• We are not only talk about the meaning of lexical units in its isolated circumstances.• We are then must look carefully: – The meaning specified by the phrase – The way they can be identified• Some words do not function as referentially relevant semantic units. – The word to for example as a marker of infinitive constructions is referentially meaningless even they are not grammatically meaningless.
• Individuals words may not the only principal semantics units, phrases must be treated as semantic units.• The meaning of the whole cannot be determined by adding up the meaning of the parts.• Meaning are idiomatic: 1. IDIOMS PROPER 2. UNITARY COMPLEXES 3. COMPOSITES
idioms• Are combination of words which have both a literal and nonliteral semantic structure, but the connection between them cannot be describe as additive processes. – Unitary complexes consist two or more free forms combined to refer differently from the head word. • Poison oak is not kind of oak but plant of sumac family. – Composites combination of words belong to the same referent even the attributes arent sufficient to determine the meaning. • White oak is not white.
• Unitary Complexes and Composites refer to narrower semantic area then any individual words.• Idioms are generally more specific in meaning than single words are in the same semantic domains.• There is a tendency to think of combination of lexical units as involving merely the addition of one set of meaning to another.• Combination of words involve not only addition bur also mutual delimitation.E.g. gold ring page 116.
Related Referential Meaning• Derivation: all essential components underlying base are incorporated into another meaning, belonging to distinctly semantic domain. E.g. page 121 – The relation between bases and derivative forms are systematic, and basically represent the various types of so called case relation. – Morphological derivation must not be confused with semantic derivation, since not all morphological derivation involves semantic derivatio.
• Replacement: involves the substitution of at least one component in the base by another component which alter the meaning, but does not involve the major shift in semantic domain. – The semantic process of replacement differ conspicuously from the process of addition, in replacement one diagnostic semantic component is substituted for another.
• Figurative extension: involves a radical shift in semantic domains in which the semantic relations between base and extended meaning depend upon either supplementary component or a reinterpreted diagnostic component. – Base meaning and figurative meaning is best explained as reinterpretation of diagnostic element, rather than a supplementary feature.
• Peripheral clustering: there is usually a central meaning around which certain peripheral meaning cluster.• Procedures for analyzing the differences in meaning and the relation between meaning: 1. Identify the major semantic relations: derivation, replacement, figurative extension, and central peripheral. 2. Identify a central meaning, if one exists. 3. Determine the semantics domains to which various meaning belongs.