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presents
Design Psychology:
Motivate Your User
AMY BUCHER
Amy Bucher
Amy Bucher is a behavioral
scientist and strategist with
expertise in qualitative and
quantitative methods, pro...
Design	
  Psychology:	
  Motivate	
  Your	
  
Users
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  
amy.bucher@gmail.com
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph....
Agenda
• Psychology	
  &	
  motivation	
  
• Fogg	
  behavior	
  model	
  
• Self-­‐determination	
  theory	
  
– Competen...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
“It’s	
  not	
  that	
  I’m	
  lazy,	
  it’s	
  that	
  I	
  just	
  don...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Types	
  of	
  Motivation:	
  Self	
  Determination	
  Theory	
  
Autono...
Fogg	
  Behavior	
  Model
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Know	
  Before	
  You	
  Go
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Fogg	
  Behavior	
  Grid
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
GREEN	
  
Do	
  a	
  new	
  
behavior
BLUE	
  
...
Fogg	
  Behavior	
  Model
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
What	
  does	
  this	
  explain	
  really	
  well?
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-­‐Determination	
  Theory
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-Efficacy
Social Learning
Hierarchy of Needs
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Self-­‐Determination	
  Theory	
  (SDT):	
  
Antecedents	
  of	
  Motiva...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Application	
  of	
  SDT
Adapted	
  from	
  Scott	
  Rigby
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
How	
  vs.	
  What
Perceived	
  Autonomy
Help	
  people	
  feel	
  they	
  have	
  control
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Pandora.comAmy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
WeightWatchers.comAmy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Lunch	
  Builder	
  
Cheat	
  Sheet
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Constrained	
  Choice
Perceived	
  Competence
Help	
  people	
  feel	
  they	
  can	
  do	
  it
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Ability
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
2x	
  weight	
  loss	
  in	
  people	
  who	
  track	
  food	
  
6+	
  d...
Opower.com	
  
1.4	
  –	
  3.3%	
  energy	
  use	
  reduction	
  per	
  household	
  (Alcott,	
  2011)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  P...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Feedback	
  Granularity
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
You’ve	
  Earned	
  a	
  Badge!
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Yelp
Untappd
Fitocracy
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
$26	
  
Million	
  
in	
  first	
  year1
1.	
  http://news.starbucks.com...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
J&J	
  Digital	
  Health	
  Scorecard	
  http://www.digitalhealthscoreca...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Does	
  it	
  work?
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-­‐study
34	
  Ho...
Perceived	
  Relatedness
Show	
  people	
  they’re	
  connected
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes	
  the	
  responses	
  are	
  just	
  
acknowledgements	
  .	
...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes	
  the	
  responses	
  
are	
  helpful	
  .	
  .	
  .
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes	
  the	
  responses	
  are	
  
repetitive	
  .	
  .	
  .	
  
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Sometimes	
  the	
  responses	
  are	
  to	
  
other	
  brands,	
  not	
...
Sometimes	
  the	
  responses	
  are	
  
deliberately	
  funny	
  .	
  .	
  .
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
ELIZA
Human:	
  My	
  boyfriend	
  made	
  me	
  come	
  here.	
  
ELIZA:	
  Your	
  boyfriend	
  made	
  you	
  come	
  h...
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Design	
  that	
  Responds
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Contrast	
  this	
  .	
  .	
  .
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
With	
  this:
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
SDT	
  Applied	
  to	
  Beer
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Additional	
  Resources
Amy	
  Bucher,	
  Ph.D.	
  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
Glued	
  to	
  Games,	
  by	
  Scott	
  Rigby	
 ...
Course Title	
  
Course Title
INSTRUCTOR NAME
Design Psychology: Motivate Your Users
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Design Psychology: Motivate Your Users

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Intelligent.ly class with behavioral psychologist, Amy Bucher. Learn how to apply principles of self-determination theory to product design, UX and marketing. Learn more from the experts by visiting http://intelligent.ly/learn.

