Customer Segmentation: Not Just for Marketers!


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Learn how to conduct market research and create customer segments in order to better target your product and increase revenues. This deck includes how to define target markets, create buyer personas, and integrate these customer segments across the company. Slides from a Customer Cegmentation class taught at by Jill Cartwright. Learn more from the experts by visiting

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  • In 1979, I was a Brownie in troop 147. Not just any troop. Troop 147 had won top awards for 3 years running and in no way shape or form did Mrs. Brenner allow this year to be any different. We were going to win. We had to win.Set out with list – girl scouts booked them the years before. Totally locked out. Dad refused to take it to work. Mom wouldn’t let me wander all over town. I was stumped. But that was because I was focused on just one customer – my neighbors. I didn’t know my market. I didn’t identify new customer segments that I could target beyond the lockdown that was my neighborhood. I didn’t think to set up a table in front of a grocery store, guilt my Sunday School class into buying some or sell them after ballet class to a bunch of sugar starved 2nd graders.
  • Simply stated, it’s a way to get to know and then group your customers to make sure that every aspect of your business is relevant to your core target.Identifying – you have to be able to identify people based on these characteristicsPrioritizing – every business has scarce resources whether cash, people, experience or all three – have to focus your resources and customer segmentation can help you to identify who is most profitable, has the largest growth potential, etc.Current and future – while easy to understand what it means, reinforces the notion that customer segmentation isn't just about reacting to the customers you have, it’s also about identifying new targets to pursueActionable – very closely linked to identifying. It means that you can market to these people based on that characteristic – find them online, buy a key word, purchase a mailing list, attend a tradeshowRelevant – you may be able to identify and reach folks based on a certain characteristic, but is it relevant to your business and how and why customers buy your product? You may find that all of your customers have a fear of clowns, but that’s totally irrelevant to how to sell them cloud computing.There’s so much you can do once you've established your segments – start looking at lifetime value, migrating people from one segment to another, developing specific marketing programs for each segment, but tonight we’re just going to cover the basics of what segmentation is, how to do it and why.
  • Since we have some companies B2B and other B2C, thought it would be helpful to have two different case studies that we use throughout the class.
  • What would be relevant to each of these companies?What could they learn about their customers that would make them more effective in developing products/services for their customers as well as marketing to them?
  • Gives your team a focus so that as they’re developing ideas for new features,offerings, promotions, etc. they know who they’re catering to and what’s important to them.Simplifies your decision making, especially when comes to branding, language, aesthetics. Creative reviews are no along a matter of what I like but what persona likes with people talking in terms of “I think this would resonate with Allan because”.It doesn’t just bring that clarity to creative decisions but to any decision that requires investing resources. If you have two new product ideas and aren’t sure which one to pursue, go back to the segments to see which one more appealing to them, potentially serve more than one segment, etc..By tailoring internal decisions, and therefore, the experience you give your current customers, you’re far more apt to retain them which is less expensive than acquiring new customers.But, best of all, it can help you to identify new market opportunities that are hiding within your customer database by showing you new customers you've attracted who are outside of your core target but may hold some value for the company.
  • Before you launch, there’s no sales data, so you can do some research based on who you think your customers are, try to get a few sales to inform your choices, and launch. It’s important to circle back once you do have sales data.Timing really depends on on your sales cycle. For an ecommerce site with sales every day, 6 months of data is terrific. For companies with much longer sales cycles, will take a while to amass the final order info but you can use feedback from your sales team to make interim decisions until you have a decent sample size to analyze.Always good to go back and validate – also see if any new opportunities have emerged.Along those same lines, it’s good to revisit when you’re facing a big decision, such as looking for new market opportunities or struggling to prioritize resources or product roadmap.
  • We’ll go into more detail on each topic in the following slides but want to give you an overview of the processGather data – some of this you’ll already have, like order information, geographic location, etc. but some you'll have to gather through surveys, interviews and more. Important to note that quantitative as well as qualitative information is important here.Analyze – surprisingly low tech approach using data filters. You’re simply looking for correlations here that can help you to group people in meaningful ways.Create the segments – once you look through all of the correlations and compare them to how you market and what your goals are, then you can choose the segments that make the most sense for your business.Validate – just a fancy term of sanity check, I always like to take the time to talk with the folks on the front line and see if these segments are consistent with who they’re interacting with each day.Rollout – normally a painful term, this is actually the fun part in which you bring the segments to life an any way that will help your team to think of them, relate to them, and honestly care about them. Could be playlists, a party in their honor, pictures on their desk, etc.Reassess – so many things change over time – your company evolves, the market changes, your product offering changes, the economy (hopefully) recovers, so it’s important to reassess so that your segments are an accurate reflection of not only where you are but where you want to go.
  • We’ve already talked about what’s relevant to a company so I won't climb up on that soapbox again, but there are a lot of different types of data you can use, both quantitative and qualitative. I find that both are equally important. Folks tend to skip over the qualitative because harder to get, but I promise you it‘s worth the hour long interviews or awkward calls with customers to get the honest truth. And don't just ask your sales team what they think – talk with a customer! Trust me, getting their input is the best marketing you could ever do.
  • There are also a lot of other alternatives you can use – doing data appends, purchasing lists, etc. – but I’ve found that these are very expensive and not very reliable. You’re better off work to work with what you have and get creative in finding what you don’t. One business I advised had an intern spend a few days researching customers online – used their email address from their order info to find them on facebook, blogs, etc. to get a lot of demographic information.Interviews are the most insightful, especially when paired with order info because interviews help you to understand the person's behavior – values that shape their personality and the experience they want, situation they’re in and why they’re buying.I find that companies, especially start-ups, do polls first because they’re easy, you can do them at any time, they’re not as time consuming as other methods, etc. I actually think they’re the least effective method, especially at the outset. I prefer to use polls or online surveys once you've narrowed down your segments and you’re trying to confirm specific information, such as price sensitivity or what attribute is most important them when making a buying decision.Order info is worth it’s weight in gold – tells you not only what people are buying but where they live, what they’re likely to buy next, if they respond to promotions, etc.Customer service is probably the most overlooked opportunity. When I was running Go GaGa, I emailed every customer who bought from the site for the first six months, asking them each one question. You’d be amazed at the responses. It also gave them a sense of ownership in company’s success – they became some of our biggest fans.
  • So now, you've got all of this great data and it’s time to pull it all together. You won’t have the same data for everyone – you’ll only be able to do interviews with a small subset, but that’s ok. It will still be incredibly useful.As you’ll see in just a minute, this process is incredibly helpful in answering key questions about your data as well as in forming your segments.Start by pulling everything together into one Excel spreadsheet. Here’s where the art and the science of segmentation come into play – just try different combinations and follow different paths to see if they lead to anything. Trust me most of the time, it will lead to a dead end, but when it doesn’t it’s incredibly insightful.I find that it’s most helpful to do it as a basic tree – beginning with the first question or bit of data, then slicing it again and again. Once you go a few levels down, you’ll be able to tell whether there’s anything helpful there or not.I thought it would be fun to try this, so I’ve created a mock data set based on Go GaGa sales, surveys and more. It’s very small, but will give you a good idea of how this works. So, we’re going to try a few trees together and see what emerges.
  • So, I have to admit, this is the first time I’ve tried creating these trees real time, so I wasn't sure if it would be a huge success or just make everyone in the room nauseous from watching me scroll through Excel. But, I wanted you to be sure to see an example of where this approach can yield insights and also what a dead end looks like, so I have a few back-ups here.This is an example of a tree that I did when I was trying to figure out if I could enter new markets by selling my current products to new customer targets. I did this as a result of some answers I received to the emails I was sending to thank folks for their order. I was asking people how they were going to use the bag and that’s when I discovered that almost half of my customers weren't parents.So, I did this tree and identified three new targets. I used those insights to shape the next shot list at my photoshoot, did some PR targeting those people/activities and even exhibited at the Outdoor Retailer tradeshow, picking up a lot of luggage stores, yoga shops and spas.
  • As I mentioned in the title, customer segmentation isn't just for marketers or business development folks – it’s key for the team developing your product or service offering, too, so I wanted to show you an example of how it can shape your product roadmap.In this instance, I was trying to figure out whether to invest money in developing more accessories or invest all of my R&D in developing several new diaper bags.This analysis helped me to understand the purchase patterns of the different groups (both those who were parents and those who weren't) to see that accessories played an important role in both acquiring and retaining my customers.
