Radjawali 2012 taking the sea to market - commodification of marine resources in southeast asia
Taking the Sea to Market: the Commodification of MarineResources in Southeast AsiaIrendra RadjawaliInstitute of Oriental and Asian Studies, Bonn University, Germanyradja@hotmail.comSoutheast Asia Today: Dynamics, Contradictions, PerspectivesUniversität Bonn , 26.-28.10.2012
• Comodification of marine resources [Tuna, Shark Fin, Tourism, “Nemo” and coral, Live Reef Food Fish (LRFF)]• Focus on LRFF fishing and trade• Food for thought
TUNA Commodification 0.8 Mio T 0.4 Mio T 2.2 Mio T 0.6 Mio T 1. Catching 2. Processed into frozen place Source: formaggiokitchen.com 3. Pre-canning 4. Canning 5. Distribution (Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BlankMap-World-1957.png , FAO 2004, WCPFC 2012, SPC 2012, Orsini 2012)
Shark Fin Commodification 70% are catched in the developing countries Slicing off a shark‟s fin and discarding the body at sea 73-100 Mio. Shark killed / year Account for 16% of total catch Value (Indonesia) : US$ 10.6 Mio (1991) Sources: The Marine Products Association 2012, www.unitedconservationist.org, Shark Advocate International 2012)
Tourism commodification Destinations: Weh Island Raja Ampat Bunaken Derawan Bali & Lombok Phuket Pattaya Koh Cang Langkawi Donsol Cebu
Ornamental Fish and Coral Commodification Annual total economic value:Percentage of the total coral traded (2005):Exporters: Indonesia, 91% Indonesia US$ 1.600.000.000Importers: USA 65%, EU 24% The Philippine US$ 1.000.000.000 “NEMO” Amphiprion ocellaris Source: Knittweis 2008, Jones 2008 photo:MarineBio
Live reef food fish (LRFF) fishing and trade ...constitute a new and unique type of tropical marine commodity because itLive reef food fish (LRFF) is the term used for fish hinges on the fish’s biophysical formsthat are kept alive until cooking in order to preserve and their corresponding need to betheir freshness. (Family Serranidae) constantly immersed in clean, cool, oxygen-rich seawater to survive. .. 1970-1980 HK imports 13,000 tons in Worth US$ 350 M Koeshendrajana 2006, 1980-1990 2002 (official data) Sadovy 2003 Total Hk Imports might US$ 450-500 M Muldoon and Scott 2005, 1990-2000 reach 18,000 tons/year Sadovy 2003 (+unreported) Global trade reaches US$810M – US$1 B 30,000 tons (HK accounted for 60%) 2000-Now Source: California Environmental Associate, 2011 Adapted from Scales et.al. 2006 Napoleon Wrasse / Cheilinus undulatus IUCN Redlist : Endangered
150 islands with fringing reefs as well as a large number of barrier and submerged
LRFF fishing and trading networks and its economic value 2 hours flight Hong Kong Ponds in Jakarta or Bali 6 hours flight Sizing rules Baby (<0.6 kg) Super (0.6-1 kg) Up (>1.2 kg) Price in HK Highfinned grouper 7.85 USD 23 USD 36.6 USD 250 USD Spotted coral trout 3.66 USD 6.27 USD 7.85 USD 100-150 USD Napoleon wrasse 36.6 USD 300 USD
Catching the fish From The Sea to The Plate Sodium cyanide/ potassium cyanideSodium Nifrustyrenate terramicyn Keeping the fish „healthy and fresh‟ Anesthetizing the fish Ready to transport
LRFF networks Prosecution insurance network 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Trading network 13 12 14 fish money Fishing network To what extent networks (social) play role in LRFF fishing and trade?
Contested Marine Resources Environmental Debate [Climate change, Marine Protected Areas (MPA), sea level rise, fish depletion, conservation, certification] Artisanal vs Large Scale Illegal Unregulted Unreported Commodity fetishism (IUU) Fishing Border conflict [black fleet, fish robbery] Everyday struggle [livelihood, debt, credit, corruption, rent- seeking, assymetry] Actors: public, private, government
Food For Thought• Actors [place based and non-placed based, ...]• Commodification [produces nature in myriads ways]• Place and space [where decision are made, where decision applied...]• Networks and institution [rules, regulation, structure,centrality,...]• Scale• Discourses [Economic, Environmental, Nation-state, Social, Political,...]• Everyday struggle [livelihood, debt, corruption, gender relations,...]
Thank you , DankeThings should be made as simple as possible but notsimpler - Albert EinsteinThe goal of science is to make the wonderful andcomplex understandable and simple, but not lesswonderful - Herb Simon, Science of the Artificial
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