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Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail

Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail

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    Tp3 Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage part4 Tp3 Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage part4 Presentation Transcript

    • TRAINING PACKAGE 3- Image, Branding and Cultural HeritageModule 4: Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and RetailMarco ZanniGiovanni Natale "DE-SME - Intelligent Furniture - Training for Design, Environment and New Materials in SMEs" Agreement n. 2009 - 2196 / 001 – 001 www.IntelligentFurniture.eu © 2012, not for publication, only for use in direct relation to the project
    • Intelligent Furniture Project Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage Module 4: Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail Theme 4.1 – Marketing mix Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 2
    • DEFINITION OF MARKETING MIX A MARKETING MIX IS THE SET OF INTERNAL SALES VARIABLES THAT A COMPANY ACTUALLY USES AND CONTROLS AT A GIVEN TIME IN ORDER TO INFLUENCE PURCHASER / CONSUMER DEMAND Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 3
    • MARKETING MIXCOORDINATED COMBINATION OF TOOLS FOR MARKETING ACTIVITIES IN THE FURNITURE SECTOR 10 P’s 1. PRODUCT 2. PRICE 3. POINT OF SALE 4. PUBLICITY (ADVERTISING) 5. PROMOTION 6. PUBLIC RELATIONS 7. PRE-SALES 8. POST-SALES 9. PROMPT DELIVERY 10. PERSONNEL Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 4
    • THE TWO BASIC RULES IN CHOOSING THE RIGHT MARKETING MIX STRATEGY: •UNDERSTAND WHAT THE KEY VARIABLE IS FOR THE SUCCESS OF A SPECIFIC PRODUCT IN A SPECIFIC MARKET •LOOK FOR MAXIMUM CONSISTENCY   AMONG THE MARKETING MIX VARIABLES   TO MAXIMIZE THE SYNERGIC EFFECT OF ITS COMPONENT ELEMENTS Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 5
    • 1980’s 1990’s TODAY STRONG ECONOMIC WEAK ECONOMIC FLAT ECONOMY GROWTH GROWTH Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 6
    • 1980’s 1990’s TODAY STRONG ECONOMIC WEAK ECONOMIC FLAT ECONOMY GROWTH GROWTH PRODUCT SERVICE PRICE COMPETITION COMPETITION COMPETITION Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 7
    • 1980’s 1990’s TODAY STRONG ECONOMIC WEAK ECONOMIC FLAT ECONOMY GROWTH GROWTH PRODUCT SERVICE PRICE COMPETITION COMPETITION COMPETITION PRICE BASED ON PRICE BASED ON PRICE BASED ON COST COMPETITION PERCEIVED VALUE Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 8
    • STRONG/WEAK POINTS FORM Our Company competitor a competitor b competitor cAnnex 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Quality Innovation Broad Product Range Deliveries Advertising/P.R. P.O.S. Advertising Pre/post Assist. Size of Sales Network Sales Network Skills Promo. & Incentives Price Notes on completing the form: Enter the name of our company and the main competitor. Rate each operator on a scale of 1 to 5 for each marketing mix variable (1 = worst, 5 = excellent). Add up the points of the scores for each operator. The more the profile moves to the right, the stronger the company; the more the profile moves to the left, the weaker the company. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 9
    • STRONG/WEAK POINTS FORMAnnex 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 10
    • THE MARKET IS A COMPLEX, HETEROGENEOUS ENTITY. IN FACT, THE MARKET DOES NOT EXIST; THERE IS INSTEAD A SUM OF “MARKET SEGMENTS” SEGMENTATION IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH VARIOUS GROUPS OF CONSUMERS WITH COMMON NEEDS AND ATTRIBUTES ARE IDENTIFIED Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 11
