Getting Started with APA StyleWhat is APA Style?American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of several styles for academic writing. This guide coversfrequently used citation forms. The fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation (BF 76.7 .P83 2001) plus the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (BF76.7 .P835 2007a) are compre-hensive resources, available at UBC Okanagan, Koerner, Education, David Lam and the Life Sciences Libraries.General Rules • Double-space your paper, including the reference list. • Format reference list entries with a hanging indent (in MS Word 2003 use Format>Paragraph>Special> Hanging; in Word 2007 use Paragraph>Special>Hanging). • Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author. Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name, with a space between the initials. • If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order (oldest first). If entries are by the same author with the same year, put them in alphabetical order by first letter of the title. Add a lower case letter (a, b, etc.) after the year, within the parentheses. • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article or book title. Proper nouns are also capitalized as well as the word following a colon (subtitle). • Italicize journal titles, volume numbers and even the comma following the journal title. Do not italicize issue numbers (i.e., the number which appears in parentheses after the volume number). • References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and secondary sources, which are cited in the text only and are not included in the reference list.Citations in Text1. When using a direct quotation, include the page number of the quote. • Stereotypes have been defined as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one’s social group uses in characterizing members of another group” (Lindgren, 2001, p. 1617).2. When paraphrasing an idea, the citation will include author(s) and date. • Author’s name given in the body of your paper: • Lindgren (2001) reported… • Author’s name not given in the body of your paper: • A study of the comparison process (Lindgren, 2001)3. For electronic sources without page numbers, use the paragraph number, preceded by the paragraph symbol ¶ (in Windows press down on Alt and type 0182 on the keypad) or the abbreviation “para.”. If the paragraph number is not apparent, cite the section heading and the paragraph number following it. • (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5) • (Butler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)4. Order two or more works within the same parentheses as they would appear in the reference list. • Past research (Heschl, 2001, 2005; Noonan & Johnson, 2002a, 2002b; Wolchuk et al., 2000) has shown… more . . .
JOURNAL ARTICLESJournal article: Rutherford, B. J. (2006). Reading disability and hemispheric interaction on a lexicalElectronic full text with decision task. Brain and Cognition, 60(1), 55-63. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2005.09.013Digital Object Identifier (DOI)(Example on p. 7 #1 from the Direct quotation in text: (Rutherford, 2006, p. 56)Supplement - Guide to ElectronicReferences) v Because the DOI can be long, copy and paste whenever possible.Journal article: Rush, K. L., Waldrop, S., Mitchell, C., & Dyches, C. (2005). The RN-BSN distanceElectronic full text education experience: From educational limbo to more than an elusive degree.with DOI: 3-6 authors Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(5), 283-292. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2005.07.007(p. 7 #1 from the Suppl.) Direct quotation in text (from a passage that spans two pages): First citation: (Rush, Waldrop, Mitchell, & Dyches, 2005, pp. 283-284) Subsequent: (Rush et al., 2005, p. 283) v Always include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number.Journal article: Mathieson, C. M., Bailey, N., & Gurevich, M. (2002). Health care services for lesbian andElectronic full text with no DOI: bisexual women: Some Canadian data. Health Care for Women International, 23(2),Available only with a 185-196. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk /journals/titles/07399332.aspsubscription to the journal –give URL Citation in text: (Mathieson, Bailey, & Gurevich, 2002)of the journal home page(p. 7 #2 from the Suppl.) v Hint: Google the journal title to locate URLJournal article: Gabora, L. (2007). Self-other organization: Why early life did not evolve through naturalElectronic full text with no DOI: selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 241(3), 443-450. Retrieved fromAvailable without a subscription http:/ /cogprints.org/5583/01/soo.htm(open access) –give exact URL for the article: Direct quotation in text: (Gabora, 2007, ¶ 5) or (Gabora, 2007, Introduction, para. 5)No pagination(p. 7 #2 from the Suppl.) v Note that the URL is not underlinedJournal article: Bottorff, J. L., McCullum, M., Balneaves, L. G., Esplen, M. J., Carroll, J., Kelly, M., et al. (2005).Electronic full text with no DOI: Establishing roles in genetic nursing: Interviews with Canadian nurses. TheOnly available from a database: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(4), 96-115. Retrieved from IngentaConnectMore than 6 authors database. Citation in text: (Bottorff et al., 2005) v “With the exception of …documents of limited circulation delivered by electronic databases … the database name is no longer a necessary element of the reference” (p. 3 from the Suppl.)Journal article: Kolb, B., & Cioe, J. (1998). Absence of recovery or dendritic reorganization after neonatalPaper copy: posterior parietal lesions. Psychobiology, 26(2), 134-142.Discussed in asecondary source Citation in text: Diamattia and Kesner’s study (as cited in Kolb & Cioe, 1998)…(p. 247 #22)Magazine article: Henry, W. A., & Mehta, N. S. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.Paper copy(p. 241 #6) Citation in text: (Henry & Mehta, 1990)Advertisement Canon: The new Elura series camcorders [Advertisement]. (2004, May/June). Canadian(p. 241 #6, pp. 226-227, & p. 95) Geographic, 124(3), 79. Citation in text: (Canon: The new Elura, 2004) continued . . .
