Ar2010 ippl-the tragedy of trade
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Ar2010 ippl-the tragedy of trade



Presentation delivered by Dr. Shirley McGreal, founder of IPPL, during the 2010 National Animal Rights Conference in Washington, D.C.

Presentation delivered by Dr. Shirley McGreal, founder of IPPL, during the 2010 National Animal Rights Conference in Washington, D.C.



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  • The Tragedy of Trade (animal abuses in world trade; animal imports)
  • 22,098 total primate imports in 2009

Ar2010 ippl-the tragedy of trade Presentation Transcript

  • 1. AR2010: “The Tragedy of Trade” The International Primate Trade: Monkey Business Goes Global Dr. Shirley McGreal International Primate Protection League
  • 2. “ No Place on Earth” Untouched by the Primate Trade
    • Nepalese mountaineer Jyamchang Bhote on Mt. Everest with IPPL’s protest banner, May 2009
    • IPPL campaigns with WWG (Nepal) to ban native rhesus exports
    • Nepal’s monkeys highlight sustainability and globalization issues
  • 3. “ Plain” Monkeys Under Hidden Threat from “Legal” Export
    • Primates imported into U.S. in 2009 (USFWS):
      • Crab-eating macaque monkeys: 19,979 (90%)
      • Rhesus macaque monkeys: 1,596
      • Other monkeys/ prosimians: 515
      • Apes: 8
      • Can this continue, even for “common” monkeys?
  • 4.
    • International primate trade most affected by CITES
    • CITES: leading international treaty governing trade in endangered species (1975)
    • Most nations (175 out of 195) are signatories
    • Appendix II and I listings
      • II: trade permitted if animals legally removed from the wild and “no detriment” to species
      • I: commercial trade banned (import and export permits needed for transport)
    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
  • 5. Primates and Appendices
    • All primates are on either Appendix I or II
    • Appendix I: Includes all apes and all lemurs (as well as many monkeys)
    • Appendix II (less protected) monkey species like macaques traded more easily
      • Traded with only export permits
      • Export permits easily falsified
      • Wild-caught animals listed as captive-born to evade regulations
      • Multinational corporations/ research facilities exploit these loopholes
  • 6. Example 1: Monkey Laundering Cambodia ► China ► The West
    • Cambodia: Wild-caught macaques transferred to breeding/collecting centers
      • Wild-caught and captive-born monkeys shipped to China
      • Suspect “captive born” documents often used
    • China: Monkeys become menu items/export items
    • The West: Monkeys in high demand for biowarfare experiments
    Cambodian monkeys awaiting export
  • 7. Example 2: Chinese Numbers Wild-caught ► “Captive-bred”
    • China has no native crab-eating macaques
    • China claims: exported only “12,244” of these “captive-bred” monkeys 2004-2007 (CITES workshop, Nov. 2008)
    • But U.S. alone imported 13,952 from China in 2007 (USFWS)
  • 8. Example 3: Outsourced to Malaysia Research/breeding sites ► Developing nations
    • EU debates on phasing out primate research
    • Pharmaceutical companies increasingly seeking to outsource research and testing
    • Issues of welfare, legal recourse, etc.
    IPPL (UK) and BUAV protest at Malaysian High Commission
  • 9. Example 4: Nepal “Monkey Farms” Native monkeys ► Western labs
    • Rhesus export ban from India/etc. since 1970s, results in alleged “shortage” of monkeys
    • Native rhesus monkeys sought for 2 U.S. labs
    • Nepal cancels export plans in August 2009, 200+ monkeys released into national park!
    Former monkey holding and breeding center in Lele, Nepal
  • 10. Contact the International Primate Protection League
    • IPPL
    • P.O. Box 766
    • Summerville, SC 29484
    • Phone: 843-871-2280
    • Fax: 843-871-7988
    • E-mail:
    • Web: