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    Hsp sc y3 Hsp sc y3 Presentation Transcript

    • MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Primary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year 3 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2003
    • MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Primary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year 3 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2003
    • Copyright (C) 2003 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaPesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta50604 Kuala LumpurFirst published 2003Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, thereproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, orother means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording isforbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Devel-opment Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
    • TABLE OF CONTENT PagePreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 1Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 3Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7Teaching and Learning Strategies 7Content Organization 9Learning about Living Things Learning Area 1. Animals 11 2. Plants 12Learning about the World around Us Learning Area 1. Magnets 13 2. Electricity 16 3. Springs 19 4. Absorption 21 5. Soil 23 6. Mi xing Substances 25 iii
    • THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining ademocratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared;to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a progressive societywhich shall be oriented to modern science and technology;WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYUPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
    • NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential ofindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals whoare intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmoniousbased on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produceMalaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess highmoral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level ofpersonal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony andbetterment of the family, society and the nation at large. vii
    • NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
    • PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made asociety depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instructionenvisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.education to Malaysians from an early age w ill serve to This measure w ill enable students to keep abreast ofspearhead the nation into becoming a know ledge society developments in science and technology in contemporaryand a competitive player in the global arena. Tow ards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tapend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science w ritten in theemphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move w ould also provide opportunities for students to use the EnglishThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in theprovide opportunities for students to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,know ledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing students’ ability to usestrategies, and to apply this know ledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in theeveryday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educationalprocess en route to achieving these aims w ould produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation ofwell-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been theharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one w ay or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express myThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labourTo this end, students are given ample opportunities to expended.engage in scientific investigations through hands-onactivities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies andthoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout theteaching-learning process. The content and contextssuggested are chosen based on their relevance andappeal to students so that their interest in the subject is (Dr. SHARIFAH MA IMUNAH SY ED Z IN)enhanced. Director Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
    • INTRODUCTION AIMSAs articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The aim of the primary school science curriculum is toMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the develop pupils’ interest and creativity through everydaypotential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to experiences and investigations that promote the acquisitionproduce individuals w ho are intellectually, spiritually, of scientific and thinking skills as w ell as the inculcation ofemotionally and physically balanced and har monious. The scientific attitudes and values.primary and secondary school science curriculum isdeveloped w ith the aim of producing such individuals. The Level One Primary Science curriculum is OBJ ECTIVESdesigned to stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop theirinterest as w ell as enabling pupils to learn more about The level one science curriculum aims to:themselves and the w orld around them through activities. 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest The curriculum is articulated in tw o documents: the about the w orld around them. 2. Provide pupils w ith opportunities to develop sciencesyllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus process skills and thinking skills.presents the aims, objectives and the outline of thecurriculum content for a period of 3 years for level one 3. Develop pupils’ creativity. 4. Provide pupils w ith basic science know ledge andprimary science. The curriculum specifications provide the concepts.details of the curriculum, w hich includes the aims andobjectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking 5. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values. 6. Create an aw areness on the need to love and care forskills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific the environment.attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies,and curriculum content. The curriculum content provides thelearning objectives, suggested learning activities, theintended learning outcomes, and vocabulary. 1