JOURNAL ARTICLES (continued)Newspaper article: Scientists say music manipulates shoppers. (2000, September 14). The Ottawa Citizen, p. A20.Electronic full text: Retrieved from Canadian Newsstand database.Retrieved from a database:No author Citations in text: (“Scientists Say,” 2000)(p. 279 #88) BOOKS & BOOK SECTIONSBook: 1-2 authors Mitchell, J. J. (2001). The mental and emotional life of teenagers. Calgary, AB: Detselig(p. 248) Enterprises. Citation in text: (Mitchell, 2001)Book: 3-6 authors Murphy, M. A., Lai, D., & Sookraj, D. (1997). Evaluation of the neighborhood (congregate)(p. 248) meal program: Final report. Kelowna, BC: Kelowna Home Support Society. Citations in text: First Citation: (Murphy, Lai, & Sookraj, 1997) Subsequent: (Murphy et al., 1997)Book: Group author: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American PsychologicalAuthor as publisher: 5th edition Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.(p. 248 #24 & p. 210) Citations in text: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2001) Subsequent: (APA, 2001)Edited book Hare, R. D., & Schalling, D. (Eds.). (1978). Psychopathic behaviour: Approaches to research.(p. 249 #25) Chichester, NY: Wiley. Citation in text: (Hare & Schalling, 1978)Chapter in an edited book Gabora, L. (2001). The beer can theory of creativity. In P. Bentley & D. Corne (Eds.),(p. 252 #34) Creative evolutionary systems (pp. 147-161). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.Note: Error in #34 in APA Manual.No comma before ampersand Citation in text: (Gabora, 2001)with two authors in standard order.Chapter in an edited book: Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget’s theory. In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.),Reprinted from another source Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(p. 255 #40) (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley) Citation in text: (Piaget, 1970/1988)Encyclopedia article Lindgren, H. C. (2001). Stereotyping. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral(p. 254 #38) science (Vol. 4, pp. 1617-1618). New York: Wiley. Citation in text: (Lindgren, 2001)Book with no author or editor Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.(p. 249 #26) Citation in text: (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Published conference Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality.proceedings In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on(p. 259 #49) motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Citation in text: (Deci & Ryan, 1991) continued . . .
BOOKS AND BOOK SECTIONS (continued)Multi-volume work Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.(p. 250 #28) Citation in text: (Koch, 1959-1963)Entry in an online dictionary: Globalization. (2005). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology. Available MayNo author: Retrieved from a 14, 2006, from http:/ /www.oxfordreference.comsubscription database:Content could be updated, Citation in text: (Globalization, 2005)so include date of retrieval(p. 15 #23 from the Suppl.) v Use “available” rather than “retrieved” when the URL leads to a search page rather than to the material itself (p. 10 #6 from the Suppl.).Electronic book: Dasgupta, P. (2000). Social capital: A multifaceted perspective. Retrieved from NetLibraryRetrieved from a database database.(p. 10 #7 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (Dasgupta, 2000)Annual report: British Columbia Ministry of Health (1999). Provincial Health Officer’s Annual Report.Paper copy Victoria, BC: Author.(p. 256 #41) Citation in text: (British Columbia Ministry of Health, 1999)Annual report: WestJet Airlines. (2005). 2005 WestJet annual report. Calgary, AB: Author. Retrieved fromRetrieved from the internet: http://www.westjet.com/pdffile/WestJet2005AR.pdfContent not likely to change,so no need to include retrieval date Citation in text: (WestJet Airlines, 2005)(p. 18 #30 from the Suppl.)Book review: Church, S. (2006). A relevant overview of perinatal mood and anxiety disordersRetrieved from a journal: [Review of the book Postpartum mood and anxiety disorders: A clinician’s guide].Paper copy British Journal of Midwifery, 14(4), 232.(p. 14 #19 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (Church, 2006)Test review: O’Grady, K. E. (1986). [Review of the test Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction].Retrieved from In The tenth edition of the mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from Mentala database Measurements Yearbook database.(p. 14 #19 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (O’Grady, 1986)ERIC document : Peterson, L. (1999). Transforming the daily life of the classroom: The District Six laptop projectElectronic full text : (ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED437028). Retrieved from ERIC: Give exact URL http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_ storage_01/for the document 0000019b/80/15/ff/f2.pdf(p. 20 #36 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (Peterson, 1999)Dissertation: Aguiar, L. (2001). The ‘dirt’ on the contract cleaning industry in Toronto: Cleanliness and workRetrieved from a database reorganization. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AAT NQ67931)(p. 10 #8 from the Suppl.) Note:Example from the Suppl. does Citation in text: (Aguiar, 2001)not include the word database.Brochure: University of British Columbia Okanagan. (2006). Faculty of health and social developmentCorporate author [Brochure]. Kelowna, BC: Author.(p. 251 #33) Citation in text: (University of British Columbia Okanagan, 2006) continued . . .
