• Like
  • Save
Collaborative Authoring, Use, and Maintenance of a Multidisciplinary "E-Textbook"
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Collaborative Authoring, Use, and Maintenance of a Multidisciplinary "E-Textbook"

on

  • 711 views

A multidisciplinary textbook faces the challenge of satisfying the need for breadth, to represent all the disciplines that contribute to it, without compromising the need for depth, to treat each ...

A multidisciplinary textbook faces the challenge of satisfying the need for breadth, to represent all the disciplines that contribute to it, without compromising the need for depth, to treat each contributing
discipline in a substantive way. We met this challenge in a text called
 “The Discipline of Organizing” with several innovations in book design.

By Robert J. Glushko

Statistics

Views

Total Views
711
Views on SlideShare
711
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Collaborative Authoring, Use, and Maintenance of a Multidisciplinary "E-Textbook" Collaborative Authoring, Use, and Maintenance of a Multidisciplinary "E-Textbook" Presentation Transcript

    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Collaborative Authoring, Use and Maintenance of a Multidisciplinary “ETextbook” Robert J. Glushko glushko@berkeley.edu @rjglushko Intelligent Content Conference 28 February 2014
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Today’s Talk • The interwoven challenge(s) of multidisciplinarity and collaboration • Our crucible: The Discipline of Organizing • Implications for: • Book & ebook design • Authoring • Maintenance and evolution 2
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Discipline of Organizing Published by MIT Press in May 2013 as a printed book and as epub3 and Kindle ebooks And since then: • “enhanced Academic Edition” • “TDO in the browser” 3
    • Motivation for TDO (Professional): The Undefined Intersection Library & Information Science Information Organization Information Architecture Public Sector “Memory Institutions”  Computer Computer Science Science Informatics Information Content Mgmt Retrieval & Information Retrieval Business & Business & Technology Technology No textbook existed that focused on their intersection, their intellectual core 4
    • Motivation for TDO (Personal)    In our daily lives organizing is a common personal and group activity that we often do without thinking much about it It is also an important part of most business and professional activities Organizing in any context can be more effective and satisfying if we are more self-aware and systematic about it 5
    • Bob’s Garage 6
    • We Organize…   Libraries, museums, business information systems, scientific data… and other institutional resource collections Social collections of resources… Web 2.0… where organizing is informal / implicit but very useful •Personal information and artifacts of all kinds in our kitchens, closets, personal computers, smartphones… 7
    • 8
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Concept of the “Organizing System” We can note how these domains and types of collections differ… or we can emphasize that they are all “Organizing Systems”  A collection of resources Intentionally arranged To enable some set of interactions 9
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION For More About TDO http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/08/24/the-man- http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Oct-13/OctNov13_Glushko.p   Intelligent Content conference special for print edition: 30% off from MIT Press with discount code GLD030 at https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/discipline-organizing 10
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Challenge(s) of Multidisciplinarity • A textbook for a multidisciplinary field is challenging to write… • …and changes what a book is • …and changes what an ebook is • …and changes how they are maintained and evolve 11
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION What Makes a Text Multidisciplinary? • Identifies / explains the concepts at the intersection of multiple disciplines • Uses discipline-neutral vocabulary • Incorporates discipline-specific concepts and examples in the context of the transdisciplinary content and vocabulary 12
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Breadth vs. Depth Challenge • A BROAD textbook for a multidisciplinary field represents all the disciplines that contribute to it • A DEEP textbook treats all the disciplines with rigor and nuance Can a textbook be deep and broad at the same time? 13
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Attacking the Breadth vs. Depth Challenge • We had been bloating the book with disciplinary nuance that made the book more credible to experts but made it less accessible for students • The solution turned out to have ancient roots in book design that we have adapted to ebooks 14
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Content of Textbooks A textbook contains many types of content, especially in an evolving multidisciplinary field 15
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Supplemental and Core Content Some of this content is “core” and essential to the text. Other content is “supplemental”. 16
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Supplemental Content in Books • Typically “inline” with the core text • Tables, figures, illustrations, sidebars • Typically “pointed to” by the core text • Footnotes, endnotes, glossary entries, citations • Often external to the core text • Appendices, commentaries and reviews, case studies 17
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Selective Inclusion of Supplemental Content • The simplest mechanism for a personalized reading experience • A reader gets the content and (logically) includes it in the “text stream” • Example: with footnotes, endnotes, glossary terms, bibliographic references, visual or hypertextual inclusion is an optional act by the reader 18
    • Endnote Markers in Print ENDNOTES MARKED WITH NUMBERED SUPERSCRIPTS Link following “by hand and eye” – turning to the notes section at end of each chapter 19
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Using “Tagged Content” to Address the “Breadth” vs. “Depth” Challenge • Supplemental content can be tagged or typed by discipline, target audience, or a contextual category • Reader can use these tags to decide whether or not to read the note • Useful in both print and ebooks but radically different user experiences 20
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Tagged Endnotes in TDO • About 24% of the content in TDO was converted to endnotes tagged by discipline • This makes depth into a choice rather than a distraction or confusion • Could think of this as “inevitable” disciplinary-specific annotation that we decided to create in advance 21
    • Tagged Endnotes in Print Book (at end of each chapter) 22
    • Pop-up “Web” Note in eBook 23
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Collaborative Authoring for a Multidisciplinary Text • Who can write it? • Where can you start? • What are appropriate authoring tools, collaboration mechanisms, and document architectures that can address the intellectual, procedural, technological, and social/cultural challenges? 24
