Information distribution involves entering information into databases and making it available in a time-useable manner
      Intranet provides information to employees and other stakeholders
      Extranet provides information to key customers and suppliers