АНГЛИ ХЭЛНИЙ ТООНЫ АЙ• A grammatical classification used in the analysis of word classes which have contrasts of singular and plural.• Number contrasts in English are seen in nouns (e.g. Boy boys), pronouns (she, they, myself, ourselves, this, these), determiners (this, these; each, all), and verbs (say, says; was, were)
Variable nouns• Variable nouns have two forms, singular and plural, the singular being the form listed in dictionaries. The vast majority of nouns are variable in this way and normally the plural (-s suffix) is fully predictable both in sound and spelling by the same rules as for the –s inflection of verbs. Spelling creates numerous exceptions, however. treatment of –y; nouns of unusual form sometimes pluralize in „s; nouns in -o have plural in –os, with some exceptions having either optional or obligatory – oes;
Irregular plurals• Irregular plurals are by definition unpredictable and have to be learned as individual items. In may cases where foreign words are involved, it is of course helpful to know about pluralization in the relevant languages particularly Latin and Greek. Thus, on the pattern of analysis- analyses; we can infer the correct plurals: axis-axes, basis-bases, crisis-crises etc,
Voicing + -S plural• Some nouns which in the singular end in the voiceless fricatives spelled –th and –f have voiced fricatives in the plural, followed by /z/. In one case the voiceless fricative is /s/ and the plural has /ziz/: house-houses.• Nouns in –th: there is no change in spelling. With a consonant before the –th, the plural is regular: berth, birth, length etc. with a vowel before the –th, the plural is again often regular, as with cloth, death, faith, moth, but in a few cases the plural has voicing (mouth, path)• Nouns in –f(e): Plurals with voicing are spelled –ves. Regular plural only: belief, chief, cliff, proof, roof, safe;• Voiced plural only: calf, elf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, wolf etc.
Compounds• Compounds form the plural in different ways, but below is the most usual.• Plural in first element: attorney general- attorneys general, notary public – notaries public, mother-in-law-mothers-in-law, grant- in-aid – grants in aid;• Plural in both first and last element: gentlemen farmer – gentlemen farmers; woman doctor-women doctors;• Plural in last element: assistant director – assistant directors,
Mutation• Mutation involves a change of vowel in the following seven nouns: foot feet, tooth teeth, man men, woman women, mouse mice, goose geese, louse lice• With woman/women, the pronunciation differs in the first syllable only, while postman/postmen, Englishman/-men, etc have no difference in pronunciation at all between singular and plural.
The –EN plural or Zero plural• This occurs in three nouns: brother -brethren ≈ fellow members of religious society, child- children with vowel change /ai/ - /i/, ox oxen,• Some nouns have the same spoken and written form in both singular and plural. Note the difference here between, on the one hand, invariable nouns, which are either singular or plural, and on the other, zero plural nouns, which can be both singular and plural. (this sheep looks small; All those sheep are mine)
Animal names• Animal names often have zero plurals. They tend to be used partly by people who are especially concerned with animals, partly when the animals are referred to as game. Where there are two plurals, the zero plural is the more common in contexts of hunting, etc. We caught only a few fish, whereas the regular is used to denote diiferent individuals or species. The fishes of the Mediterranean.• The Degree of variability with animal is shown by the following lists: regular plural: bird, cow, eagle, hen, rabbit etc. Usually regular: elk, crab, duck, both plurals: antelope, reindeer, fish, flounder, herring, usually zero: pike, trout, carp, deer, moose; only zero: grouse,sheep, plaice, salmon
Foreign plurals• Foreign plurals often occur along with regular plurals. They are commoner in technical usage, whereas the –s plural more natural in everyday language. Thus formulas (general) formulae –in mathematics, antennas (general and in electronics) antennae -in biology
Англи хэлний тооны айн номзүй• “A University Grammar of English” Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, 1973• “The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, Sylvia Chalker”, Edmund Weiner,• “Reference Guide to English: A Handbook of English as a Second Language”• “The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics”, Peter Matthews, 2005