Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Thin film and thin wafer PV: challenges for BIPV applications [PV 2009]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Thin film and thin wafer PV: challenges for BIPV applications [PV 2009]

701
views

Published on

- Flexible PV modules for BIPV …

- Flexible PV modules for BIPV
- Potential for cost reductions and aesthetic integration
- Challenges for processing thin silicon wafer
Dr. Andrew Skumanich, SolarVision Consulting

Published in: Business, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
701
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Thin Films and Thin Wafers: Challenges and Opportunities with BIPV PV Summit June 3 rd 2009 Andy Skumanich, Ph.D. SolarVision Consulting SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 1
  • 2. OutlineOpportunities and challenges• Market potential for BIPV – Flexible PV modules• Challenges – Potential for cost reduction and aesthetic integration• Thin film trajectory: CE and cost – Various types including CIGS• Ultra-thin wafer trajectory: thickness, CE, and cost – PV processing sequence – Handling considerations• Conclusions SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 2
  • 3. Market Opportunities• General PV forecast: 6-9 GW in 2010• Demand for glass: 2010 – 1Billion m2 WW – Take 1/10% as BIPV, 10% CE 1GW of PV glass• Roof-tops residential: coverage by PV – 7 million new houses in typical year – If 1/10% have BIPV roof, 10%CE 1GW of rooftop PV for residential• BIPV could potentially be a major market driver SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 3
  • 4. SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 4
  • 5. BIPV Market Requirements• Aesthetics, cost• Customizability• Product availability• Product features: Flexibility, Shape, etc.• Market opportunity for flexible TF, and c-Si foils SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 5
  • 6. Challenges• Thin Film: – Improved efficiency – Flexible substrate extends applications – maintain CE – Viability of materials without exchange• Wafer based c-Si: – Foils which are flexible and robust – Improved efficiency for ultra-thin wafers – recover CE – Processing of wafers-to-cells• Common – Customizability in design – Product range SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 6
  • 7. Turn-key Landscape: TF & c-Si a-Si and CIGS CdTe c-Si Tandem• Oerlikon (11) • Centrotherm • (Roth & Rau) Full chain:• AMAT (14) • Centrotherm• Ulvac (3) • Schmid• Other misc Multiple sub- lines SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 7
  • 8. Thin Film CE gains• CIGS starting to show promise – Turnkey line from Centrotherm• a-Si needs to achieve >10% capability• CdTe needs to confirm reliability SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 8
  • 9. Centrotherm CIGS Turn-keySVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 9
  • 10. Value of thin wafers for c-Si PV• Potential benefits – Improved theoretical conversion efficiency – Potentially improved flexibility below 100um C.E. vs Thickness (R&D data) Strength vs Thickness CZ P-type !! (w/ B-O) Post- degradation ?? S. Schoenfelder EuroSim, 2006 SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 10
  • 11. Cell Efficiency vs. Thickness Conversion Efficiency % 24 SunPower Solar Cell 22 Conventional 20 Solar Cell 18 Cost reduction 16 14 12 10 350 300 250 200 150 100 Cell Thickness (microns) Solar cell thickness reduction is a key cost reduction path. SunPower solar cell efficiency improves as wafer thickness decreases versus conventional solar cells which become less efficient on thinner wafers.11 SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 11
  • 12. Wafer Thickness Roadmap 350 Multi - 300 crystalline Wafer Thickness (um) 250 200 150 SunPower 150 120 mono c-Si, 100 (125mm) Mono - 50 crystalline 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 (Source: NREL Silicon Strategy, Dick Swanson – SunPower, SVC)12 SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 12
  • 13. Cell Efficiency Roadmap Cell Efficiency History and NREL Plan Conversion Efficiency 25 SunPower mono c-Si, 20 CE (%) 15 Mono - 10 crystalline Multi - crystalline 5 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 (Source: NREL Silicon Strategy, Dick Swanson – SunPower, SVC)13 SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 13
