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Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
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Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
Chapter 04 (lec 5)
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Chapter 04 (lec 5)

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  • 1. Discovering Computers 2010 Living in a Digital World
  • 2. Objectives OverviewDifferentiate among various Describe the control unit Identify chips, adapter styles of system units on and arithmetic logic unit cards, and other desktop computers, components of a processor, components of a notebook computers, and and explain the four steps in motherboard mobile devices a machine cycle Identify characteristics ofvarious personal computer Define a bit and describe Explain how program processors on the market how a series of bits instructions transfer in and today, and describe the represents data out of memoryways processors are cooledSee Page 209 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 2for Detailed Objectives Chapter 4
  • 3. Objectives Overview Differentiate between a port and Describe the purpose and types a connector, and explain the of expansion slots and adapter Differentiate among the various differences among a USB port, cards, and differentiate among types of memory FireWire port, Bluetooth port, slots for various removable flash SCSI port, eSATA port, IrDA port, memory devices serial port, and MIDI port Explain the purpose of a power Understand how to clean a Describe the types of buses in a supply and describe how it keeps system unit on a computer or computer cool mobile deviceSee Page 209 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 3for Detailed Objectives Chapter 4
  • 4. The System Unit• The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process dataPage 210 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 4Figure 4-1 Chapter 4
  • 5. The System Unit• The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes: Drive bay(s) Power supply Sound card Video card Processor MemoryPage 211 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 5Figure 4-2 Chapter 4
  • 6. The System Unit• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit – A computer chip contains integrated circuitsPage 212 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 6Figure 4-3 Chapter 4
  • 7. Processor• The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer – Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Multi-core Dual-core Quad-core processor processor processorPage 213 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 7 Chapter 4
  • 8. ProcessorPage 213 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 8Figure 4-4 Chapter 4
  • 9. Processor• The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Control Unit below Chapter 4Page 214 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 9 Chapter 4
  • 10. Processor• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cyclePage 215 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 10Figure 4-5 Chapter 4
  • 11. Processor • Most current personal computers support pipelining – Processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instructionPages 215 – 216 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 11Figure 4-6 Chapter 4
  • 12. Processor The processor contains registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions The system clock controls the timing of all computer operations • The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in gigahertz (GHz)109Page 216 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 12 Chapter 4
  • 13. Processor • The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Multi-Core Processors below Chapter 4Pages 216 – 217 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 13Figure 4-7 Chapter 4
  • 14. Processor• Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processorPage 218 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 14Figure 4-8 Chapter 4
  • 15. Processor • A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up • Require additional cooling – Heat sinks – Liquid cooling technology Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Liquid Cooling below Chapter 4Pages 219 - 220 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 15Figures 4-9 – 4-10 Chapter 4
  • 16. Processor• Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task – Massively parallel processing involves hundreds or thousands of processorsPage 220 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 16Figure 4-11 Chapter 4
  • 17. Data Representation Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality Digital signals are in one of two states: on or off • Most computers are digital • The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1) • Bits and bytesPage 221 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 17 Chapter 4
  • 18. Data Representation A computer circuit represents Eight bits grouped together as a the 0 or the 1 electronically by unit are called a byte. A byte the presence or absence of an represents a single character in electrical charge the computerPage 221 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 18Figures 4-12 – 4-13 Chapter 4
  • 19. Data Representation • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent dataPage 221 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 19Figure 4-14 Chapter 4
  • 20. Data RepresentationPage 222 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 20Figure 4-15 Chapter 4
  • 21. Memory• Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data• Stores three basic categories of items: Data being The operating Application processed and the system and other programs resulting system software informationPage 223 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 21 Chapter 4
  • 22. Memory• Each location in memory has an address• Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)Page 223 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 22Figure 4-17 Chapter 4
  • 23. Memory• The system unit contains two types of memory: Volatile memory Nonvolatile memory Loses its contents when power is turned off Does not lose contents when power is removed Examples include ROM, Example includes RAM flash memory, and CMOSPages 223 - 224 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 23 Chapter 4