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Three Authoring Options for Achieving Multidisciplinarity (1) • Coincidence - Experts in different disciplines each write a chapter that presents their own perspective on the new discipline 25
    • Coincidence -> Blind Men and the Elephant http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blind_men_and_an_elephant 26
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Three Authoring Options for Achieving Multidisciplinarity (2) • Consensus - Assemble experts in relevant disciplines. Let them develop a shared vision and plan for the book 27
    • Consensus -> A detailed view of the elephant? Or one with no nuance? 28
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Three Authoring Options for Achieving Multidisciplinarity (3) • Evangelism - One person proposes a vision and plan for the book and recruits experts with specific complementary expertise to become co-authors 29
    • Evangelism – Leading the Elephant 30
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Evangelical Collaboration with TDO (1) • In January 2010, starting with the detailed lecture notes from my Berkeley course, I recruited current and former students to write draft chapters according to an outline I proposed • The lead authors for each chapter did a “slide swap” from the lecture notes to maximize continuity and minimize redundancy 31
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Evangelical Collaboration with TDO (2) • We initially used Word as the authoring software because its ubiquity made it easy to solicit co-authors and reviewers • As the number of contributors increased, we needed better collaboration support than docs-as-attachments • Initially we used generic technology (email, Dropbox, Skype) rather than tools with bookspecific collaboration functionality 32
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Book-Specific Collaboration Environments • We were 90% complete when we learned about O’Reilly’s Atlas single-source publishing system • ASCIIdoc markup editor front end • DocBook XML “under the hood” • git repository for version control • built-in transforms to pdf, html, epub, mobi 33
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION 34
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION 35
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The First Editions • The first print and ebook digital editions (epub and Kindle mobi) were produced from the same source files using the O'Reilly Atlas publishing system • They are essentially identical except for the interactions like search and hyperlinking that are intrinsic to the digital formats 36
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Resisting the Siren of Single-Sourcing • Without Atlas we wouldn’t have been able to publish print and ebook versions simultaneously • But single-sourcing with transformation of print-oriented content to ebook formats can lull you into authoring the book for print and treating the ebook versions as free afterthoughts • Your ebooks won’t take advantage of their “e” 37
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Investing in Markup • We decided to invest heavily in markup that was not used in the print version • This gives us enhanced ebooks now • And will be even more valuable in “open data” or “semantic web” contexts in the future 38
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Enhanced Academic Edition (for textbook use) • Accessible captions for all non-text components • 30 photos with detailed captions • “Quiz mode" that transforms the "Key Points" at the end of Chapters 2-10 into interactive question and answer pairs • An additional case study in Chapter 10 39
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION eBook Exploitable Markup <sect1 id="section-2.6" label="2.6“> <title>Key Points in Chapter Two</title> <qandaset role="quiz“> <qandaentry> <question><para>Which activities are common to all organizing systems?</para></question> <answer><para>Selection, organizing, interaction design, andmaintenance activities occur in every organizing system.</para> <para>See <xref linkend="section-2.1"/>.</para> </answer> </qandaentry> 40
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Only Answers Appear in Print Book 41
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION eBook Exploitable Markup <sect1 id="section-2.6" label="2.6“> <title>Key Points in Chapter Two</title> <qandaset role=“quiz”> <qandaentry> <question><para>Which activities are common to all organizing systems?</para></question> <answer><para>Selection, organizing, interaction design, and maintenance activities occur in every organizing system.</para> <para>See <xref linkend="section-2.1"/>.</para> </answer> </qandaentry> 42
    • “Quiz Mode” Presents the Questions in the eBook 43
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION The Book in a Browser • We have developed an experimental " Book in the browser" edition that allows the book to be read in a browser, with pagination, adjustable fonts, full text search, and an annotation facility • Built with Epub.js, a JavaScript library that unzips any epub format book for rendering in any device with a web browser • http://futurepress.org/ https://github.com/futurepress/epub.js/ • Uses the hypothes.is open annotation platform (Dan Whaley talks today at 4:15pm) 44
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Authoring and Evolution • The original authoring approach shapes the evolution of the book • Bottom up or “emergent consensus” approaches impose relatively weak constraints on possible changes to the book • With a top-down model, the evangelizing author is less willing to allow unconstrained revision and will want to exert more editorial direction 45
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Plan for Content Evolution • The evangelizing author serves as the managing editor • “Area editors” (1:many with endnote categories) • Add new endnotes, sidebars, or other supplemental content • Extract / subtract content currently in the core and make it an endnote • Create case studies, appendices, assignments, exam questions in their area 46
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Plan for Technology Evolution • New “master” ebook edition created for each academic year starting Fall 2014 • Possible “local” ebook editions published for specific courses or institutions • Possible “network” edition enabling customization via dynamic discovery and transclusion of supplemental content • And along the way… creating an ebook guide to creating and maintaining ebooks with this architecture 47
    • The “Network” Textbook 48
    • UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION Summary • Multidisciplinarity shapes the design of books and ebooks and the processes for creating and maintaining them • Selective inclusion of supplemental content is one solution to the breadth vs. depth challenge • A top-down “evangelism-driven” approach to collaboration encourages an “evolution at the edges” model 49