  • But, as I mentioned, I went through countless trees to get to those examples, so I wanted to show you what a dead end looks like. This one doesn't come from Go GaGa, it comes from Isle Nine, a multichannel retailer that sells authentic Hawaiian clothing and accessories. I’ve been working with their CEO to develop their marketing plan, so we developed this tree to see if there’s a specific target we should use in tailoring our messaging (should it be Jimmy Buffet or Tommy Bahama?).So we took a look at some demographic data as well as their purchase behavior and some interview results and here’s what we found.There wasn't any clear differentiation that we could use to shape our messaging – we had a wide range of people buying shirts to wear in their down time. All we needed to do was focus the messaging on that and not try to tweak it for a certain demographic.
  • So, I want to make sure that we also use a B2B example, so let’s go back to Zmags and let’s pretend that they’re trying to identify new service offerings. In particular, they're encountering a lot of objections from their potential clients regarding the resources and infrastructure needed to support their core offering. As a refresher, they have a publishing solution that enables clients to create virtual catalogs that link to the client’s existing ecommerce engine. So based on this very high level tree, do you have any ideas as to what other services they could offer clients to help overcome their clients’ objections? Remember this it totally hypothetical – they may have this offering already, but for the purpose of this illustration assuming they don’t.There’s an obvious trend in terms of what Zmags could do to support those potential customers who don’t have ecommerce capability - that’s to create a scaled down ecommerce engine that the client could tap into and use to test ecommerce on a small scale through the Zmags digital magazine. Could be a really powerful play and help the client explore a new sales channel.
  • So, after you've looked at 50 different trees, sniffed enough whiteboard markers to get a buzz and give yourself a major headache, how do you make sense of it? Which trees are important? Which data points are actionable and relevant? These 5 questions will help you to find the real value in the pile of trees that you've created.First off, are there meaningful differences between these groups? A 5 year age difference no, but two generations apart – sure.Can I identify people based on these characteristics? Do they self identify in the way that they shop, where they go online, what hobbies they have so that I can find them and serve up marketing messages about my product or service?To that end, can I market to them based on these differences? Can I use tools like social media, online advertising, street events, etc to get my message to these groups?Can these segments peacefully coexist? A skin care cream that works for tattoo removal as well as the removal of age spots would be a tough thing to pull off with one brand. Would be difficult to market to the tattoo segment while running ads in Grandparenting Weekly. You may find that you need to cerate a separate brand for a different target if they’ll alienate each other.And, as we’ve seen, there is also an opportunity to identify new product opportunities using these segments. While a new product may not appeal to all segments, if it’s covers enough of your customer base, it may be worth pursuing.
  • So, now that you have a rough idea of who is in each of these segments, it’s important to figure out how to communicate everything about these people to your team in a way that’s relevant to the business and will help your team to really connect with them.So, let’s go back to the data that we have an see what’s relevant. For B2B, what’s relevant is anything that impacts their buying decision. Is their company struggling? Are they under intense competition in the marketplace? Are their customer acquisition costs really high? Then, there’s always the human side of things, even in a B2B situation. Getting into the heads of the people you’re developing services for, selling to, designing for, is always important. How do you do that? By getting to know them in the way that you would get to know any friend (even if they’re someone you normally wouldn't hang out with!).What music do they like? What hobbies to they have? Are they foodies or do they follow the latest fad diet? What music do they listen to? What do they wear when there’s no way they’ll bump into someone from their office?
  • So let’s try to cerate a few personas for Go GaGa. Let’s start by making a list of 10 things that we think would be important for me to know in trying to market them and design products for them.Now from the trees that we did earlier, think of a particular type of person who comes to mind.Ok, let’s pick a name for them. Now let’s make a data point of each of the things we want to convey about them.What do they look like?Ok, let’s do another one – very different from the first.
  • So, I wanted to show you a few of the personas I developed for Go GaGa. As you can see, they ultimately cull down into two distinct groups – those who are parents and using the bag as a diaper bag and those who aren’t parents and are using it to tote gear safely and stylishly, whether going to yoga or the office.I chose age and gender to help shape model requirements for the photoshoot.Income and education often shape their shopping behavior, especially when it comes to researched products.Where they live will dictate the need for style and how they’re traveling with their kids – public transportation, car, etc..Kids and first time parent helps me to understand their priorities – first time parents tend to buy for looks not functionality.Sexual orientation and relationship status help for photo shoots when portraying families of all types.Activity level gives me an indication of how important it is to them to take good care of their health.
