Satu Miettinen, Juha Miettinen, Antti Kares, Raisa Leinonen and Timo Sirviö Kuopio Academy of Design, Savonia University of Applied Sciences Finland P.O. BOX 98, FIN -70101 KUOPIO Email: firstname.lastname@example.org "DE-SME - Intelligent Furniture - Training for Design, Environment and New Materials in SMEs" Agreement n. 2009 - 2196 / 001 - 001
Theme 5.2.1. Understanding the Customer: The principles of User Centred Design Process What is user centered design? Examples in Case “Suupirssi”2
User Centered DesignWhat is it?It is focused on design for and involving the end users in design processto achieve better user experiences in products.It is actions that:1) focuses on end users,2) validate requirements and designs,3) designing, prototyping and developing iteratively,4) understanding and designing for the holistic user experienceThe main phases are:1) understanding users,2) define interactions,3) design user interface (products/services)(SAP design Guild)
Understand and specify the context ofWhat is it? use: - plan the process and specify the context of use Evaluate designs Specify user against and requirements organisational System meets requirements specified functional user & organisational requirements Produce design solutions Human-centered design standard ISO 13407
What is it? see also: www.ideo.com“It is a process and a set of techniques used to create new solutions for the world.Solutions include products, services, environments, organizations and modes ofInteraction” 1“The reason for the process called human/user-centered design is, becauseit starts with the people we are designing for. The process begins by: examining theneeds, dreams and behaviors of the people we want to affect with our solutions.We seek to listen to and understand what people want. We call this the Desirabilitylens. We view the world through this lens throughout the design process. Once wehave identified a range of what is Desirable, we begin to view our solutions throughthe lenses of Feasibility and Viability. The Three Lenses of Human Centered Design/IDEO
Desirability lens:Desirability What do people desire?Feasibility What is technically and organizationally feasible? Viability What can be financially viable? The Three Lenses of Human Centered Design/IDEO
Start here DesirabilityFeasibility Viability “The solution that emerge at the end of the user-centered design should hit the overlap of these three lenses; they need to be The Three Lenses of Human Desirable, Feasible and Viable.” Centered Design/IDEO
In other words...LEARN, LOOK, ASK and TRY• LEARN = analyzing the information you´ve collect to indentify patterns and insights,• LOOK = observe people to discover what they do rather than what they say to do,• ASK = enlist people´s participation to elict information relevant to the project,• TRY = create simulations with people and to evaluate proposed designs.
WHY user centered design?“Beside aesthetic quality, feasibility and usability, we expect thedesigner to understand the whole of the user experience.”2“In recent years, the practice of user-centred design, educationand research into it has started applying and developing approachesparticularly suited to design thinking and making. The objective has been toencourage the designers’ empathy, to connect knowledge and inspiration,to facilitate or support teamwork ;hatching out ideas, communicating and making decisions.”2 2 Mattelmäki,T., Design probes, 2006. Buchanan 2001, Fulton Suri 2003b, etc.
Towards design for users experience“A discussion about users, understanding user experience as well as therelation between design and emotions has emerged among researchers indesign and practising designers in the last ten years. The way of thinking ofthe user has assumed new shades of meaning. In areas such as usabilitythey have discovered that decision-making is not based on rational andlogical reasoning, emotions having a vital significance”2“At the same time, attention has turned from functionality, effective andFaultless performance and satisfaction to a broader human understandingand mapping out of pleasure factors”2 2 Norman 2004, Jordan 1996
This revision of perspective has started particularly because of thespread of interactive technology from the workplace to home andleisure in the 1990´s.Patrick Jordan evoked the usability discussion by suggesting thatthings giving pleasure should be looked for, not just problems.The pleasure factors mentioned by Jordan are:a) pleasure through physical sensations (physio pleasure)b) pleasure through communication and time together (socio pleasure)c) pleasure through achievement and challenges (psycho pleasure)d) pleasure through an aesthetic product and the values it contain(ideo pleasure) “As for understanding the users, attention to emotions and pleasure has increased the range of phenomena to be looked at.” 2 Jordan P.W.
Why?The benefits of user - centered designReduced development timeFocusing on user and organizational needs will reduce the development time by:• reducing the late changes otherwise needed to produce a product that meets user needs• reducing the cost of future redesign of the architecture to make future versions of the product more usableIncreased sales• marketing the product as easier to use than the competition provides an Increased competitive edge• repeat sales will be made to more satisfied customers• the usability of the product will be given higher ratings in the trade press
Usage savings• reduced task time and increased productivity• fewer user errors that have to be corrected later• fewer user errors leading to increased quality of service• less training, support and documentation is required• reduced staff turnover as a result of higher satisfaction and motivationSupport savings• reduced costs of producing training materials• reduced time providing training• reduced time spent by other staff providing assistance when users encounter difficulties• reduced help line support http://www.usabilitynet.org/trump/methods/basic/index.htm
Improve the quality of life• less stress from frustrating software• users are more satisfiedHealth and safety legislation• The European Directive on Display Screen Equipment (implemented in the national legislation of EU countries) requires that software is suitable for the task and easy to use.