  • 24. MemoryPage 224 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 24Figure 4-18 Chapter 4
  • 25. Memory• Three basic types of RAM chips exist: Dynamic RAM Magneto resistive Static RAM (SRAM) (DRAM) RAM (MRAM)Page 225 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 25Figure 4-19 Chapter 4
  • 26. Memory• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slotsPage 225 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 26Figure 4-20 Chapter 4
  • 27. Memory• The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to usePage 226 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 27Figure 4-21 Chapter 4
  • 28. Memory• Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Windows Ready Boost below Chapter 4Page 227 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 28Figure 4-22 Chapter 4
  • 29. Memory Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions A PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip is a blank ROM chip that can be written to permanently • EEPROM can be erased Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click ROM below Chapter 4Page 228 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 29 Chapter 4
  • 30. Memory• Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten – CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little powerPages 228 – 229 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 30Figure 4-23 Chapter 4
  • 31. Memory• Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory – Measured in nanosecondsPage 229 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 31Figures 4-24 – 4-25 Chapter 4
  • 32. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards • An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card • An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals – Sound card and video card Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Video Cards below Chapter 4Page 230 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 32Figure 4-26 Chapter 4
  • 33. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• Removable flash memory includes: – Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/Express Card modulesPage 231 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 33Figure 4-28 Chapter 4
  • 34. Ports and Connectors A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)A connector joins a cable to a port Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Digital Audio Port below Chapter 4Page 232 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 34 Chapter 4
  • 35. Ports and ConnectorsPage 232 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 35Figure 4-29 Chapter 4
  • 36. Ports and Connectors• On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sidesPages 232 - 233 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 36Figure 4-30 Chapter 4
  • 37. Ports and ConnectorsPage 233 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 37Figure 4-31 Chapter 4
  • 38. Ports and Connectors• A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector – You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click USB Ports below Chapter 4Page 234 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 38Figure 4-32 Chapter 4
  • 39. Ports and Connectors• Other types of ports include: Firewire Bluetooth SCSI port port port eSATA IrDA port Serial port port MIDI portPages 234 - 236 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 39 Chapter 4
  • 40. Ports and Connectors A Bluetooth wireless port A smart phone might adapter converts a USB port into communicate with a notebook a Bluetooth port computer using an IrDA portPage 235 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 40Figures 4-33 – 4-34 Chapter 4
  • 41. Ports and Connectors • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Docking Station below Chapter 4Page 236 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 41Figure 4-35 Chapter 4
  • 42. Buses • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other – Data bus – Address bus • Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given timePage 237 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 42Figure 4-36 Chapter 4
  • 43. Buses• Expansion slots connect to expansion buses• Common types of expansion buses include: PCI Express Accelerated PCI bus bus Graphics Port USB and PC Card bus FireWire bus Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click FireWire below Chapter 4Page 238 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 43 Chapter 4
  • 44. Bays • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment – A drive bay typically holds disk drivesPage 238 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 44Figure 4-37 Chapter 4
  • 45. Power Supply The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supplyPage 239 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 45 Chapter 4
  • 46. Putting It All Together Home Small Office/ Mobile Intel Core 2 Duo or Intel Home Office Intel Core 2 Extreme or Celeron Dual Core or Intel Core 2 Quad or AMD Turion X2 AMD Sempron Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Athlon X2 Dual-Code Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 4 GBPage 239 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 46Figure 4-38 Chapter 4
  • 47. Putting It All Together Power Enterprise Intel Itanium 2 or AMD Intel Core 2 Quad or Quad Core Opteron or Intel Core 2 Extreme or Intel Quad Core Xeon or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Sun UltraSPARC T2 Athlon X2 Dual-Core Minimum RAM: 8 GB Minimum RAM: 4 GBPage 239 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 47Figure 4-38 Chapter 4
  • 48. Keeping Your Computeror Mobile Device CleanClean your computer or mobile device once or twice a yearTurn off and unplug your computer or mobile device beforecleaning itUse compressed air to blow away dustUse an antistatic wipe to clean the exterior of the case and acleaning solution and soft cloth to clean the screenPage 240 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 48 Chapter 4
  • 49. Summary Sequence of operations How memory stores Components of the that occur when a data, instructions, and system unit computer executes an information instruction Comparison of various How to clean the personal computer exterior and interior of processors on the a system unit market todayPage 241 Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World 49 Chapter 4

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