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Supporting High-Penetration PV with Energy Storage
 

Supporting High-Penetration PV with Energy Storage

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- Photovoltaic (PV) power will be a major contributor to meeting renewable portfolio standards, but as PV penetration levels increase it will be necessary to address certain issues of compatibility ...

- Photovoltaic (PV) power will be a major contributor to meeting renewable portfolio standards, but as PV penetration levels increase it will be necessary to address certain issues of compatibility with electricity networks
- Depending on the location the utility peak may lag the solar peak by several hours, potentially creating a conflict between PV and baseload generation
- Extremely high ramp rates on partly cloudy days can cause instability on high-penetration feeders or, in the case of island systems, entire networks
- Energy storage provides the solution to PV integration issues, allowing higher penetration levels
• The cost of energy storage can be mitigated by addressing multiple applications, such as the supply of grid services during night-time hours
Jim McDowall, Business Development Manager, SAFT AMERICA INC

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    Supporting High-Penetration PV with Energy Storage Supporting High-Penetration PV with Energy Storage Presentation Transcript

    • Supporting High-Penetration PV with Energy Storage Photovoltaics Summit 2011 Scottsdale, AZ
    • Outline Drivers for PV Issues with high-penetration PV Energy storage solutionsPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • RPS Policies www.dsireusa.org / December 2010 VT: (1) RE meets any increase ME: 30% x 2000 WA: 15% x 2020* New RE: 10% x 2017 MN: 25% x 2025 in retail sales x 2012; MT: 15% x 2015 (Xcel: 30% x 2020) (2) 20% RE & CHP x 2017 NH: 23.8% x 2025OR: 25% x 2025 (large utilities)* ND: 10% x 2015 MI: 10% + 1,100 MW MA: 22.1% x 2020 5% - 10% x 2025 (smaller utilities) x 2015* New RE: 15% x 2020 (+1% annually thereafter) SD: 10% x 2015 WI: Varies by utility; NY: 29% x 2015 RI: 16% x 2020 10% x 2015 statewide NV: 25% x 2025* CT: 23% x 2020 IA: 105 MW OH: 25% x 2025† CO: 30% by 2020 (IOUs) PA: ~18% x 2021† 10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)* IL: 25% x 2025 WV: 25% x 2025*† NJ: 22.5% x 2021CA: 33% x 2020 UT: 20% by 2025* KS: 20% x 2020 VA: 15% x 2025* MD: 20% x 2022 MO: 15% x 2021 DE: 25% x 2026* AZ: 15% x 2025 OK: 15% x 2015 NC: 12.5% x 2021 (IOUs) DC DC: 20% x 2020 10% x 2018 (co-ops & munis) NM: 20% x 2020 (IOUs) 10% x 2020 (co-ops) PR: 20% x 2035 TX: 5,880 MW x 2015 HI: 40% x 2030 29 states + Renewable portfolio standard Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement DC and PR have Renewable portfolio goal an RPS Solar water heating eligible * † Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables Includes non-renewable alternative resources (7 states have goals)
    • Compatibility with electricity networks Macro level Generation mix Micro level High-penetration feeders Island systemsPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Generation mix – 1 How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study NREL/CP-550-46517Photovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Generation mix – 2 Summer “The Role of Energy Storage in the Modern Low-Carbon Grid” Paul Denholm - NREL Spring 2000 Normal Min Load 16 GW simulated PV system providing 11% of system’s energyPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • PV peak vs. system peakPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Localized instability Issues with high- penetration feeders Fast ramp rates cause voltage fluctuations Potential for reverse power flows through substation Source: Aerowatt Major problems in island networksPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • The role of energy storage Provides good value but non-essential for mainland grid operations at present Will become essential as renewable penetration increases Three fundamental “S” actions Seconds / minutes – Smoothing ~1 hour – Shaping Hours – ShiftingPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Smoothing and shaping PV farm output Storage of ~20% of daily PV output Worst-case scenario Smoothed injection to grid Conformance to forecast output PV output (actual) PV + storage (forecast) PV + storage Example: (actual) Per MW of PV rating 0.5 to 1 MW battery power 0.5 to 1 MWh battery energy 20 ft. container 1.1 MW for 30 minutesPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Location of storage Storage co-located with PV? Makes sense for high-penetration feeder Locate storage close to consumer wherever possible Provides maximum value Local options Residential storage (with rooftop PV) Community energy storagePhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • SMUD Anatolia III project ARRA FOA 85 Topic 4: High penetration solar development Installing 15 RES and 3 CES units in Anatolia ‘SolarSmart’ Homes that currently have 2kW PV systems Installing utility and customer portals to monitor PV, storage, customer load Sending price signals to effect changes in customer usage Developing specification for smart meter/inverter interface to enable management of distributed PV/storage system with AMI Saft is storage partner using advanced Li-ion technology developed for EVPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Optimizing value from PV storage Minimize cost of storage Synergies with EV applications for Li-ion Storage requirements Maximum life Wide operating state of charge range Very high efficiency (>95% dc) Maximize value streams Residential PV shifting to avoid peak rates Power reliability – islanding / microgrids Participation in demand-response programs Night-time ancillary servicesPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Summary Energy storage provides the solution to PV integration issues, allowing higher penetration levels The cost of energy storage can be mitigated by addressing multiple value streams Li-ion battery storage leverages synergies with EVPhotovoltaics Summit 2011
    • Thanks for listening! jim.mcdowall@saftbatteries.comPhotovoltaics Summit 2011