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  • Easiest metaphor to understand autonomy is choose your own adventure
  • Here’s an example from Mindbloom—users can determine at the outset what parts of their well-being they’d like to work on. And they can change their minds at any point in the program.
  • What does ability really mean? Sometimes it’s truly having the skills, knowledge, or tools; other times, it’s having a resource such as time, patience, or desire. Fogg definition of ability Willpower
  • Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedback—what others like you are doing. Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didn’t get the comparison report—about 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up. We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback
  • Classic Bobo doll experiments (Bandura, 1963) Bandura and observational learning Concern about society becoming more violent due to increasingly graphic video games
  • Feedback on performance builds competence
  • The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game
  • Used in Europe to reduce messes in men’s restrooms
  • http://nerdapproved.com/misc-weirdness/pee-on-jeff-goldblum/
  • Math class—sequencing tasks by difficulty/ability led to more motivation and achievement than a traditional, time-based approach
  • Kip Williams
  • Amazon—recommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought
  • Design needs to respond to users, too. When a user does something with the mouse, the site should respond to that.
  • Autonomy varies the most, especially with respect to the extent that others are included in the sense of self
  • http://phiez.blogspot.com/2011/05/feeling-like-failure.html Don’t connect people’s identities to their task performance.
  • Transcript of "Design Psychology: Motivate Your Users"