Understand users Step Goal Deliverable• User research • Collect up-to-date • Each user activity (interviews, focus and in-depth summarizes in a groups, field information on report studies) intended user populations • Specfication• Specification: User • Describe user profiles, works profiles and work activities, user activities for the requirements target user population; derive user requirements from user profiles and work activities
Define interactionUser research synthesis. Organize and summarize user research fromUnderstand Users Step Goal Deliverable• User cases: high-level • Translate user • Use cases information activities associated specification organization, use with user cases, data flow.. requirements into goal-driven, interactive, step-by- step use cases, appropriate to the• Use case validation user profiles • A component of the • Validate user use cases understanding and specification product definition with end users who use the product and customers who buy the product
Design products, services Step Goal Deliverable• Low fidelity prototypes and • Create quick, inexpensive, • Design concepts key decisions flexible design mock-ups of product components and constructions, use cases, etc.• Iterative user evaluation • Improve design by evaluating usability issues associated • Each user activity summarizes (design feedback, rapid findings in a report iterative evaluations) with low-fidelity prototypes • Create stand-alone and functional prototypes that • Prototypes and user• High-fidelity prototypes and interaction specifications include real applications that interaction behavior take-off/mimic real activities or behavior as closely as • Each user activity summarizes• Iterative user evaluation (rapid possible findings / the designer or the iterative evaluations, usability • Improve design by evaluating person observating evaluations) usability issues associated summarizes the findings with high-fidelity prototypes
Development validation, finishing design Step Goal Deliverable• Design • Design for quality • Scorecard before development• Compliance • Design • Scorecard /prototypes completed, development for a compliance and• Usability test production • Usability test • Test completed report product (or high- fidelity prototype) usability
Understanding the users and Define interaction Scenarios Storytelling/storyboard
Storyboard• In the realm of product design, communication between designer, client, design team and future users is of great importance• Throughout the design process, ideas and concepts are generated and must be conveyed to these people to evoke comments, judgement or acceptance, depending on the process phase.
• Storyboards are a valuable aid to the designer in this task by providing a common visual language that people from different backgrounds can ‘read’ and understand• However, the visualisation style of the storyboards influences the reactions• Where open and sketchy storyboards are inviting comments, sleek and detailed presentations can be overwhelming• Storyboards not only help the product designer to get a grip on target groups, context, product use and timing, but also in communicating about these aspects with all people involved. http://www.springerlink.com/content/lmvm49832p4887r1/
Example od storyboard: Imaginary story of oral hygienist workin day inSuupirssi - emphatic design, taking the user position
Imaginary story of dentist and oral hygienic workin day in Suupirssi .Morning activities at Suupirssi garage: filling up water tanks, cheking the list of patients and bringing the instrumwents needed during the day. Navigation of the ”day trip”. Arriving and parking: connection to the mains current, preparation of nursing interior for the patients. 8:00 am first patient with wheel chair. He is elevated in with wheel chair lifter. Then he is helped to the dental unit. The usual dental care is made for the patient. Transfer to the next place.
The next dental care is made at home, in bed, because of huge weight of patient. Dentist Nurse The monitory alarm of failure TreatmentStudent equipments Two teeth were stopped Taking the equipment to the car – Ordering the service man
The dentist´s at the day - care center 15 children is having a treatmentA familiar environment for childrenmakes situation more pleasant Cleaning and packing Coffee and equipment lunch brake 1h
Taking / packing all the things and equipement to the car and driving to the headquarter”. Bye-bye, leaving brochures and toothbrushes to the day-care center Driving the car to the garage
Car service Treatment of sewage, disinfection of instruments and cleaning toolsClean-up the interior End of the daySave the patient information to the computer
Define interactionUser research synthesis. Organize andsummarize user research from phase Understand Users Benchmarking Designboard Moodboard Way of Life board
Benchmarking• Benchmarking is the process of comparing ones business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and/or best practices from other industries• Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. Improvements from learning mean doing things better, faster, and cheaper.• Benchmarking involves management identifying the best firms in their industry, or any other industry where similar processes exist, and comparing the results and processes of those studied (the "targets") to ones own results and processes to learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, how they do it.
• The term benchmarking was first used by cobblers to measure peoples feet for shoes• They would place someones foot on a "bench" and mark it out to make the pattern for the shoes• Benchmarking is most used to measure performance using a specific indicator (cost per unit of measure, productivity per unit of measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure or defects per unit of measure) resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others.
Mood board • Mood boards are a great way to get you and your client on the same page early on the process • They’re especially great when you’re starting from scratch on a design package for a new company, or reinventing the image of an existing one • The idea of a mood board is to create an emotional scenario that’s congruent with what your client wants — sort of an ambience collage
• It can be photographs, illustrations, screenshots, color swatches, words, shapes: whatever conveys the feel of your design plan• There’s no “right” final presentation for a mood board. It can be a big poster, a .pdf or even a video http://blog.evernote.com/2010/08/10/creating-a-mood-board-with-evernote-part-of-evernotes-creative-series/
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.13.3.2012 38