WEB DOCUMENTSWeb article: The intelligence of dogs. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2006, fromNo author: No date: http://www.petrix.com/dogint/Content could change,so include retrieval date Citation in text: (The Intelligence of Dogs, n.d.)(p. 23 #46 from the Suppl.)Web report: Shields, M., & Wilkins, K. (2006). Findings from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and HealthAuthor different from of Nurses (Report No. 83-003-XPE). Retrieved from Canadian Institute for Healththe provider (p. 275): Information: http:/ /secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/products/NHSRep06_ENG.pdfContent not likely to change,so no need to include Citation in text: (Shields & Wilkins, 2006)retrieval date(p. 20 #36 from the Suppl.)Web report: Statistics Canada. (2005). Access to health care services in Canada (Report No. 82-575-XIE).Author same as provider: Retrieved fromContent not likely to change http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/82-575-XIE /82-575-XIE2006002.htm(p. 23 #46 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (Statistics Canada, 2005)Blog posting Kiume, S. (2007, August 17). Loneliness isn’t good. Message posted to(p. 24 #49 from the Suppl.) http://www .psychcentral.com/blog/ Citation in text: (Kiume, 2007) LEGAL DOCUMENTSLegislation: Criminal Code, R.S.C. c. C-46 (1985). Retrieved October 20, 2006, from http://laws .justice.Revised Statutes of Canada: gc.ca/en/C-46/index.htmlRetrieved from the internet(p. 404 #11) Citation in text: (Criminal Code, 1985)Legislation: University Act, R.S.B.C. c. 468 (1996). Retrieved October 23, 2006, from QP LegalEze database.Revised Statutesof British Columbia: Citation in text: (University Act, 1996)Retrieved from a database(p. 404 #10)Case law: R. v. Latimer, 1 S.C.R. 3 (2001). Retrieved October 23, 2006, fromSupreme Court http://scc.lexum .umontreal.ca/en/2001/2001scc1/2001scc1.htmlof Canada Reports:Retrieved from the internet Citation in text: (R. v. Latimer, 2001)(pp. 399-400 #1) MEDIAVideo clip: Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file].Retrieved from the internet Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs(p. 23 #46 from the Suppl.) Citation in text: (Norton, 2006) continued . . .
MEDIA (continued)Audio clip [podcast]: Green, C. D. (Producer). (2006, October 9-15). Thomas Blass on Stanley Milgram’s shockingRetrieved from the internet studies of obedience. This Week in the History of Psychology. Podcast retrieved from(p. 22 #44 from the Suppl.) http://www.yorku.ca/christo/podcasts/ Citation in text: (Green, 2006)Motion picture Davidson, F. (Producer), & Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A fresh appraisal(p. 266 #65) [Motion picture]. United States: Davidson Films. Citation in text: (Davidson, 1999)Single episode MacIntyre, L. (Reporter). (2006). Money, truth and spin [Television series episode].from a television series In H. Cashore (Producer), The fifth estate. Toronto, ON: Canadian Broadcasting(p. 267 #68) Corporation. Citation in text: (MacIntyre, 2006) NOTES, HANDOUTS & YOUR ESSAYS FROM LAST YEARPersonal communication Includes letters, phone calls, email messages, and interviews. Because they include(p. 214) “unrecoverable data,” they are NOT included in the reference list. Citation in text: M. Burton (personal communication, August 1, 2006)…Class notes Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication(p. 214) and refer to it only in the body of your essay. Citation in text: In a lecture on November 16, 2002, to a PSYC 235 class, Professor Smith said…Class handout: Woodworth, M. (2006). Psychopaths [Class handout]. Kelowna, BC: University of BritishHas title Columbia Okanagan, PSYC 355.(p. 258 #46) Citation in text: (Woodworth, 2006)Lecture notes posted to WebCT Cioe, J. (2006). The normal distribution [Course notes]. Retrieved from e-Learning @ UBC Web(p. 13 #15 from Suppl.) site: http://www.ecourses.ubc.ca Citation in text: (Cioe, 2006)PowerPoint presentation Cioe, J. (2006). Biological foundations of sexuality [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved fromposted to WebCT e-Learning @ UBC Web site: http:/ /www.ecourses.ubc.ca(p. 14 #18 from Suppl.) Citation in text: (Cioe, 2006)Custom Course Materials: Redfield, R. (2007). The folk society. In N. Netting (Ed.), Custom course materials SOCI 355Reprint from another source (pp. 56-71). Kelowna, BC: University of British Columbia Okanagan, Bookstore.(p. 255 #40) (Reprinted from American Journal of Sociology, 52(4), 293-308, 1947). Citation in text: (Redfield, 1947/2007)Essay: Self-citation Janke, R. (1997). Librarians are novel lovers: An exploration of our risqué professional(p. 262 #56) stereotypes. Unpublished graduate essay, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Citation in text: (Janke, 1997)