  • Personality helps me to know what my customer service team can expect and what type of messaging to use – authoritative, empathetic, tongue in cheek, etc.Occupation and hobbies tells me how they spend their time and how much free time they actually have.Personal style and music will help me to know how to style the models and also what aesthetic and color palette my products need to have (pink is a four letter word).Research process and price sensitivity help me to understand how and where to reach them while shopping and whether or not it’s a likely sale.And so I can use these personas when setting my marketing strategy, designing my logo, determining new product features, setting pricing and more.
  • Since we didn’t go through the tree exercise for Zmags, I thought it would be a bit tougher for you to come up with the personas, but I wanted to show you two potential personas they might have in their customer base.So, based on this persona, how might Zmags approach Peter? What could they do to get him on board? Help him see that this could be his big win?Give him case studiesDevelop his deck to use when championing it internallyOffering him a discount for a trial runAgreeing not to go over his head and to position him as the champion of the idea internallyHave a salesperson with a large amount of patience and who’s very reassuringWhat does Blake need that Zmags can give her? If you were the head of sales, how would you approach Blake based on this persona?
  • As you can imagine, it’s easy to lose perspective when you’re staring at so many options and there are so many ways to go. I want to share a few of the pitfalls I’ve encountered in working with clients so that you can avoid them, too.The biggest temptation is to have a ton of personas. Don’t. It’s ideal to have 2 but no more than 3. If you have too many, it’s too difficult for your team to get to know them, bear them in mind and know which one they’re creating for. Many top brands, like Victoria's Secret, only have one.Often, if you have too many, they’re also too specific. It’s such a small niche that those folks will be difficult to identify or don't represent a large enough opportunity to merit the focus you’re giving them.Divergent groups – we've talked about this already, but I’m begging you to not try to market to goth fans and grandparents simultaneously.On the flip side, you can have segments that are too similar, like the Go GaGa ones in which we had two parents and two non parents – I ultimately consolidated those 4 segments into 2 and it simplified things dramatically.
  • I sometimes hesitate to show this slide because it is possible to overthink this. That being said, these segments are going to be the touchstone of your company, so it’s important to get them right – at least 75% on target.Here are a few things that you can do to validate your segments. Again, don’t spend a ton of time on this – better to test them in the market with a few small tactics, like an email blast, targeted promotion or blog entry, than to suffer from analysis paralysis.
  • This is hands down my favorite part – where you get to bring the segments to life. You know your team better than anyone, so what would help them to not only get to know, but start to care about, even advocate for these personas you've created?
  • And finally, the real fruit of your labor is in impacting every aspect of the organization.Branding and your marketing strategy – everything from your color palette, to what language you use on the site, how your customer service team answers the phone.Customer service – how lenient are your policies, how empowered are your reps to give refunds, what hours do you have for customer service and how can they be contacted.Hiring – know this sounds crazy but the people you hire, especially in customer facing roles have to be able to connect with these people in real life. Are they patient and reassuring, professional or laid back? Have hobbies that relate to your business? How’s their vocabulary?Product roadmap – what other services can you offer? Can you take your existing product offering into new markets? Do you need to create a sub-brand to support a lower pricing tier or can you do it with your existing brand? Will it bring you new customer or cannibalize existing ones?User experience – this involves everything from your website, to the sales process, how they research online and where you can be found. It’s all about removing every obstacle and giving the person access to right information and products at the right time and in a way that resonates with them in order for you to get the sale!
  • Customer Segmentation: Not Just for Marketers!

