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Definition : A cc to bio medical waste rules ,1998 of India “ bio-medical waste” means any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production or testing of bio medicals.
Any unwanted residual material which cannot be discharged directly, or after suitable treatment can be discharged in the atmosphere or to a receiving water source, or used for landfill is waste. ( Wilson, 1981)
Hospital waste: refers to all waste, biological or non biological, that is discarded and is not intended for further use
Medical waste : refers to materials generated as a result of patient diagnoses, treatment, immunization of human beings or animals
Infectious waste: are the portion of medical waste that could transmit an ‘infectious disease’.
Pathological waste : waste removed during surgery/ autopsy or other medical procedures including human tissues, organs, body parts, body fluids and specimens along their containers.
Reduce the impact waste management .
Reduction in the incidence of infection and accidental injuries to hospital staff.
Cost-effective disposal of hospital waste.
GLOBALLY - Developed countries generate 1 to 5 kg/bed/day
Developing countries : meager data, but figures are lower. 1-2kg/pt./day
WHO Report: 85% non hazardous waste
: 10% infective waste
: 5% non-infectious but hazardous. (Chemical, pharmaceutical and radioactive)
INDIA :-No national level study
- local or regional level study shows hospitals generate roughly 1-2 kg/bed/day
The Ministry of Environment and Forest has drafted certain rules in exercise of powers conferred by sections 6,8 and 25 of the environment (protection) act, 1986
The Gazette of India extraordinary , part II –section 3- subsection (ii)
On 20 th July 1998
CATEGORIES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE SCHEDULE – I WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTION Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste (Human tissues, organs, body parts) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 2 Animal Waste (Animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals and colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimen of live micro organisms or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell cultures used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins and devices used for transfer of cultures) Local autoclaving/ microwaving / incineration@
Category No. 4 Waste Sharps (Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) Disinfecting (chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding## Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs (Wastes comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines) Incineration@ / destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills Category No. 6 Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, bedding and other materials contaminated with blood.) Incineration@ / autoclaving / microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste (Waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing, catheters, intravenous sets, etc.) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding# #
Category No. 8 Liquid Waste (Waste generated from the laboratory and washing, cleaning, house keeping and disinfecting activities) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash (Ash from incineration of any biomedical waste) Disposal in municipal landfill Category No.10 Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfecting, as insecticides, etc.) Chemical treatment @@ and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids.
Description And Examples
Waste from isolation wards
Materials/equipments of infected patients
Blood or body fluids
Blood bags found in the municipal waste stream in violation of rules for such waste.
Waste Containing Cytotoxic Drugs(often Used In Cancer Theraphy)
Inadequate for anatomical, pharmaceutical,chemical waste ,waste that is not steam permeable
Micro- wave irradiation
Good disinfection efficiency under appropriate conditions
Drastic reduction in waste volume
High investment& operating costs
Not recommended for non sharp infectious waste
Relatively safe if access to site is restricted
Safe only if access to site is limited and certain precautions are taken
Not applicable to infectious waste
Biomedical waste (management &handling) rule 1998, prescribed by The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt of India, came into force on 20th July 1998 . This rule applies to those who generate, collect, receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio medical waste in any manner. Thus bio medical waste should be segregated into containers/bags at the point of generation of waste. Thus Colour Coding & type of containers used for disposal of waste is came into existence which is shown as follows
Colour coding Type of container Waste category Treatment options Yellow Plastic bag
Human anatomical waste
Microbiology &biotech waste,
Incineration/deep burial Red Dis infected container/plastic bag
Disposal in secured landfills
Blue/white translucent Plastic bag Puncture proof container
Thus refuse disposal cannot be solved without public education.
Individual participation is required.
Municipality and government should pay importance to disposal of waste economically.
Thus educating and motivating oneself first is important and then preach others about it.
Start disposing waste first from within your home, then outside home, then neighborhood ,then your street, your area ,city and then the nation and the world.
Lets make this world a better place to live in .
This World belongs to me. And to you. And to your children. It's ours. HCRW Management.ppt 7/03 Slide