Uses of Geothermal Power• Balneology Hot spring and spa bathing• Agriculture Greenhouse and soil warming• Aquaculture Fish, prawn and alligator farming• Industrial uses Product warming and drying• Residential and District Heating
World Energy Model Structure Exogenous assumptions PowerFinal energy Exogenous generation, demand assumptions refinery Regional energy balance Final energy Final energy demand demand
AutotransformersAn autotransformer hasonly a single winding, whichis tapped at some pointalong the winding. AC orpulsed voltage is appliedacross a portion of thewinding, and a higher (orlower) voltage is producedacross another portion ofthe same winding.
Constant Voltage TransformerBy arranging particularmagnetic properties od atransformer core, and installinga resonant tank circuit (acapacitor and an additionalwinding), a transformer can bearranged to automatically keepthe secondary winding voltageconstant regardless (withinsome limits) of any variance inthe primary supply withoutadditional circuitry or manualadjustment.
Polyphase TransformersFor three-phase power,three separate single-phasetransformers can be used,or all three phases can beconnected to a singlepolyphase transformer. Thethree primary windings areconnected together and thethree secondary windingsare connected together.
Resonant TransformersA resonant transformeroperates at a resonantfrequency of one or moreof its coils and (usually) anexternal capacitor. Theresonant coil, usually thesecondary, acts as aninductor, and is connectedin series with a capacitor.
Instrument TransformersThese comes in various types, such as:1.Current Transformers2.Voltage Transformers3.Pulse Transformers4.RF Transformers5.Baluns6.Audio Transformers7.Speaker Transformers8.Small Signal Transformers9.‘Interstage’ and coupling Transformers
Types of Hydropower Facilities Impoundment Pumped Storage Run-of-river Hydropower Facilities Projects Facilities Pump water from a Use the flow of Use dams to store lower reservoir to an water within thethe water. Water is upper reservoir at natural range of the released either to times when demand river, requiring little meet changing for electricity is low or no impoundment electricity needs Diversion Micro hydropower Hydropower Projects Facilities Produce 100kW or Channel a portion of less energy. the river through a Microhydro plants canal or penstock, utilize low heads or but may require a high heads dam
Carbon Capture & Storage• Carbon capture and storage (CCSD) is an approach to mitigating climate change by capturing carbon dioxide from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it away safely instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. Technology for capturing of carbon dioxide is already commercially available for large carbon dioxide emitters, such as power plants.• Storage of carbon dioxide, on the other hand, is a relatively untried concept and as yet (2007) no power plant operates with a full carbon capture and storage system. Currently, the United States government has approved the construction of the worlds first CCS power plant, FutureGen, while BP has indicated that it intends to develop a 350 MW carbon capture and storage plant in Scotland, in which the carbon from a natural gas fired generator plant will be stripped out and pumped into the Miller field in the North Sea.• Storage of the carbon dioxide is envisaged either in deep geological formations, deep oceans, or in the form of mineral carbonates. In the case of deep ocean storage, there is a risk of greatly increasing the problem of ocean acidification, a problem that also stems from the excess of carbon dioxide.