    1. 1. CustomerSegmentation 101JILL
    2. 2. Nothing makes you learn like getting strippedof your acorn cap
    3. 3. What customer segmentation isI dont know the key to success, but the key tofailure is trying to please everybody.- Bill CosbyCustomer segmentation isa means of identifying and prioritizing currentand future customersin a way that is actionable and relevant toyour business
    4. 4. B2CManufacturer of ergonomically safetravel products for parentsB2BProvider of digital publishing ofecommerce enabled catalogsProducts: diaper bags, dry bags,changing pads, etc.Services: Development anddeployment of catalogs, catalogapps for mobile, etc.Let’s meet our subjects:
    5. 5. What’s relevant
    6. 6. § Age§ Disposable income§ Activity level§ Price sensitivity§ Number of kids§ Marital status§ Sexual orientation§ Where they liveGo GaGaWhat’s relevant
    7. 7. § Age§ Disposable income§ Activity level§ Price sensitivity§ Number of kids§ Marital status§ Sexual orientation§ Where they liveGo GaGa§ Type of business§ Ecommerce enabled§ Size of marketingbudget§ Size of company§ Company goals§ Distribution channelsZmagsWhat’s relevant
    8. 8. Not only does it make you sound smart, butit can save your business.§Focuses the entire team on the same target§Gives you a touchstone for making decisions§Prioritizes where to invest your resources§Increases customer retention§Identifies new market opportunitiesWhy segmentation matters
    9. 9. There’s no bad time to be thinking about yourcustomers§Before launch§With 6-12 months of sales data§When expanding into new markets or segments§When decisions become tough because you’ve lostcommon vision§Every 12-18 months after roll outWhen to do it
    10. 10. Hint: do not go to the library and check out 7 books onmarketing research1| Gather data2| Analyze3| Create segments4| Validate5| Roll out6| ReassessIt’s not all about ExcelNow it’s all about ExcelWhat’s actionableTalking with your front lineThis is the fun partChecking accuracy and relevanceHow to do it
    11. 11. This will be determined by what’s relevant and available§Demographics§Needs§Values§Purchases§Personality§Decision MakingWho they areWhy they buyWhat’s important to themWhat they buy (vs. what they say)What shapes their interactionsHow they shop and buy§Alternatives§InterestsWhat their options areWhat brings them joyWhat types of data to leverage
    12. 12. Hint: you will have to talk to people, just try not to get arrestedInterviewsCrowdsourcingSite analyticsOrder infoCustomer svc.On the street, on the phone, but best donewhile fully clothedPolls and surveys are often done first but aremore effective laterTraffic sources, flow, hang time, return visitsto name a fewThe most valuable because based on action, notintentGreat for capturing qualitative info whilestrengthening customer loyaltyHow to get it
    13. 13. You’re simply looking for trends – correlation versus causality isirrelevant1| Dump everything into Excel – survey results, purchasedata, demographics, etc.2| Begin by picking two features – age and gender, forexample3| Then add another layer – items purchased, repurchaserate, etc.4| See if it’s meaningful – if not, go one step back up your treeWhat to do with it
    14. 14. Identifying new markets for Go GaGaGenderKids?How usetheir bag?ExamplesMale FemaleYes NoKids Self Work FunDiaperbagLaptopGym bagCommuteCourierPhotogr.YogaPicnicYes NoSelf Work FunDiaperbagLaptopGym bagCommuteCourierPhotogr.YogaPicnicKidsTime to try
    15. 15. Identifying new markets for Go GaGaGenderKids?How usetheir bag?ExamplesMale FemaleYes NoKids Self Work FunDiaperbagLaptopGym bagCommuteCourierPhotogr.YogaPicnicYes NoSelf Work FunDiaperbagLaptopGym bagCommuteCourierPhotogr.YogaPicnicKidsEnthusiasts§Photography§Wine/picnic§BirdersProfessionals§Couriers§PhotographersCommuting§Bike§Public transit3 new marketsemergedTime to try
    16. 16. Shaping Go GaGa’s product roadmapKids?1st timeparents?1st purch.2nd purch.Yes NoYes NoAccessory Diaper BagNo“Diaper” BagAcquisition§Accessories get our foot inthe door for the secondpurchase, which was typicallya diaper bagRetention§Customers who love our bagwill continue buyingproducts if the price isaccessibleAccessories playtwo importantrolesDiaper Bag Accessory AccessoryAnother example
    17. 17. You’ll reach a lot of dead ends in the pursuit of actionable correlations,just like Isle Nine didGenderAgeMarried?1st purch.Male Female30-45 60+Yes No Yes NoShirt Shirt Shirt Shirt30-45 60+No Yes NoKids Shirt Shirt ShirtYesHow worn? Leisure Work Leisure Leisure Leisure Leisure Leisure LeisureSegments notsufficientlydifferentiatedSegments were evenly distributed across age and weighed heavily towards thepurchase of men’s shirts to be worn for leisure.The takeaway: just sell men’s Hawaiian shirts to anyone who will buy them.Sometimes it doesn’t work
    18. 18. Zmags identifies a new service offeringBrand or retailerPublished catalogbeforeSell direct/onlineBrand RetailerYes NoYes No Yes NoYes NoNo Yes NoYesLet’s give B2B its due
    19. 19. Zmags identifies a new service offeringBrand or retailerPublished catalogbeforeSell direct/onlineBrand RetailerYes NoYes No Yes NoYes NoNo Yes NoYesExamples Incr.contentROITestecomDrivesalesTestecomIncr.contentROITestecomDrivesalesTestecomSimple ecommerce engine run virtually by Zmags that enablesretailers and brands not selling online to testNew servicepossibilityLet’s give B2B its due
    20. 20. Forming the segmentsAfter you’ve lost all perspective, five key questions can get you on theright track1| Are there meaningful differences between these groups?2| Can I identify people based on these characteristics?3| Can I market to them based on these characteristics?5| Can I offer different products or services to meet the needsof different segments?4| Can these segments peacefully coexist?
