Knowledge and opinion ppt


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Knowledge and opinion ppt

  1. 1. “All praise be to Allah, Sustainer and Nourisher, of the heavens; and Sustainer and Nourisher of the earth; Sustainer and Nourisher of all (other) Worlds”. 45(36)
  2. 2. opinion and knowledge Presented to: Prof. Dr. Mahr Muhammad Saeed Akthar Presented by: Iqra Naseer MP/2013-40
  3. 3. Plato life: • Plato(428-348)BC. born in Athens, Greece. • He was ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, was influenced by the teachings of Socrates. • Plato wrote twenty books or dialogues. • He founded his school called “Academy of Athens” probably first University. • Aristotle joined his academy in 367 BC. • His works also contain discussions in aesthetics, political, philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology, and the philosophy of language. • Plato died at the age of 80 years.
  4. 4. opinion and knowledge  Plato was the first philosopher to propose a detailed theory of knowledge (Stumpf. & Abel 2002)  Plato describes how human mind achieves knowledge by means of: 1) His allegory of the cave 2) His concept of divided line 3) His theory of forms  The theory of the divided line and allegory of the cave is used by Plato to distinguish between opinion, and knowledge and how the enlightenment occurs as one progress in thought.
  5. 5. Allegory of the cave Plato's conceptions about knowledge and opinion or forms vs. shadows is the allegory of the cave.(Thorpe. 2010).Plato asks us to imagine some men living in a large cave from childhood they have been chained so that they cannot even turn their heads. They can only see what is in front of them. Behind them is a track on which people walk back and forth, carrying artificial objects models-trees, persons, horses, etc. A blazing fire behind these people casts the shadows of objects on the wall in front of prisoners. They hear the person’s voice echo from the wall, they assume this sound is coming from shadows.
  6. 6. Allegory of the cave
  7. 7. Allegory of the cave Release of a prisoner one of the prisoner is released and force to stand up and walk towards out side of the cave. He experience the intense light, and tried to go back in cave. But when his eyes get adjusted to light he sees real objects for the first time and becoming aware of the big differences between them and the shadow images he had always taken for reality(Moore & Bruder2002)
  8. 8. Allegory of the cave  Return to the cave If he went back to the cave on his former seat, he will feel difficulty to adjust in darkness of cave. He tried to inform his fellows about true knowledge and reality which he observed outside the cave. But his fellows taunt him and said he was alright before going outside. Now his good sight is ruined.  Education is the matter of conversion; This tale of cave reflects that education is a complete turning around from the world of appearance(cave) to the world of reality(real world).
  9. 9. Knowledge, Education and understanding  Plato’s tale of the cave is an allegory about knowledge and education(Moore. & Bruder. 2002). Plato’s famous cave allegory represents human knowledge, showing the intellectual journey to truth and knowledge as a gradual process ( Henderson et al, 2008)  Henderson(2008) described four stages of enlightenment are revealed in Plato's allegory to become educated, and moving from opinion to knowledge; 1) Shadows At this stage we form opinion based on appearance, By Plato, appearances of objects shadows in the cave are taken as reality.
  10. 10. Knowledge, Education and understanding 2) Objects This stage of intellectual development involves a realization or recognition between the appearance of the object and the true object. This stage is yet not a true reality for Plato. Plato’s distinction between the puppeteers, their models and firelight, on the one hand (opinion), and those things outside the cave, on the other hand (knowledge). 3) The initial glimpse of truth Out side of the cave, the prisoner when first encounters with intense light his eyes experience pain. After period of adjustment he enables to see clearly true forms and light of truth that reveals reality to the mind.
  11. 11. Knowledge, Education and understanding 4) The ideal reality For the Plato the intellectual light is the Good. Just as the physical sun’s light enables us to view the visible world, the Good illuminates the concepts that eventually lead us to understand truth.
  12. 12. The divided line  The analogy of the divided line:
  13. 13. The divided line  According to Plato vertical line from x to y passes from lowest form of reality to the highest is divided by a horizontal line into two unequal parts, upper and larger part represents the intelligible world and the smaller and lower part the visible world. Modes of thought are progressing from imagining, belief, thinking and to true knowledge.
  14. 14. Theory of form  Plato held that there is more reality than the things we can experience through our senses.  The forms are those intelligible objects, which have been abstracted from the actual Man, Triangle.  A Form is a nonmaterial essence, an entity, that is unchangeable, eternal and grasped only by the mind. For instance, the Form of tree (treeness, absolute tree, tree itself) is what makes a tree a tree and causes it to exist.
  15. 15. Theory of form If one seeks knowledge experientially or by observation, he will find only opinions rather than true knowledge
  16. 16. Theory of form  True knowledge is found by examining perfect forms. Perfect forms are eternal and unchanging, so the knowledge gained from looking up to them will also be stable and true.
  17. 17. Modes of thought  Imaging The most superficial form of mental activity is imaging,appearences are taken as true reality. It found at the lowest level of line.  Belief Belief is to describe the state of mind induced by seeing actual objects considered as true reality.  Thinking To progress from belief to thinking is to move from the opinion to the knowledge. Thinking is especially characteristic of scientists and precedes from assumption.(Thorpe. 2010)
  18. 18. Modes of thought  Intelligence Intelligence is the ability of the mind to grasp the forms directly (Stumpf.& Abel. 2002).True knowledge is found by examining perfect forms. Perfect forms are eternal and unchanging, so the knowledge gained from looking up to them will also be stable and true (Thorpe.2010). Because according to Plato the true knowledge is obtained through the use of reason and perfect beauty or absolute goodness.(Moore. & Bruder. 2002)
  19. 19. Conclusion  In order to approach the truth, we must first be freed of our bonds, turned from the shadows, face the artificial light and artificial objects, and make our way past these to emerge into the stronger light of reality and truth.  To become educated mean to pass from opinion to knowledge-to advance from what seems real to what actually is real reality.
  20. 20. References' Moore.B.N & Bruder.K (2002). Philosophy: the power of ideas(5th edition) McGraw-hill publisher, Newyork city Henderson.M.C, Oakes.M.G, & Smith.M, (2008).What Plato knew about Enron. Journal of Business Ethics (2009) 86:463–471 Stumpf. S.E & Abel.D.C (2002). The elements of philosophy(4rd edition)McGraw-hill publisher, newyork city