    • SCIENTIFIC SKILLSScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry Predicting Making a forecast about whatand problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills will happen in the future basedare utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific on prior know ledge gainedinvestigation such as conducting experiments and carrying through experiences or collectedout projects. data. Scientific skills encompass science process skills and Comm unicating Using w ords or graphic symbolsmanipulative skills. such as tables, graphs, figures or models to describe an action,Science Process Skills object or event.Science process skills enable students to formulate their Using space-time Describing changes inquestions and find out the answ ers systematically. relationship parameter w ith time. Examples of parameters are location,Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: direction, shape, size, volume, weight and mass.Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight to Interpreting data Giving rational explanations find out about objects or events. about an object, event or pattern derived from collected data.Classifying Using observations to group objects or events according to Defining Defining concepts by describing similarities or differences. operationally what must be done and w hat should be observed.Measuring and Making quantitativeUsing Num bers observations by comparing to a Controlling Naming the fixed variable, conventional or non- variables manipulated variable, and conventional standard. responding variable in an investigation.Making Using past experiences orInferences previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Making Making a general statement 2
    • Hypotheses about the relationship betw een a THINKING SKILLS manipulated variable and a responding variable to explain Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to an observation or event. The integrate know ledge, skills and attitude in an effort to statement can be tested to understand the environment. determine its validity. One of the objectives of the national educationExperim enting Planning and conducting system is to enhance the thinking ability of students. This activities to test a hypothesis. objective can be achieved through a curriculum that These activities include emphasises thoughtful learning. Teaching and learning that collecting, analysing and emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful interpreting data and making learning. conclusions. Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process.Manipulative Skills Activities should be organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problemManipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor solving and decision- making.skills that enable students to: Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking Use and handle science apparatus and substances. skills and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks Handle specimens correctly and carefully. critically alw ays evaluates an idea in a systematic manner Draw specimens and apparatus. before accepting it. A person w ho thinks creatively has a high Clean science apparatus. level of imagination, is able to generate original and Store science apparatus. innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process. 3
    • Critical Thinking SkillsA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying criteria such as Analysing Examining information in detail characteristics, features, by breaking it dow n into qualities and elements of a smaller parts to find implicit concept or an object. meaning and relationships. Com paring and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to such as characteristics, support or oppose something features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading w ay. elements of a concept or event. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value of something Grouping and Separating and grouping based on valid reasons or Classifying objects or phenomena into evidence. categories based on certain criteria such as common Making Making a statement about the characteristics or features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. 4
    • Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements discussion. or parts to form a general picture in various forms such Relating Making connections in a as writing, draw ing or artefact. certain situation to deter mine a structure or pattern of Making Making a general statement relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship betw een a manipulated variable and a Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The draw conclusions and make statement can be tested to explanations of events. determine its validity. Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding a certain will happen in the future based abstract or complex concept on prior know ledge gained by relating it to a simpler or through experiences or concrete concept with similar collected data. characteristics. Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in observations made on, or existence to overcome some information from, problems in a systematic samples of the group. manner. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. 5
    • Relationship between Thinking Skills andScience Process Skills Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience process skills are skills that are required in theprocess of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions Predicting Relatingin a systematic Visualisingmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical,creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of Using Space-Time Sequencingscience process skills and the possession of suitable Relationship Prioritisingattitudes and know ledge enable students to think effectively. Interpreting data Compar ing and contrasting The mastering of science process skills involves the Analysingmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills Detecting biasthat are related to a particular science process skill are as Making conclusionsfollow s: Generalising EvaluatingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills Defining operationally Relating Making analogy VisualisingObserving Attributing Analysing Compar ing and contrasting Relating Controlling variables Attributing Compar ing and contrastingClassifying Attributing Relating Compar ing and contrasting Analysing Grouping and classifying Making hypothesis AttributingMeasuring and Using Relating RelatingNumbers Compar ing and contrasting Compar ing and contrasting Generating ideasMaking Inferences Relating Making hypothesis Compar ing and contrasting Predicting Analysing Synthesising Making inferences 6