    • MARKET SEGMENTATION CONSISTS OF THE SUBDIVISION OF A MARKET INTO DISTINCT CUSTOMER SUBSETS, WHERE EACH SUBSET CAN BE CHOSEN AS A MARKET OBJECTIVE TO BE REACHED THROUGH A PARTICULAR OFFER. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 12
    • MAIN SEGMENTATION VARIABLES Countries, regions – breadth of centres GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLES - characteristics of centres (history, culture SOCIOECONOMIC age - sex - income – VARIABLES social class - education etc. frequency of consumption – buyingVARIABLES RELATED TO motivations – sensitivity to price and post-sales service - BUYING BEHAVIOR advertising - promotions - brand loyalty etc. conservatives - innovators - VARIABILI introverts - extroverts – PSICOLOGICHE motivated – unmotivated etc Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 13
    • CONDITIONS TO MAKE A MARKET SEGMENTATION 1) MEASURABILITY DEGREE TO WHICH INFORMATION EXISTS OR IS OBTAINABLE 2) ACCESSIBILITY DEGREE TO WHICH A COMPANY CAN ACT EFFECTIVIELY WITHIN THE SELECTED SEGMENTS 3) SIZE DEGREE TO WHICH THE SEGMENT IDENTIFIED IS BROAD ENOUGH (ALSO IN TERMS OF PROFITABILITY) 4) DETACHMENT DEGREE TO WHICH ONE SEGMENT IS EFFECTIVELY DISTINGUISHABLE FROM ANOTHER. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 14
    • A METHOD FOR CARRYING OUT SEGMENTATION 1)Identify the product and market variables that you consider truly important 2)Breakdown each variable into the elements that you think are truly relevant and differentiable 3) Construct a double-entry matrix combining all the variables broken down by product (on one side) and by market(on the other); the column-line intersection generates a segment 4)Eliminate contradictory segments that cannot exist in reality and aggregate the segments con very similar characteristics 5)Collect basic information on the most interesting segments also on the basis of your specialities Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 15
    • VARIABLES BREAK-DOWNAnnex 3 P R O D U C T M A R K E T STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 16
    • Annex 4 PRODUCT MARKET Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 17
    • Intelligent Furniture Project Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage Module 4: Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail Theme 4.2 – Value concept and creativity process Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 18
    • THE VALUE OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE MAY BE MEASURED (AND, IN FACT, IS PERCEIVED) BASED ON THE FOLLOWING:  TECHNICAL-FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE (QUALITY, DURABILITY, RELIABILITY, SECURITY AND EASE OF USE, CONVENIENCE …)  EMOTIONAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT ON CUSTOMER’S EMOTIONS (IMAGE, APPEARANCE, EXCLUSIVITY, STATUS SYMBOL...)  LOGISTIC-ORGANIZATIONAL EASY ACCESS TO THE PRODUCT/ SERVICE, EXPENDITURE MODALITY (AVAILABILITY, DELIVERY TIMES ..) SERVICES (CERTIFICATION GUARANTEES) ECONOMIC AND SPECULATIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE, LOWER PURCHASE / MAINTENANCE COSTS, HIGHER MARGINS PER CUSTOMER IN RELATION TO OTHER OFFERS Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 19
    • SELECTION CRITERIA AND SUCCESS FACTORS EACH CLIENT WILL GIVE A DIFFERENT IMPROTANCE TO THE VARIOUS VALUE COMPONENTS IN TERMS OF THE PARTICULAR TIME AND THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THE ASSESSMENT IS MADE  THOSE ASPECTS CHARACTERIZED AS MOST IMPORTANT MAKE UP THE CUSTOMER’S SELECTION CRITERIA (HE WILL BUY THE PRODUCT THAT BEST MEETS HIS EXPECTATIONS) THESE EXPECTATIONS ARE COMPETITIVE SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE COMPANY (IT WILL BE BOTH MORE SUCCESSFUL AND BETTER ABLE TO OFFER A PRODUCT OR SERVICE WITH THE FEATURES WANTED BY THE CUSTOMER Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 20
    • MARKET VALUE HAS ONLY TWO TYPES OF OFFERS OFFERS = PRICE < DIFFERENT OFFER (+) PRICE > OUTSIDE OF THESE TWO CASES, THE COMPANY IS LOSING Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 21
    • IT IS A FLEXIBLE PROCESS TO DEVELOP CREATIVE SOLUTIONS AND NEW PRODUCTS.IT CAN BE APPLIED EFFECTIVELY TO BOTH INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP PROBLEMS.IT USES A DYNAMIC BALANCE BETWEEN DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT THINKING.IT IS BASED ON THE USE OF THE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES.IT PROMOTES PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT AND THE INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY TO FIND SOLUTIONS Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 22
    • EXPLORE OPPORTUNITIES (CHALLENGE) MAKE ANGENERARE IDEAS (IDEAS) ACTION PLAN (ACTION PLAN) STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 23
    • A DYNAMIC BALANCE BETWEEN DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT THINKINGDIVERGENT THINKING: EACH CPS STEP BEGINS WITH A BREAKING-DOWN AND ENLARGEMENT IN ORDER TO LOOK FOR AND TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION MANY ALTERNATIVE POSSIBILITIES Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 24
    • CONVERGENT THINKING: EACH STEP OF DIVERGENT THINKING IS FOLLOWED BY AN EFFORT TO IDENTIFY, SELECT, EVALUATE AND DEVELOP THE POSSIBILITIES AND/OR THE MOST IMPORTANT OR PROMISING ALTERNATIVES Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 25
    • CPS USES EFFECTIVE METHODS TO GENERATE AND EVALUATE IDEAS. IT AIMS AT ACHIEVING A PRODUCTIVE BALANCE BETWEEN DIVERGENCE AND CONVERGENCE KEEPING SEPARATE THE TIMES IN WHICH THE TWO TYPES OF THINKING ARE USED Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 26
    • DIVERGENT RULES Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 27
    • RULES FOR DIVERGINGSTRIVE FOR IDENTIFYING THE GREATEST QUANTITY THE GREATER THE NUMBER OF ALTERNATIVES GENERATED, THE GREATER THE PROBABILITY OF FINDING PROMISING IDEAS STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 28
    • RULES FOR DIVERGING HOLD JUDGEMENT AVOID MAKING JUDGEMENTS OR ASSESSING IDEAS AND THE VARIOUS ALTERNATIVES AT THE TIME THEY ARE GENERATED. PRAISE OR SPONTANEOUS CRITICISM CAN SLOW OR STOP THE FLOW OF IDEAS. STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 29
    • RULES FOR DIVERGINGBRAINSTORM AND BE OPEN TO CRAZY IDEAS ENCOURAGE THE GENERATION OF STRANGE AND UNUSUAL IDEAS. THIS OFTEN RELEASES A GREAT AMOUNT OF GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL ENERGY AND MAY OPEN UP THE SCENE TO NEW, UNTAPPED IDEAS STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 30
    • RULES FOR DIVERGING TRY TO COMBINE THE IDEASCHANGE, DRAW INSPIRATION FROM OR EXPAND ON IDEAS IDENTIFIED PREVIOUSLY IN ORDER TO PRODUCE NEW IDEAS. LOOK FOR ASSOCIATIONS OR COMBINATIONS THAT WILL GIVE MORE POWER TO OUR IDEAS IN RELATION TO WHAT THEY WOULD HAVE IF TAKEN INDIVIDUALLY STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 31
    • CONVERGENT RULES Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 32
    • RULES FOR CONVERGING BE OPEN TO ORIGINALITY MAKE SURE THAT NOVELTY AND ORIGINALITY ARE NOT LOST, ESPECIALLY IN SITUATIONS THAT REQUIRE A NEW APPROACH. STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 33
    • RULES FOR CONVERGING STAY ON TRACK DO NOT LOSE SIGHT OF THE GOAL OR FINAL OBJECTIVE OF THE PROBLEM SOLVING EXERCISE; BE ABLE TO SELECT THE BEST IDEA OR ALTERNATIVE FOR THE PROBLEM THAT YOU ARE EXAMINING . STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 34
    • RULES FOR CONVERGING USE POSITIVE FEEDBACK ABOVE ALL, CONSIDER THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF AN IDEA OR AN ALTERNATIVE AND THEN FOCUS ON WAYS TO IMPROVE AND DEVELOP IT. . STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 35
    • RULES FOR CONVERGING BE DETERMINED USE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES TO SELECT, EVALUATE, REFINE, AND IMPROVE YOUR IDEAS AND ALTERNATIVES. STUDIO ZANNI & ASSOCIATI © Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 36
    • Intelligent Furniture Project Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage Module 4: Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail Theme 4.3 – Strategic design Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 37
    • SO MANY IDEAS, SO FEW SUCCESSES The graph shows the mortality rate for new product ideas at various stages of the process. Of 58 new product ideas, only 13 passed the selection phase, this was reduced to 8 after the business analysis, 4 were developed, three passed the first test market, two were sold, and only one was ultimately a successful product Number of ideas100 90 80 70 60 50 CUMULATIVE 40 TIME 30 20 10 0 Cumulative time (percentage) CUMULATIVE TIME Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 38
    • LOGIC OF NEW PRODUCT TRIALS MANY IDEAS 1st STAGE • Creativity • Outside world perception change 2nd STAGE FILTERS 3rd STAGE A FEW FEASIBLE IDEAS PRODUCTS TO BE LAUNCHED Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 39
    • Investigation and COMPANY Selection ACTIONS design Business analysis Development Test Launch PRODUCT SUCCESS Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 40
    • IMPATTO SUL MERCATO FORTE MEDIO DEBOLE A GRADO D’ INNOVAZIONE L T O M E D I O B A S S O GRADO D’INNOVAZIONE: È FUNZIONE DEL GRADO DI DIFFERENZIAZIONE RISPETTO ALLE ALTRE OFFERTE PRESENTI SUL MERCATO IMPATTO SUL MERCATO: ESPRIME IL GRADO STIMATO D’ ACCOGLIENZA FAVOREVOLE CHE IL MERCATO ESPRIMERÀ NEI CONFRONTI DELL’INNOVAZIONE. QUANTO QUESTA INCIDE SU UN REALE BISOGNO DEL TARGET. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 41
    • PRODUCIBILITÀ ALTA MEDIA BASSA A L T A ECONOMICITÀ M E D I A B A S S AECONOMICITÀ: È FUNZIONE DELLE QUANTITÀ DI RISORSE ECONOMICHE NECESSARIE PERSOSTENERE LE DIVERSE FASI DEL PROGETTO: IDEAZIONE, PROTOTIPIZZAZIONE, PRESERIE,INDUSTRIALIZZAZIONE, LANCIO DEL NUOVO PRODOTTO.PRODUCIBILITÀ: È FUNZIONE DELLE DIFFICOLTÀ LEGATE ALLA TECNOLOGIA DI PRODOTTOE DI PROCESSO CHE DEVONO ESSERE AFFRONTATE E SUPERATE PER REALIZZARE ILNUOVO PRODOTTO. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 42
    • PRODUCT TESTDRY TEST (concept)SHOW TEST (design)BLIND TEST (intrinsic quality)NAME TEST (name-logo)PRODUCT TEST (prototype defin.)AREA TEST (marketing mix) Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 43
    • BRAND RATING FORMPROPOSAL no. BRAND RATING FORMPARAMETERS RATING TOTALFAIRNESS FROM A MARKETING POINT OF VIEW 1 2 4 4 5ESSENZIALITY OF LOOK 1 2 4 4 5INCLUDE AND CONVEY ELEMENTS OF SOLIDITYAND GUARANTEES 1 2 4 4 5EFFECTIVE SYMBOLISM 1 2 4 4 5SIMPLICITY 1 2 4 4 5PROPER DIRECTION OF LINES 1 2 4 4 5BALANCED USED OF COLOR 1 2 4 4 5 FINAL RATING Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 44
    • RESULTSEACH GOAL MUST BE VERIFIED.FURTHERMORE, CONTINUOUS DATAANALYSIS ALLOWS ME TO CORRECT ANYMISTAKES AND HOPEFULLY TO AVOID THEMIN THE FUTURE Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 45