  • 14. Ultra-thin wafer processing• Aggressive activities world wide – EU: Fraunhofer Institute – Japan: NEDO – USA: various including commercial companies• Key developments: e.g. back surface treatment – Example is GIT – Dr. Ajeet Rohatgi SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 14
  • 15. GIT modeling for sub 100um wafers• Bulk lifetime, thickness, BSRV and BSR targets for achieving 19-20% efficiency cells with screen printed front contacts 21 Our Goal 20 19 Efficiency (%) 18 17 Current Status lifetime=100us, BSRV=50cm/s, BSR=97% 16 lifetime=100us, BSRV=400cm/s, BSR=65% 15 lifetime=25us, BSRV=50cm/s, BSR=97% lifetime=25us, BSRV=400cm/s, BSR=65% 14 0 100 200 300 400 500 GIT Dr. Solar Cell Thickness (um) Ajeet Rohatgi SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 15
  • 16. Roadmap to 20%-efficient c-Si solar cells with screen printed contacts 22% 20.1% 20.0% 20% 19.3% 18.2% 18% 17.0%Efficiency 16% 14% 12% 10% Current Solar Improved Text, BSR (97%) High Sheet Res. Reduce Cell Cell AR & SP BSRV Emitter (R=100 Thickness (100 GIT Dr. (Ref=1.04% (100cm/s) ohm/sq) µm) Ajeet FF=79.1% Rohatgi M.C.=5.0) SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 16
  • 17. New Process Vs Full Al BSF IQE & RetroRefl 100 100 90 90 80 80 New Full Al 70 Process BSF 70 Reflectance (%) 60 Voc(mV) 652 639 60IQE (%) Jsc(mA/cm 2) 39.4 37.9 New Process 50 50 FF(%) 78.1 78.9 40 Eff (%) 20.1 19.1 40 30 30 Full Al BSF 20 20 10 10 GIT Dr. Ajeet 0 0 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Rohatgi Wavelength (nm) SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 17
  • 18. IV-curve for the best Screen Printed New Process cell 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 ? : 20.1 % Isc (A) 0.08 VOC : 652 m V JSC : 39.4 mA/cm2 0.06 FF : 78.1 % 0.04 0.02 0.00 GIT Dr. 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 Ajeet Voc (mV) RohatgiDielectric passivated rear LBSF raised the efficiency from 19.1 to 20.1% SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 18
  • 19. Handling issues• Breakage – Of course the major concern for module manufacturers• Warped wafers cause issues – Ultra thin may have benefits and drawbacks• Start-stop needs to be abrupt for high tpt – Wafers act like “wings” during motion• Multiple challenges for handling SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 19
  • 20. Alternative Companies for Handling• Equipment: Automation Technology Inc: – Bernoulli grippers – But still not developed• Researchers at the Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (University of Texas, Arlington) – prototype air system able to both acquire wafers from a stack and move them along a track with no moving components – contrasts with Bernoulli grippers which only acquire wafers and must use manipulators and robotic elements to move wafers SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 20
  • 21. Summary• Decreasing thickness still moving forward – Market leaders driving to wafers 150um and then below – New improvements for thin films (CIGS specifically)• Market forces will be pushing prices down – Foreseeable future: more pressure on cost reduction – Companies with tech advantages will survive• Thin Film are steadily developing improved CE with CIGS leading in CE, (not in market) – Multiple challenges: higher CE >10% at low cost production• Thin, and ultra-thin wafers now are driving processing – Mulitple challenges: maintain CE below 100um, breakage SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 21
  • 22. Conclusions• Industry needs to drive metrics and dimensions – BOS may be substantially lower for frame and labor – May be closer to “grid parity” with lower BOS• Increased focus on BIPV is also required• Also, product portfolio needs to be expanded – Flexible, multi-dimensional, etc.• Current development capabilities can open up the BIPV market in increase the demand for TF and ultra- thin c-Si SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 22
  • 23. TF BIPVSVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 23
  • 24. SolarVision ConsultingContact: Dr. Andy SkumanichAndySkumanich@gmail.comwww.solarvisionconsulting.com SVC 2009 PV Summit Conference Page 24