    • Daring to try.Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Thinking rationally. Being confident and independent.Experimenting All thinking skills The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the follow ing stages:Communicating All thinking skills Being aw are of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values.Science learning experiences can be used as a means toinculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students.These attitudes and values encompass the follow ing: Inculcating Patriotism Having an interest and curiosity tow ards the environment. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the Being honest and accurate in recording and validating development and strengthening of patriotism among data. students. For example, in learning about the earth’s Being diligent and persevering. resources, the richness and variety of living things and the Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and development of science and technology in the country, the environment. students w ill appreciate the diversity of natural and human Realising that science is a means to understand nature. resources of the country and deepen their love for the Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. country. Appreciating the balance of nature. Being respectful and w ell-mannered. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Being thankful to God. Having critical and analytical thinking. Being flexible and open- minded. Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum Being kind-hearted and caring. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a Being objective. process that helps students acquire know ledge and master Being systematic. skills that w ill help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning Being cooperative. approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual Being fair and just. learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should 7
    • therefore be geared tow ards activating students’ critical and should be planned to cater for students w ith different learningcreative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote styles and intelligences.learning. Students should be made aw are of the thinking The follow ing are brief descriptions of some teaching andskills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. learning methods.They should be challenged w ith higher order questions andproblems and be required to solve problems utilising their Experimentcreativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learningprocess should enable students to acquire know ledge, An experiment is a method commonly used in sciencemaster skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble lessons. In experiments, students test hypotheses throughvalues in an integrated manner. investigations to discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills, Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through scientific skills, and manipulative skills.experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, toquestion and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the In the implementation of this curriculum, besidesenvironment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. guiding students to carry out experiments, w here appropriate,Learning through discovery occurs w hen the main concepts teachers should provide students with the opportunities toand principles of science are investigated and discovered by design their ow n experiments. This involves students draw ingstudents themselves. Through activities such as up plans as to how to conduct experiments, how to measureexperiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw and analyse data, and how to present the results of theirconclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead students to experiment.understand the science concepts through the results of theinquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed Discussionfurther during the inquiry process. How ever, the inquiryapproach may not be suitable for all teaching and learning A discussion is an activity in w hich students exchangesituations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussionsteachers to present concepts and principles directly to can be conducted before, during or after an activity.students. Teachers should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulate thinking and The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods getting students to express themselves.can enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessonsthat are not interesting w ill not motivate students to learn and Simulationsubsequently w ill affect their performance. The choice ofteaching methods should be based on the curriculum In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation iscontent, students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games andintelligences, and the availability of resources and the use of models. In role-play, students play out a particularinfrastructure. Different teaching and learning activities role based on certain pre-deter mined conditions. Games 8
    • require procedures that need to be follow ed. Students play technology such as television, radio, video, computer, andgames in order to learn a particular principle or to understand Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be madethe process of decision-making. Models are used to more interesting and effective. Computer simulation andrepresent objects or actual situations so that students can animation are effective tools for the teaching and learning ofvisualise the said objects or situations and thus understand abstract or difficult science concepts. Computer simulationthe concepts and principles to be learned. and animation can be presented through coursew are or Web page. Application tools such, as word processors, graphicProject presentation software and electronic spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data.A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken byan individual or a group of students to achieve a particularlearning objective. A project generally requires several CONTENT ORGANISATIONlessons to complete. The outcome of the project either in theform of a report, an artefact or in other forms needs to bepresented to the teacher and other students. Project w ork The science curriculum is organised around themes. Eachpromotes the development of problem-solving skills, time theme consists of various learning areas, each of whichmanagement skills, and independent learning. consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more learning outcomes.Visits and Use of External Resources Learning outcomes are w ritten in the form ofThe learning of science is not limited to activities carried out measurable behavioural ter ms. In general, the learningin the school compound. Learning of science can be outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised inenhanced through the use of external resources such as order of complexity. How ever, in the process of teaching andzoos, museums, science centres, research institutes, learning, learning activities should be planned in a holisticmangrove sw amps, and factories. Visits to these places and integrated manner that enables the achievement ofmake the learning of science more interesting, meaningful multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context.and effective. To optimise learning opportunities, visits need Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy thatto be carefully planned. Students may be involved in the tries to achieve each learning outcome separately accordingplanning process and specific educational tasks should be to the order stated in the curriculum specifications.assigned during the visit. No educational visit is completewithout a post-visit discussion. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. TheUse of Technology learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given w ith the intention of providingTechnology is a pow erful tool that has great potential in some guidance as to how learning outcomes can beenhancing the learning of science. Through the use of achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more 9
    • learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activitymay be suggested for a particular learning outcome.Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the abilityand style of learning of their students. Teachers areencouraged to design other innovative and effective learningactivities to enhance the learning of science. 10
    • Learning about Living ThingsLearning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1. Anim alsPupils should learn Pupils1.1 to observe and Pupils observe various identify external features of Teachers may need beak recognise external animals and list the an animal. to help pupils name claw s features of external features of each some of the external feathers animals. animal e.g. tail, fur, make a list of the external features of animals. fur feathers, scales, beak, features of an animal. horn claw s and number of legs. Discuss w ith pupils legs record the external features the features that they scales Pupils discuss and of animals in a table. want to record in the tail construct a table based on table. wings the list of external features. explain similarities and differences between animals based on the table.1.2 that animals can Pupils group the animals group animals according to Allow pupils to group be grouped in different ways based on similarities in external the animals according to the table. features. according to any external features. criteria that they choose based on1.3 that animals can Pupils present and group animals in different their table. be grouped in compare each other’s ways. many w ays. grouping of animals. 11
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities2. PlantsPupils should learn Pupils2.1 to observe and Pupils observe various identify external features of Teachers may need dull recognise external plants and list the external a plant. to help pupils name green features of plants. features of each plant e.g. some of the external red woody or soft stems, make a list of the external features of plants. rough flow ering or non-flow ering, features of a plant. shiny rough or smooth leaf Discuss w ith pupils smooth surface, colour of leaf and record the external features the features that they soft shape of leaf. of plants in a table. want to record in the woody table. yellow Pupils discuss and to explain similarities and construct a table based on differences between plants the list of external features. based on the table.2.2 that plants can be Pupils group the plants in group plants according to Allow pupils to group grouped different w ays based on similarities in external the plants according according to the table. features. to any criteria that external features. they choose based on their table.2.3 that plants can be Pupils present and group plants in different grouped in many compare each other’s ways. ways. grouping of plants. 12
    • Learning about the World Around UsLearning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1. MagnetsPupils should learn Pupils1.1 that magnets can Pupils explore a variety of demonstrate that magnets Teachers may attract attract or repel magnets e.g. bar magnets, can attract or repel each introduce the w ords iron each other. horseshoe magnets, other. north pole and south magnet cylindrical magnets, pole of a magnet. plastic circular magnets. Pupils state that magnets can repel observe what happens attract or repel each other. silver when they put tw o wooden magnets near each other. steel1.2 to handle Pupils discuss the proper demonstrate the proper w ay Remind pupils not to magnets properly. way to handle magnets to handle magnets. drop or knock a during activities. magnets as this w ill cause a magnet to Pupils discuss the need to lose its magnetis m. handle magnets properly.1.3 that magnets Pupils explore a variety of demonstrate that magnets Teachers may use attract some objects made from attract some materials but the same type of mater ials. different materials and are not others. object made of asked to predict w hich different materials for objects w ill be attracted by record their findings in a this activity e.g. a magnet. table. wooden spoon, steel spoon, plastic spoon Pupils investigate to find state the objects that are and silver spoon. out w hether their attracted by magnets. predictions are correct. 13
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils group the materials Teachers explain that according to w hether or objects that are not they are attracted by a attracted by magnets magnet. are made of iron.1.4 that magnets Pupils design a fair test to design a fair test to Accept all plans. have different compare the strengths of compare the strengths of Allow pupils to modify strengths. different magnets. Pupils different magnets by their plans if they have to decide how to deciding w hat to keep the face dif fic ulties w hen measure the strength of a same, w hat to change and carrying out their magnet e.g. how many what to measure. tests. paper clips the magnet can attract and hold or how carry out the test and record close to a paper clip a the observations. magnet has to be to attract it. form a conclusion based on the observations. Pupils carry out their tests and record the findings in a explain how they arrive at table. the conclusion. Pupils form a conclusion based on the observations e.g. magnet A is the strongest because it can hold the most number of paper clips. 14
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1.5 the different uses Pupils bring things that state w here magnets are Teachers can show of magnets. make use of magnets, e.g. used. examples of things magnetic pencil box, toys, that use magnets to and fridge magnets. explain w hat a magnet is help the pupils think used for. of other things that Pupils discuss about how use magnets. magnets are used in the make a toy, a game or a things they bring. device using magnets. Pupils make a toy, a game or a device using magnets e.g. fishing w ith a magnet, magnetic dancer and magnetic fastener. 15
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities2. ElectricityPupils should learn Pupils2.1 how to make a Pupils are given batteries, suggest w ays to make a Accept all pupils brighter bulb in a circuit battery holders, connecting bulb in a circuit brighter. plans. Allow pupils to dimmer brighter or wires, bulbs and bulb modify their plans if dimmer. holders. design a circuit that makes they face difficulties the bulb light up brighter. when carrying out the Pupils build a circuit to tests. make a bulb light up. show perseverance in making a circuit that makes Remind pupils to use Pupils discuss ways to the bulb brighter. only batteries and not make the bulb in the circuit electricity from the brighter and dimmer. explain the circuit. mains supply to carry out experiments as it Pupils test their draw the circuit. is dangerous. suggestions. design a circuit to make a Teachers guide Pupils draw the circuit that bulb dimmer. pupils to conclude they made. that the bulb is brighter w hen more electricity flows through it. 16
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities2.2 that some Pupils list materials that predict w hich materials can Teachers guide metal mater ials conduct they think w ill conduct conduct electricity. pupils to understand plastic electricity. electricity. that w hen a material wood build a circuit to test w hich that conducts Pupils plan a circuit to mater ials conduct electricity. electricity completes investigate w hich materials a circuit, the bulb w ill conduct electricity. record the findings in a light up. table. Pupils build the circuit to To test w hether a test w hich materials form conclusions based on mater ial conducts conduct electricity. the findings. electricity, pupils may use objects make of Pupils record their findings different materials in a table. such as wooden rulers, metal rulers, Pupils discuss and form plastic spoons etc. conclusions. Pupils share their findings. 17
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities2.3 that a sw itch is Pupils make an incomplete make a circuit w hich allow s Teachers guide used to complete circuit. a bulb to be turned on or off. pupils to understand or break a circuit. that a bulb w ill light Pupils discuss how to explain how the bulb can be up w hen a circuit is complete the circuit to turned on or off. complete and w ill not allow the bulb to be turned light up w hen a circuit on or off. state that a sw itch is used to is incomplete. complete or break a circuit. Pupils build the circuit and test it. create a simple sw itch. Pupils examine different types of simple sw itches and try to explain how each type of sw itch w orks. Pupils discuss different ways that a bulb can be turned on or off. . Pupils create a simple sw itch using everyday objects e.g. spring and paper clips. 18
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities3. SpringsPupils should learn Pupils3.1 that a spring Pupils bend, tw ist, stretch state that a spring returns to bend returns to its or squeeze springs of its original size and shape shape original size and different lengths and after being bent, tw isted, size shape after being diameters. stretched or squeezed. spring bent, tw is ted, squeeze stretched or state that it is easier to stretch squeezed. bend, tw ist, stretch and tw ist squeeze some springs than others.3.2 that springs Pupils discuss design a fair test to find out Accept all plans. stretch differently. a) what type of springs which spring stretches the Allow pupils to modify they w ant to test e.g. most by deciding w hat to their plans if they springs of different keep the same, w hat to face dif fic ulties w hen lengths or springs of change and w hat to carrying out the tests. different diameters. measure. b) how to test which spring Pupils can use non- stretches the most e.g. carry out the test and record standard tools such by hanging an object of the observations. as strips of paper to the same w eight at the measure how much end of the spring and form a conclusion based on the spring stretches. measuring how much it the observations. The strips of paper stretches. can be used as a c) how to record their explain how they arrive at record of how much findings. the conclusion. the spring stretches. 19
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils carry out their tests and record their findings. Pupils form a conclusion based on the findings e.g. the longest spring stretches the most.3.3 the uses of Pupils bring things that use state w here springs are springs. springs e.g. mechanical used. pencils and hand ball- pens. explain w hat the spring is used for. Pupils discuss how springs are used in these things. 20
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities4. AbsorptionPupils should learn Pupils4.1 that some Pupils carry out an activity identify materials that Pupils can use absorb mater ials can to find out w hich materials absorb w ater. everyday objects cloth absorb w ater. absorb w ater. made of different coins mater ials for this pebbles activity, e.g. coins, tissue paper cloth, pebbles, paper and tissue paper.4.2 that some Pupils discuss design a fair test to test the Accept all plans. mater ials can a) what materials they ability of different materials Allow pupils to modify absorb more want to test e.g. different in absorbing w ater by their plans if they water than others. mater ials or different deciding w hat to keep the face dif fic ulties w hen types of tissue paper. same, w hat to change and carrying out their b) how to find out w hich what to measure. tests. mater ials absorb the most w ater. carry out the test and record c) how to record their the observations. findings. form a conclusion based on Pupils carry out the test the observations. and record their results in a table. explain how they arrive at the conclusion. 21