    • Intelligent Furniture Project Image, Branding and Cultural Heritage Module 4: Marketing, Strategic Design, Communication and Retail Theme 4.4 – Internet 2.0 for business comunication Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 46
    • WHY THE INTERNET ? Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 47
    •  OBJECTIVES  TARGET  STRATEGIES  TIME FRAMES  RESULTS Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 48
    • WHAT GOALS AM I SETTINGT KNOWN?NCE TO CUSTOMERS?ERS TO SATISFY WITH TRADITIONAL SALES?A E-COMMERCE ? Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 49
    • DEFINE RESOURCES:  ECONOMIC / FINANCIAL  HUMAN  INFRASTRUCTURAL Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 50
    • STRATEGIESIF I KNOW THE MARKET, I CAN BETTER DEFINE THESTRATEGIES REGARDINGWHAT “I SELL”WHO I SELL TOSUPPLY AND DEMANDCOMPETITORSPRICESCOMMUNICATIONDISTRIBUTION Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 51
    • TIME FRAMESSETTING A TARGET WITHOUTSCHEDULING IT RUNS THE RISK OFSQUANDERING ALL EFFORTSINTERNET MARKETS DEVELOP VERY FAST, MUCHFASTER THAN TRADITIONAL ONES. SO I MUST TAKETHIS IN TO ACCOUNT. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 52
    • RESULTSEACH GOAL MUST BE VERIFIED.FURTHERMORE, CONTINUOUS DATAANALYSIS ALLOWS ME TO CORRECT ANYMISTAKES AND HOPEFULLY TO AVOID THEMIN THE FUTURE Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 53
    • GOOGLE AND INDEXING CRITERIA TODAY MORE THAN 80% OF CONTACTS ARE MADE THROUGH THE USE OF SEARCH ENGINES. IT IS OBVIOUSLY USELESS TO HAVE THE BEST SITE / PORTAL IF USERS DO NOT COME TO IT Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 54
    • OBVIOUSLY, IT IS EQUALLY USELESS TO BE INDEXED IN A SEARCH ENGINE IF WE ARE NOT ON THE FIRST PAGE A USER NORMALLY LIMITS HIMSELF TO VISITING THOSE SITES ON THE FIRST TWO / THREE PAGES WITH KEYWORDS THAT HAVE MEANING FOR HIS SEARCH. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 55
    • •TERM SEARCH ENGINES •SYSTEMATIC INDEXES Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 56
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINES LOOK FOR WORDS OR COMBINATIONS OF WORDS IN AN INDEXED ARCHIVE OF DOCUMENTS IN DIGITAL FORMAT. THE INDEX IS UPDATED BY A VIEW "DEMON“, IN OTHER WORDS, SOFTWARE THAT MOVES CONTINUOUSLY ALONG THE NETWORK, FOLLOWING EVERY LINK ENCOUNTERED AND INDEXING ALL PAGES VISITED "SPIDERS” “CRAWLER” “ROBOT” Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 57
    • SYSTEMATIC INDEXES A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH TAKES PLACE IN ANNOTATED RESOURCE CATALOGUES, A “DIRECTORY”, SUBDIVIDED BY SECTOR AND ORGANIZED HIERARCHICALLY. IN THIS CASE, THE DATABASE IS MUCH MORE LIMITED BUT THE RELEVANCE EVALUATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION IS MORE MECHANICAL; ON THE CONTRARY, THE RESULT OF A HUMAN SELECTION, GENERALLY A COMPILATION, AND THEINFORMATION ARE PLACED WITHIN A CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 58
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINES IN TERM SEARCH ENGINES, A SEARCH IS CARRIED OUT BY INDICATING A WORD OR A COMBINATION OF WORDS THAT WE CONSIDER TO BE CONNECTED TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION THAT WE WANT TO FIND Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 59
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINES SEARCH ENGINES USING PROGRAMS CALLED "SPIDERS" (CRAWLERS OR ROBOTS) ARE ABLE TO SEE A LARGE QUANTITY OF CONTINUOUS WEB PAGES, READ THE TEXT ON THE PAGE AND REMOVE THOSE WORDS/TERMS THAT CHARACTERIZE THE SITE. FOR EACH PAGE READ, THE SPIDERSEARCHES WITHIN THE PAGE AND MEMORIZES ALL LINKS TO OTHER SITES,ADDING IT TO A LIST OF SITES TO VISIT. IN THIS WAY, THROUGH A CHAINPROCESS, THE SPIDER CAN COLLECT A HUGE NUMBER OF SITE ADDRESSES AND WEB PAGES, SUCCEEDING IN INCREASING THE NUMBER OF KNOWNSITES MUCH MORE THAN IT CAN BE DONE WITH DIRECTORIES, WHICH AREBASED ON A SLOW MECHANISM OF SITE REGISTRATION AND EVALUATION OF THE SITES, WORKING WITH A COMPILATION. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 60