    1. 1. presents Design Psychology: Motivate Your User AMY BUCHER
    2. 2. Amy Bucher Amy Bucher is a behavioral scientist and strategist with expertise in qualitative and quantitative methods, program design, behavioral research, and market research. With a PhD in Psychology, she designs and writes tailored web-based health coaching programs that effectively motivate and support behavior change for users. Her areas of focus include problem definition and solution development, systematic and creative research to support strategic actions, and communication across multiple formats and audience types.
    3. 3. Design  Psychology:  Motivate  Your   Users Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.   amy.bucher@gmail.com Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    4. 4. Agenda • Psychology  &  motivation   • Fogg  behavior  model   • Self-­‐determination  theory   – Competence   – Autonomy   – Relatedness   • Additional  considerations Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    5. 5. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    6. 6. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) “It’s  not  that  I’m  lazy,  it’s  that  I  just  don’t  care.”
    7. 7. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Types  of  Motivation:  Self  Determination  Theory   AutonomousControlled More  likely  to  engage  in  and  sustain   behavior  change Adapted  from  Segar  &  Hall  (2011) Source:  Ryan  &  Deci  (2000)
    8. 8. Fogg  Behavior  Model Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    9. 9. Know  Before  You  Go Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    10. 10. Fogg  Behavior  Grid Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) GREEN   Do  a  new   behavior BLUE   Do  a  familiar   behavior   PURPLE   Increase  duration   or  intensity GRAY   Decrease  a   behavior  one   time BLACK   Stop  doing  a   behavior ! Dot   Behavior  is  done   at  one  time ! GREEN  DOT   Do  a  new   behavior  one   time ! BLUE  DOT   Do  a  familiar   behavior  one   time ! PURPLE  DOT   Increase  a   behavior  one   time ! GRAY  DOT   Decrease  a   behavior  one   time ! BLACK  DOT   Stop  doing  a   behavior  one   time ! Span   Behavior  has  a   duration ! GREEN  SPAN   Do  a  new   behavior  for  a   span ! BLUE  SPAN   Do  a  familiar   behavior  for  a   span ! PURPLE  SPAN   Increase  a   behavior  for  a   span ! GRAY  SPAN   Decrease  a   behavior  for  a   span ! BLACK  SPAN   Stop  doing  a   behavior  for  a   span ! Path   Behavior  is  done   from  now  on ! GREEN  PATH   Do  a  new   behavior  from   now  on ! BLUE  PATH   Do  a  familiar   behavior  from   now  on ! PURPLE  PATH   Increase  a   behavior  from   now  on ! GRAY  PATH   Decrease  a   behavior  from   now  on ! BLACK  PATH   Stop  doing  a   behavior  from   now  on
    11. 11. Fogg  Behavior  Model Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    12. 12. What  does  this  explain  really  well? Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    13. 13. Self-­‐Determination  Theory Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    14. 14. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Self-Efficacy Social Learning Hierarchy of Needs
    15. 15. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Self-­‐Determination  Theory  (SDT):   Antecedents  of  Motivation Motivation
    16. 16. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Application  of  SDT Adapted  from  Scott  Rigby
    17. 17. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) How  vs.  What
    18. 18. Perceived  Autonomy Help  people  feel  they  have  control Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    19. 19. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    20. 20. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    21. 21. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    22. 22. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    23. 23. Pandora.comAmy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    24. 24. WeightWatchers.comAmy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Lunch  Builder   Cheat  Sheet
    25. 25. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    26. 26. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    27. 27. Constrained  Choice
    28. 28. Perceived  Competence Help  people  feel  they  can  do  it Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    29. 29. Ability Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    30. 30. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) 2x  weight  loss  in  people  who  track  food   6+  days  per  week  vs.  people  who  track  less   than  11 1. Hollis,  J.  F.  et  al.  (2008).  Weight  loss  during  the  intensive  intervention  phase  of  the  weight-­‐loss  maintenance  trial.  American  Journal  of   Preventative  Medicine,  32(5),  118-­‐126.   2. Kruger,  J.,  Blanck,  H.  M.,  &  Gillespie,  C.  (2006).  Dietary  and  physical  activity  behaviors  among  adults  successful  at  weight  loss  maintenance.   International  Journal  of  Behavioral  Nutrition  and  Physical  Activity,  3.     3. Bravata,  D.  M.,  et  al.  (2007).  Using  pedometers  to  increase  physical  activity  and  improve  health:  A  systematic  review.  Journal  of  the  American   Medical  Association,  298(19),  2296-­‐2304.   18%  of  successful  dieters  kept  a  calorie   diary,  vs.  8%  of  unsuccessful  dieters2 People  using  pedometers  keep  their   physical  activity  at  27%  above  baseline   levels3
    31. 31. Opower.com   1.4  –  3.3%  energy  use  reduction  per  household  (Alcott,  2011) Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    32. 32. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    33. 33. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    34. 34. Feedback  Granularity Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    35. 35. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    36. 36. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    37. 37. You’ve  Earned  a  Badge! Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    38. 38. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Yelp Untappd Fitocracy
    39. 39. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    40. 40. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) $26   Million   in  first  year1 1.  http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=598,  retrived  October  1,  2012
    41. 41. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) J&J  Digital  Health  Scorecard  http://www.digitalhealthscorecard.com/?sf7635864=1  
    42. 42. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    43. 43. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    44. 44. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    45. 45. Does  it  work? Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-­‐study 34  Hours  of  Duolingo 1  University  Semester
    46. 46. Perceived  Relatedness Show  people  they’re  connected Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    47. 47. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    48. 48. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    49. 49. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes  the  responses  are  just   acknowledgements  .  .  .
    50. 50. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes  the  responses   are  helpful  .  .  .
    51. 51. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes  the  responses  are   repetitive  .  .  .  
    52. 52. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Sometimes  the  responses  are  to   other  brands,  not  end  users  .  .  .
    53. 53. Sometimes  the  responses  are   deliberately  funny  .  .  .
    54. 54. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    55. 55. ELIZA Human:  My  boyfriend  made  me  come  here.   ELIZA:  Your  boyfriend  made  you  come  here?   Human:  He  says  I’m  depressed.   ELIZA:  I’m  sorry  to  hear  you  are  depressed.   Human:  It’s  true.  I’m  unhappy.   ELIZA:  Do  you  think  talking  to  me  will  help  you   not  be  unhappy? Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Weizenbaum,  J.  (1966).  ELIZA—A  computer  program  for  the  study  of  natural  language   communication  between  man  and  machine.  Communications  of  the  ACM,  9(1),  36-­‐45.
    56. 56. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    57. 57. Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    58. 58. Design  that  Responds Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    59. 59. Contrast  this  .  .  . Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    60. 60. With  this: Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    61. 61. SDT  Applied  to  Beer Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com)
    62. 62. Additional  Resources Amy  Bucher,  Ph.D.  (amy.bucher@gmail.com) Glued  to  Games,  by  Scott  Rigby  and  Richard  Ryan   selfdeterminationtheory.org  à links  to  academic  papers,  research Stanford  University  Persuasive  Technology  Lab    (http:// captology.stanford.edu/)   I  also  like:   ! •Influence:  The  Psychology  of  Persuasion,  by  Robert  Cialdini   •Willpower,  by  Roy  Baumeister  and  John  Tierney   •The  Power  of  Habit:  Why  We  Do  What  We  Do  in  Life  and  in  Business,  by  Charles   Duhigg From  this  presentation:  
    63. 63. Course Title   Course Title INSTRUCTOR NAME
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