Satu Miettinen, Juha Miettinen, Antti Kares, Raisa Leinonen and Timo Sirviö Kuopio Academy of Design, Savonia University of Applied Sciences Finland P.O. BOX 98, FIN -70101 KUOPIO Email: email@example.com "DE-SME - Intelligent Furniture - Training for Design, Environment and New Materials in SMEs" Agreement n. 2009 - 2196 / 001 - 001
Service design addresses services from the perspective of clients.It aims to ensure that service interfaces are useful, usable anddesirable from the client’s point of view and effective, efficientand distinctive from the supplier’s point of view. Service designersvisualise, formulate, and choreograph solutions to problems thatdo not necessarily exist today; they observe and interpretrequirements and behavioural patterns and transform them intopossible future services. This process applies explorative,generative, and evaluative design
Service ecology• System in which the service is integrated: i.e. a holistic visualisation of the service system. All the factors are gathered, analysed and visualised: politics, the economy, employees, law, societal trends, and technological development. The service ecology is thereby rendered, along with its attendant agents, processes, and relations.• By analysing service ecologies, it is possible to reveal opportunities for new actors to join the ecology and new relationships among the actors. Ultimately, sustainable service ecologies depend on a balance where the actors involved exchange value in ways that is mutually beneficial over time.
The network of actors related to ageing in the city ofHelsinki. Source: HDL
Service Experience, Touchpoints,Service Moments and Service Journey• Design has traditionally focused on a single physical relationship between a product and a user• Service Design will pay attention to the several Touchpoints. The service will pass/experience, sense and see through the touchpoints
Service Experience• Service Design is designing the user/customer service experience• Service Experience is build from touchpoints, service moments and service journey
Touchpoints• Touchpoints can be spaces, objects, processes and people• Touchpoints of the case Mobile Oral Care Unit may include a telephone call to the customer service, web site, the information that staff says, interiors, furnitures, colours, etc.
Touchpoints can be divided into afour cathegories: (Saffer 2007): • Spaces • Objects • Processes • People
Spaces• Spaces are places where the visible service production take place• Spaces can be physical places like shops, offices, aeroplane or virtual places like internet or mobile phone• In the spaces should especially take notice to those touchpoints, which people can feel and sense
• Mobile oral care unit ”Suupirssi” is place where the visible service production takes place to the customer• For example: Interior design, lighting, sounds and smells, which are of great importance to customer´s service experience.
Objects• Objects that are part of the service are placed into the interior, outdoor or other environments• Objects can be complex and big machines like the carousels in the airfield or simple and small objects like a restaurant serviette• In the case ”Suupirssi” all the objects were part of the service: chair lifter, dental unit (chair) and other furnitures, lightning, equipment and clothes.• These objects were designed to generate interaction between the service provider and the customer
Processes• Processes define the mode of the service production• Services in all processes and routines can be set into the small details. In the Suupirssi case e.g: how the nursing staff greets the customers when they arrive to the treatment
People• People are needed in producing services• These people will divided into two different groups: customers and customer servant• Oral care service consists of a complex interactive ”choreography” by the patients, nursing staff and oral hygienist and dentist students
Service Moment• Individual episodes are called service moments• Each service is built from series of service sections or episodes or from series of service elements, which together establish value-added service unity to the customer• Each service moment consists of several touch points
• Each service moment consists on several sessions of different touchpoints• For example, in the case ”Suupirssi” the service session i linked at least into the following touchpoints: – what is the general experience of the Suupirssi: the external shape and graphics? – how to greet patients? – the role of service / nursing professionals? – what, and how he/she is communicating? – what kind of experience there are in using the chair lift? – Indoor environment; what is the first impression of interior (interior design, lighting, sounds and smells, etc.)
• Through touchpoints every service moment is able to formulate for the needs and expectations of the customer• When designing the service moment, it´s important to think which touchpoints are relevant to the customer and which touchpoints will give a more value with lower cost.
• It should be noticed that although inside the service there is specific service production process, customers will traverse it making an individual path/journey• Things can be done in a different ways and the service provider can offer a number of alternative ways and channels to consume a certain service process phase
Service Journey• The process of services includes the time perspective which means that the service is experienced as a service journey through a number of service moments and touchpoints• The service production influences to the service journey as well as the customers personal choices
• Each service is built from the series of service sections or episodes or from series of service elements, which together establish value-added service unity/completeness to the customer• Separate episode of the service is called a service moment
Customer journey• Consuming a service means a consuming an experience, a process that extends over time. The customer journey thus illustrates how the customer perceives and experiences the service interface along the time axis. It also considers the phases before and after actual interaction with the service. The first step in creating a customer journey is to decide its starting and stopping points. The customer journey serves as the umbrella under which the service is explored and, with various methods, systematised and visualised.
Customer journey: train ride• Service touchpoints are the tangibles, for • 1) Looking for time table, example, spaces, objects, people or price, making a reservation interactions that make up the total experience of using a service. Touchpoints can take many forms, from advertising to personal cards; web-, mobilephone- and PC interfaces; bills; retail shops; call centres and customer representatives. In service design, all touchpoints need to be considered in totality and crafted in order to create a clear, consistent and unified customer experience, HCI (human computer interaction), modality between human and computer Kuva: Reetta Kerola
Customer journey: train ride• The customer faces the line of • 2) Receiving a ticket in mobile phone IT interaction when she/he is using the IT services (examples: hotel television, information in the parking area through the IT system, hotel and conference website and booking system). The line of IT interaction is still part of the frontstage. Modality machine to machine (ubique environment) Kuva: Reetta Kerola
Customer journey: train ride• There is a line of visibility for the • 3)Buing a ticket from the counter service actions that the customer is not able to see. There services happen in the backstage (examples: staff working with the reservation internally in the hotel booking system, registration of the hotel customer in the conference system, acceptance of the credit card in the. Kuva: Reetta Kerola
Customer journey: train ride• Front desk: The time and • 3) Buying a ticket from the place in which customers automat come in contact with the service, for example, the website, the person serving you at the restaurant, etc. Kuva: Reetta Kerola
Customer journey: train ride• 4)Waiting for the train, looking for the track Reetta Kerola
Customer journey: train ride • 5) Inspecting the ticket• When the customer is experiencing the service she/ he is facing the line of interaction (examples: receptionist greeting at the hotel reception and guiding to your room, conference registration staff greeting the delegate and giving information). Human to Reetta Kerola human modality
Service blueprint• Mapping out of a service journey identifying the processes that constitute the service, isolating possible fail points and establishing the time frame for the journey.• Description of critical service elements, such as time, logical sequences of actions and processes, also specifying both actions and events that happen in the time and place of the interaction (front office) and actions and events that are out of the line of visibility for the users, but are fundamental for the service. Service blueprinting involves the description of all the activities for designing and managing services, including schedule, project plans, detailed representations (such as use cases) and design plans, or service platforms.
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.13.3.2012 32