Examining conservation and development live reef food fish (LRFF) trade in Indonesia SeaWeb 10th International Seafood Summit, Hong Kong 6-8 September 2012 Irendra Radjawali Faculty of Social Sciences, Bremen University, Germany Institute of Oriental and Asian Studies, Bonn University, Germany Enlightening Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org
LRFF trade: Facts and figures• Live reef food fish (LRFF) is the term used for fish that are kept alive until cooking in order to preserve their freshness. HK imports 13,000 tons in Worth US$ 350 M Koeshendrajana 2006, 2002 (official data) Sadovy 2003 Total Hk Imports might US$ 450-500 M Muldoon and Scott 2005, reach 18,000 tons/year Sadovy 2003 (+unreported) Global trade reaches 30,000 US$810M – US$1 B tons (HK accounted for 60%) Source: California Environmental Associate, 2011
LRFF trade: “the trade networks” Geoffrey Muldoon / WWF Source: Bentley 1997
LRFF fishing and trade in Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 150 islands with fringing reefs as well as a large number of barrier and submerged patch reefs
LRFF fishing and trade ...constitute a new and unique typeLRFF fishing and trade isthe process of catching the of tropical marine commodityfish from the sea and trading because it hinges on the fish’sthem through different biophysical forms and theirmiddle men until they reach corresponding need to be constantly Source: www.fishbase.orgthe end consumer immersed in clean, cool, oxygen-rich seawater to survive. .. Highfinned grouper / Cromileptes altivelis IUCN Redlist: Vulnerable Local name Indonesian English Latin Napoleon Napoleon Napoleon wrasse, humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus Sunu tikus Kerapu tikus Polkadot grouper, highfinned Cromileptes altivelis grouper, barramundi cod Sunu merah Kerapu merah / sunu merah Coral trout, leopard grouper Plectropomus leopardus Sunu merah Sunu pappa Polkadot cod Plectropomus areolatus Sunu merah Kerapu merah / sunu merah Violet coral trout Plectropomus pessuliferus Sunu kwaci Sunu kwaci Red-flushed cod Aethaloperca logaa Sunu macan / Sunu macan Tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus kerapu lumpur Sunu bone Sunu bone Spotted coral trout Plectropomus maculatus Source: www.fishbase.org Napoleon Wrasse / Cheilinus undulatus IUCN Redlist : Endangered
Fish distribution networks and its economicvalue 2 hours flight Hong Kong Ponds in Jakarta or Bali 6 hours flight Sizing rules Baby (<0.6 kg) Super (0.6-1 kg) Up (>1.2 kg) Price in HK Highfinned grouper 7.85 USD 23 USD 36.6 USD 250 USD Spotted coral trout 3.66 USD 6.27 USD 7.85 USD 100-150 USD Napoleon wrasse 36.6 USD 300 USD
LRFF networks Prosecution insurance network 1 2 3 4 Makassar collector / boss 5 6 7 8 9 10 Island collector / patron JKT/Bali exporter HK importer HK retailer/restaurant 11 Trade network 13 12 14 Fishermen Fishing network To what extent networks (social) play role in LRFF fishing and trade?
Fishing networks• Who – Patron and clients(locally known as punggawa and sawi) “The patron-client relationship can be characterized generally as an unequal (but theoretically non-binding) relationship between a superior (that is, a patron or leader) and a number of inferiors (that is, clients, retainers, or followers), based on an asymmetric exchange of services, where the de facto dependence on the patron of the clients, whose unpaid services may include economic obligations, paid or unpaid work, armed service, political support and other services, is counterbalanced by the role the patron plays as a leading figure for all the clients and by the assistance, incuding the monetary loans and protection, he or she provides when necessary” (Pelras, 2000). “When the patronage relationship is not primarily set in a political context, but is primarily economic in character, the terms used in South Sulawesi are punggawa for the patron and sawi for the client” Type of support Value• How Boat and machine IDR 7,000,000 (US$ 700) – Debt (anywhere between 3M-20M Rp. Nylon IDR 4,000 (US$ 0.4) / USD 300 – USD 2,000 per year) – Influenced by the monsoon climate Gloves IDR 3,000 (US$ 0.3) – Sizing rules Tymbal IDR 3,000 (US$ 0.3) – Beliefs: as long as there are leafs on the Hook (1 box) IDR 15,000 (US$ 1.5) leafs on the trees, fish are always available Wire IDR 20,000 (US$ 2) Small buoy IDR 5,000 (US$ 0.5) Petrol, food, coffee, IDR 50,000 (US$ 5) cigarettes (daily basis)
Trade networks• Who – Patron (island), boss (Makassar), exporter ( Jakarta / Bali), Importer (HK)• How – Various strategies to minimize the risks: (1) to keep the fish in the pond as short as possible, (2) to treat fish with different biological and chemical treatments, (3) special packaging treatment for fish transportation. – Credit (Debt) anywhere between 40M-150M rupiahs (4,000 – 15,000 USD) per year (boss and patron) – Sizing rules
Catching the fish Sodium cyanide/ potassium cyanideSodium Nifrustyrenate terramicyn Keeping the fish ‘healthy and fresh’ Anesthetizing the fish Ready to transport
Prosecution insurance networks• Who – Patrons, bosses, and some government officials (incl. Navy and Police)• How – Regular bribing We give the commander of the police between IDR 1 million and IDR 2 million [between USD 100and USD 200] per month and give IDR 50,000 [approximately USD 5] to each officer who comes to our place. There are usually two or three officers who come to collect money.) (Interview #3 and #4 in Makassar, May 10 and May 18-21, 2010 Prosecution Insurance Body Amount Water police IDR 50,000 - IDR 100,000 (US$ 5 – US$ 10) per person per visit. Commandant of water police IDR 1,000,000– IDR 2,000,000 (US$ 100 – US$ 200) per month. Navy IDR 50,000 (US$ 5) per person per visit Commandant of Navy IDR 1,000,000– IDR 2,000,000 (US$ 100 – US$ 200) per month.