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils form conclusions based on their findings e.g. tissue paper A is the most absorbent because it absorbed the most amount of water.4.3 the uses of the Pupils discuss why the explain the uses of the ability of materials ability of materials to ability of materials to absorb to absorb w ater. absorb w ater is useful for water. certain jobs e.g. a mop needs to be absorbent to mop up w ater. 22
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities5. SoilPupils should learn Pupils5.1 what soil is made Pupils mix some soil w ith describe w hat soil is made Teachers guide clay up of. water in a tall container. up of. pupils to understand garden soil that soil contains sand Pupils shake the mixture state the differences living things and non- soil and allow it to settle. betw een soil samples from living things. different places. Pupils observe the layers that are formed. Pupils draw , label and describe w hat they observe. Pupils repeat the process using soil samples from different places.5.2 the flow of water Pupils discuss design a fair test to Accept all plans. through different a) what type of soils they compare how well w ater Allow pupils to modify types of soil. want to test. moves through sand, clay their plans if they b) how to compare how and garden soil by deciding face dif fic ulties w hen well w ater moves what to keep the same, carrying out the tests. through different types what to change and w hat to of soil. measure. Pupils should get the c) how to record their same amount of findings. carry out the test and record sand, clay and the observations. garden soil. 23
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils carry out the test form a conclusion based on and record their findings. the observations. Pupils form a conclusion explain how they arrive at based on their findings. the conclusion.5.3 that certain soils Pupils discuss design a fair test to compare Accept all pupils are more suitable a) how to compare the the grow th of green beans plans. Allow pupils to for plant grow th. grow th of a green bean in clay, garden soil and modify their plans if in clay, garden soil and sand by deciding w hat to they face difficulties sand. keep the same, w hat to when carrying out b) how to record their change and w hat to their tests. findings. measure. Pupils carry out the test carry out the test and record and record their findings. the observations. Pupils form a conclusion form a conclusion based on based on their findings. the observations. explain how they arrive at the conclusion. 24
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities6. Mixing SubstancesPupils should learn Pupils6.1 that different Pupils are given different state the properties of Pupils should not baking pow der substances have substances such as wheat different substances in touch, taste or mix milk pow der different flour, tapioca flour, sugar, terms of appearance, smell, substances unless salt properties. salt, baking pow der and feel and colour. the teacher tells them tapioca flour milk pow der. it is safe to do so. vinegar describe the results of water Pupils observe and record mixing different substances Pupils should test wheat flour the appearance, smell, feel with w ater. only a small amount and colour of the of each substance. substances. describe the results of mixing different substances Pupils may find that Pupils test the substances with vinegar. their findings might with w ater and vinegar and not be enough to record their observations. state that different form a conclusion. substances have different properties.6.2 that some Pupils are show n labels for identify labels for unsafe Teachers need only substances are some unsafe substances. substances. to discuss labels on unsafe and should household be handled w ith Pupils discuss the danger explain the meaning of the substances such as care. of touching, smelling or labels. detergent, bleaching tasting these unsafe agent and medicine. substances. list unsafe substances. 25
    • Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils w atch a video on state the need to look at how unsafe substances labels or ask an adult cause harm and how these before touching or tasting unsafe substances should any substance. be handled. Pupils list unsafe list the har m caused by substances and tell w hat unsafe substances. harm they can cause.6.3 that a mixture of Pupils are given a mixture plan how to separate a Teachers discuss substances can of substances e.g. fine mixture of substances. possible methods of be separated. sand, small stones, small separating mixtures polystyrene balls, salt and present their processes of e.g. using filter paper, paper clips. separating the mixture in magnets, sieve etc. words or diagrams. Pupils are challenged to separate the mixture in the shortest possible time. Pupils discuss in groups give reasons why the on how mixtures can be methods are able to separated. separate the mixtures. Pupils carry out their plans compare different methods to separate the mixture. of separating the mixtures Pupils evaluate methods of explain w hy one method of separating the mixture separating mixtures may be presented by others. better than another. 26
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAdvisors Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin Director (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Rohani Abd. Hamid ( Ph.D) Deputy Director Curriculum Development CentreEditorial Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics)Advisors Curriculum Development Centre Cheah Eng Joo Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Yeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director (Head of English Unit) Curriculum Development CentreEditor Salina Hanum Osman Mohamed Assistant Director Curriculum Development Centre 27
    • PANEL OF WRITERSAhmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Curriculum Development Centre Rosli Suleiman Curriculum Development CentreYeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Rusilaw ati Othman Curriculum Development CentreCheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Salbiah Mohd. Som Curriculum Development CentreSalina Hanum Curriculum Development Centre Salehuddin Mustafa Curriculum Development CentreOsman MohamedAizatul Adzwa Mohd. Curriculum Development Centre Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Curriculum Development CentreBasriJohari Shamsudin Curriculum Development Centre Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development CentreNorani Abdul Bari Curriculum Development Centre Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development CentreArif Fadzilah Mohd. Said SK Bandar Baru Serting Mohd. Azman Mohd. Ali SK Lui Selatan (F) JempolMariam Ibrahim SK Pantai, Seremban Tan Man Wai Maktab Perguruan Teknik 28
    • Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education 2003