    21. 21. Building out the personasThese two factors will lead to impactful segmentsWhat’s relevant to yourbusinessWhat will help your team toconnect with them§Are they the decisionmaker ?§What alternatives dothey have to youroffering ?§How price sensitive arethey ?§What’s on their playlist ?§Where do they live ?§What’s their marital status ?§What brand of coffee do theydrink ?§Do they have kids ?
    22. 22. Go GaGa’s personasAgeGenderIncomeWhere live?Activity levelChristine Hannah Alan DavidKidsSexual orienta.Relationshipstatus37Female$250,000 (HH)Downtown ChicagoAttends yoga 3x aweek and jogsGirl, 3 mos.StraightMarried31Female$42,000Jamaica Plain, MATeaches 7 x aweek & bikes toworkNoLesbianSingle42Male$150,000 (HH)Suburb ofBethesda, MDJogs 3x a weekBoy, 2 yrs &expecting 2ndStraightMarried28Male$100,000BrooklynWorks out 6 daysa week in thegymNoGayIn long termrelationshipFirst time parent? Yes No No NoEducation Masters Ugrad w/certificationsUgrad degree w/grad classesMBA at night
    23. 23. Go GaGa’s PersonasHobbies/Areas ofinterestMusicResearch processPrice sensitivityPersonal styleHiking & architectureMadeline PeyrouxOnline first thenin storeLowRocks DKNYRock climbing &ceramicsKate BushWord of mouthMediumLives in AthletaPunk rock & NPRThe Ramones &StonesWants to see & feelitLowRoxy shirt & cargoshortsPop art & travelPassion PitVery thorough –mostly onlineMediumHipsterPersonalityOccupation VP at an adagencyUpbeat but easygoingYoga instr. &massage ther.Loves being a dadSr. Dir of FinanceIntense at work &playDevelopmentofficerUptight
    24. 24. Zmags personasAgeGenderPositionYears in rolePersonalityPeter BlakeDecision makerSentiment aboutjobCulture35MaleDir. of Marketing4High energy, highmaintenanceInfluencer but CMOdecidesWants a promotion butneeds a win to stand outCompetitive – running of thebulls at Pamplona42FemaleCMO6, 13 with the companyDemanding but protectsher teamYesConfident but underconstant pressure todeliverPressure cooker,struggles to prioritizeCompany challenge Incr. revenue from housebrandsBuild their direct channel forbetter marginsEmployer Nieman Marcus Baby Phat
    25. 25. Avoiding the pitfallsRun these filters before finalizing the segments1| Too many segments2| Too narrow a focus3| Divergent groups4| Not actionably different
    26. 26. Validating the segmentsDon’t get bogged down trying to be certain – test ‘em instead!Pull another datasampleTalk with yourfront linePlace smallbetsPull another data set and see if the trendsare consistentYour customer service and sales teamknows your current customers bestRun a targeted email test, experimentwith Google AdWords, try a promotion
    27. 27. Rolling it out to the teamNow it really gets fun§Play their playlist§Create a facebook page for them§Develop a mood board§Start a book club§Have a guest appearance§Keep them top of mind every day
    28. 28. What your segmentation should impactIt can (and should) touch every facet of the businessBrandingCustomer serviceHiringTagline, marketing messages, wordchoice, phone greeting, etc.Policies, hours of operations,methods of contactPersonality, diction, energy level,hobbiesProduct roadmap Future features, service/productofferings, pricingUser experience Site design, sales process, storelayout and more
    29. 29. Course TitleCourse TitleINSTRUCTOR NAME