Conservation and Development initiative: COREMAP • COREMAP (Coral reef rehabilitation and management project) a 15-year project funded by several sources through loans and grants. • USD 96.27 million • Protect, rehabilitate and achieve the sustainable use of coral reefs and their associated ecosystems in Indonesia, which is in turn expected to enhance the welfare of coastal communities (IUCN, 2002). • Develop a viable coral reef management system in Indonesia in order to place the community at the center of coral reef management (IUCN, 2002). 6 years in prison / payment of 120,000 USD
What’s the problem ?• Overfishing – Non-resilience – Massive depletion [Napoleon wrasse]• Cyanide fishing : impact to the coral reefs• LRFF – Protogynous hermaphrodite (changing sex from female to male)• Targetting sexually mature female – looking for ‘super’ size• Debt and credit structure – cyanide fishing• Absence of alternative livelihood – cyanide fishing• Transparency – bribing / rent-seeking• Health issues of consumers ?
COREMAP• Community Based – Marine Protected Areas (CB-MPA)• Decentralize political power• More attention on community-based approaches – effectively protect marine areas and abate declining fish catches• Target: 1 No Take Area (NTA) per village• Micro credit for the island communities [1M Rp. / 100 US$ per month, 20% of interest]
COREMAP – on the ground• 53% of the communities were not familiar with NTA’s establishment• NTA markers/buoy were gone / sunk in 2009 (established in 2007)• CB-MPA illustrates that it is perceived as good but it is not an effective program.• CB-MPA is also perceived as a program which only benefit the ‘elites’ who are not the residents of the islands and not directly affected by the program.• Elite capture CB- MPA is a good idea, for it provides space for fish nests; however, fishermen keep on going to that area (the no take areas) when the person seen as influential was absent. Even a patron practiced blast-fishing there... The money from COREMAP is just for the family close to COREMAP but not for others. It is also just for people who have money already ...
Multi-level Challenges• At consumers’ side – Focus on health issues ?• At middlemen – Rent-seeking and corruption – Transparency! – Credit networks• At suppliers’ side – Rapid exploitation , new fishing grounds – Cyanide fishing – Overlapping dimensions [social, economic, politics] – Room for maneouvre [ bosses and patrons invest in other sectors] – Absence of alternative livelihood – Debt networks
Some ideas for conservation and development – Let’s discuss together• Awareness of (and deal with?) socio-economic and socio-political dynamics – ‘real’ community participation and involvement• Dealing with corruption ?• Different multi-level approaches [consumers, middlemen, suppliers]• Integrated• Science supported [better monitoring and database on fish stocks, decision supporting system]• Continuing and long-term• Trade monitoring – involve middlemen• Governance and goverment
Inputs from the scientists: Network Analysis – centrality measures offishing networks 1. Who is the ‘central’ person to establish effective conservation? 2. Who is the ‘central’ person in the debt networks? 3. Who is the ‘central’ person in influencing directly the fishermen?
Scientists at work : ReefGame Identifying fish Mapping and gamming
Acknowledgement• Prof. Dr. Michael Flitner• Dr.habil.Marion Glaser• Mr. Muhammad Neil• Dr. Rio Deswandi• Dr. Dewi Yanuarita• Dr. Geoffrey Muldoon• Prof. Yvonne Sadovy• Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology – Bremen• Fellow researchers: Andi Suncoko, Hafez, Narto, Umar, Yuli, Gunardi, Enab, Edhy, Shidik, Abenk, Rega• SPICE Project• Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Bremen
谢谢 , Thank you, Terimakasih, DankeThings should be made as simple as possible but not simpler - Albert EinsteinThe goal of science is to make the wonderful and complex understandable and simple, but not less wonderful - Herb Simon, Science of the ArtificialThis is not about‘fear’ , there’s HOPE and we need to ACT togetherNOW