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINESTO ENABLE A SPIDER TO EASILY FIND ALL THE PAGES THAT MAKE UP A WEBSITE, IT MUST BE DONE IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT CAN TRACEBACK, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, FROM ANY PAGE OF THE SITE TO ALLTHE OTHER PAGES. THE BEST SYSTEM IS ONE THAT INSERTS A LINK TO THE HOMEPAGE ON EACH PAGE OF THE SITE . IN THIS WAY, THE SPIDER SHOULD REACH ANY OF THE PAGES (PERHAPS FOLLOWING ALINK FOUND ON ANOTHER SITE); IT WILL THEN RETURN TO THE MAINPAGE AND, FROM THERE, FIND ALL THE OTHER PAGES BY FOLLOWING THE LINK ENCOUNTERED. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 61
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINES SPIDERS DO NOT TAKE THE PAGE’S GRAPHICS INTO ACCOUNT BUT FOCUS THEIR WORK EXCLUSIVELY ON THE TEXT. THIS MEANS THAT EACH IMAGE OR ANIMATION IS IGNORED AND THAT THE SPIDER BASES ITS EVALUATION FO THE SITE ONLY ON THE TEXTUAL CONTENT. ANY GIF AND JPEG IMAGES, EVEN A BUTTON, WILL BE IGNORED. THE ONLY TEXT THAT THE C RAWLER WILL BE ABLE TO READ IS ASCII, CONTAINED IN THE HTML CODE TAG. (TO DATE, ONLY 8% OF THE CONTENTS OF A PAGE WITH ANIMATED FLASH IS INDEXED BY GOOGLE SPIDERS.) Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 62
    • TERM SEARCH ENGINESSPIDERS CONSIDER PRIMARILY THE WORDS OR PHRASES CONTAINED :•IN THE TAG TITLE: SEARCH ENGINES ASSIGN A VERY HIGH IMPORTANCE TO THE TITLE PAGE.•IN THE META TAG (DESCRIPTION, KEYWORDS, ROBOTS) IN OTHER WORDS, THE SPECIAL TAGS THROUGH WHICH INFORMATION RELATED TO THE WEB PAGE IS PROVIDED•IN THE HEADERS (TAG H1…) A SORT OF SUBTITLE THAT HAS AN INTERMEDIATE ROLE BETWEEN A REAL TITLE AND THE TEXT•IN THE FIRST FEW LINES OF THE WEB PAGE TEXT•IN THE TEXT THAT DESCRIBES THE LINKS (TAG A)•IN THE PARTS HIGHLIGHTED IN BOLD OR ITALICS•IN THE FILE NAME (.HTML) Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 63
    • BESIDES THE "LEGITIMATE" SYSTEMS DESCRIBED ABOVE, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF TRICKS THAT ARTIFICIALLY INCREASE THE LOCATION OF A PAGE IN A SEARCH ENGINE’S RESULTS :WRITE THE TEXT IN THE SAME COLOR AS THE BACKGROUND OFPAGE: THIS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE KEY WORDS WITHOUTBURDENING THE PAGE TEXTS. ONLY THE SPIDER READS THE KEYWORDS THAT ARE NOT VISIBLE TO YOU.INSERT TEXT IN TAGS OR META TAGS THAT ARE NOT SHOW IN AVIDEO BUT THAT SERVE ONLY TO DESCRIBE SOME PART OF THEHTML PAGES (e.g., COMMENT TAGS)USE REDIRECTION PAGES THAT ARE PASSED THROUGH FOR A FEWSECONDS ONLY AND THEN ARE REDIRECTED TO THE MAIN PAGEUSE OF CLOAKING TECHNOLOGY THAT DISPLAYS DIFFERENTCONTENT BASED ON WHO VISITS THEM. PAGES FULL OFKEYWORDS MAY BE SHOWN TO SPIDERS AND NORMAL PAGES TOUSERS. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 64
    • HOW TO SUGGEST A WEB SITE TO SEARCH ENGINES? IT IS IMPORTANT TO DISTINGUISH REPORTING FROM SITE REGISTRATION IN THE ARCHIVES OF A SEARCH ENGINE. THE USER CAN ONLY REPORT THE EXISTENCE OF A SITE BECASUE REGISTRATION IS CARRIED OUT BY THE SEARCH ENGINE. MOREOVER, REPORTING DOES NOT ENTIRELY GUARANTEE REGISTRATION REPORTING IS CARRIED OUT THROUGH AN APPROPRIATE MODULE PRESENT IN THE SERACH ENGINE (SOME ENGINES, LIKE GOOGLE REQUIRE ONLY THE MAIN URL; OTHERS, LIKE ALTAVISTA REQUIRE THE URL’S OF THE INDIVIDUAL PAGES) HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.IT/INTL/IT/ADD_URL.HTML HTTP://IT.ALTAVISTA.COM/ADDURL/DEFAULT Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image,06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 65
    • THE SEARCH TECHNOLOGY USED BY GOOGLE: PAGERANK GOOGLE UTILIZES A TECHNOLOGY BASED ON ADVANCED HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE. THE SPEED WITH WHICH SEARCHES CAN BE CARRIED OUT IS ATTRIBUTIBLE IN PART TO THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SEARCH ALGORHITHM AND IN PART TO THE HIGH NUMBER OF PC’S CONNECTED TO THE WEB THAT, TOGETHER, CONTRIBUTE TO CREATING A SUPER-FAST SEARCH ENGINE. THE MAIN CORE OF THE SOFTWARE IS REPRESENTED BY PAGERANK(TM), THAT CONSISTS OF A SYSTEM THAT ENABLES CLASSIFYING WEB PAGES IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE. THE SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED BY THE SAME LARRY PAGE AND SERGEY BRIN AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY. PAGERANK CONTINUES TO BE THE KEY ELEMENT OF GOOGLE SEARCH TOOLS. Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 66
    • Competitors: C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 US Website: Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Incidence Rating Rating Rating Rating Rating Rating Rating Rating Rating Incidence Partial Total.Company 40%Deliveries Av. no. of days 40% 16,0% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 1 100% 3 50%Image Rating (1-5) 25% 10,0% 3 50% 3 50% 3 50% 2 25% 5 100% 4 75% 5 100% 3 50% 4 75%Communication Rating (1-5) 20% 8,0% 3 50% 3 50% 3 50% 2 25% 5 100% 4 75% 5 100% 3 50% 4 75%Sales Organization Rating (1-5) 15% 6,0% 4 75% 4 75% 3 50% 3 50% 4 75% 3 50% 4 75% 4 75% 3 50%Sofas 12%Quality Rating (1-5) 45% 5,4% 2 25% 3 50% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 4 75% 3 50% 4 75% 5 100%Completeness of range Rating (1-5) 30% 3,6% 2 25% 3 50% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 4 75% 2 25% 4 75% 2 25%Price Rating (1-5) 25% 3,0% 3 50% 4 75% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 4 75% 3 50% 4 75% 3 50%Armchairs 5%Quality Rating (1-5) 60% 3,0% 3 50% 3 50% 1 0% 2 25% 3 50% 4 75% 1 0% 4 75% 5 100%Completeness of range Rating (1-5) 20% 1,0% 4 75% 3 50% 1 0% 2 25% 3 50% 4 75% 1 0% 4 75% 1 0%Price Rating (1-5) 20% 1,0% 5 100% 4 75% 1 0% 2 25% 4 75% 4 75% 1 0% 4 75% 3 50%Sofa beds 20%Quality Rating (1-5) 45% 5,4% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 5 100% 1 0% 5 100% 4 75% 5 100% 5 100%Completeness of range Rating (1-5) 30% 3,6% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 2 25% 1 0% 5 100% 3 50%Price Rating (1-5) 25% 3,0% 4 75% 5 100% 1 0% 3 50% 1 0% 3 50% 3 50% 4 75% 4 75%chaises longues 20%Quality Rating (1-5) 45% 9,0% 5 100% 5 100% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 5 100% 4 75% 5 100% 5 100%Completeness of range Rating (1-5) 30% 6,0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 4 75% 2 25% 5 100% 3 50%Price Rating (1-5) 25% 5,0% 3 50% 3 50% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 4 75% 3 50% 5 100% 4 75%massage armchairs 3%Quality Rating (1-5) 80% 4,0% 3 50% 3 50% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 2 25% 5 100% 5 100%Completeness of range Rating (1-5) 10% 0,5% 1 0% 5 100% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 4 75% 1 0%Price Rating (1-5) 10% 0,5% 4 75% 4 75% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 3 50% 4 75% 3 50% Cut-off level 70% - 62% - 65% - 40% - 44% - 41% + 70% - 61% + 78% - 65% Intelligent Furniture – TP 3: Image, 06/03/12 Branding and Cultural Heritage 67
    • This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.06/03/12 68