What are ebooks?Ebooks are digital books designed for consumption on computers, dedicatede-reading devices, and mobile devices and tablets, such as Amazon’sKindle, Apple’s iPad, and Barnes & Noble’s Nook.The most widely distributed ebooks are epub and mobi/kf8 files. Epubs areoptimized for iPads, iPhones, Nooks, and desktop reading. Mobi/kf8 files arethose required for the Kindle.
Topics• Ebook data • Who reads ebooks? • E-retailers’ platforms • Ebook sales • Conversion and custom services• Types of ebooks • Ebook files • Selling ebooks • Reflowable • Marketplace shares • Fixed layout • Royalty rates • Enhanced • Direct sales• Digital reading • Keys to ebook success • E-readers vs. tablets • Branding • Kindle • Cover design • Nook • Storefronts • iPad & iPhone • Designing ebooks for devices • Case studies • Browser & desktop reading • Wall Street Journal • Google• Making an ebook • Ernst & Young • Who’s going digital? • New York Times • Thought Catalog
Who reads ebooks? 43% of Americans have read an ebook or other long- form content on an e-reader. 54% of kids in the U.S. are reading ebooks 60% of ebook readers are under 45 years old 19% of American adults owned e-readers in Jan. 2012 This does not include the millions who own tablets 36% of people read a book a month—a possible audience of 80 million readersThe average ebook reader reads 24 books a year, compared to 15 for non-ebook readers.
Ebook Sales Ebooks comprise 25-30% of total book sales 50% of fiction is now selling as ebooks As tablets gain popularity, this number will rapidly rise Ebooks surpassed hardcover sales in U.S. last year 388 million units sold in 2011 Kindle Singles have sold over 2 million units Ebooks are a $6.5 billion market
Ebook filesThere are different types of ebook files supported by the various e-retailers.epub — iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, Nookmobi — KindleKF8 — Kindle Fireiba — iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch
Reflowable vs. Fixed Layout• There are two types of ebook formats in the market right now: • Reflowable ebooks scale to fit different screen and font sizes by changing page breaks and paragraph widths. They are the standard format right now, ensuring that the text is legible on all types of devices and screen sizes. • Fixed layout ebooks preserve each page’s content to match the original design. They are coded page-by-page for specific devices, making them costlier to produce. IOS devices represent the largest current marketplace for these ebooks. Above: Reflowable versus fixed-layout ebooks.
Pros & cons of reflowable ebooks Pros Cons• The ebook is legible on all types of • Reflowable ebooks cannot support full-screens—from small cell phone screens bleed images or text placed over imagesto a desktop computer • Text cannot be arranged in columns• They are cheaper to produce; oneconversion usually covers the epub and • Text cannot be wrapped aroundmobi files required for all e-readers images in a fixed position• This lower price also gives youmaximum exposure to readers Above: A change in font size causes the text to reflow to the next page.
Pros & cons of fixed-layout ebooks Pros Cons• Fixed-layout ebooks allow much more control • The device and layout-specific customizationover the layout because they are coded for means that it is costly to produce a fixed layouteach device ebook for the major devices• They can match the original design of • The reader will not be able to enlarge textcomplex books like children’s books, comics, unless she zooms in on the image, making forand coffee-table books a less seamless reading experience• Text can be arranged in multiple columns Only certain devices render• Images can spread across the entire page fixed layout ebooks!and text can be placed over images Above: A fixed-layout ebook. The reader must zoom in to enlarge font.
Enhanced ebooksEbooks can be enhanced with video and audioembedded within the files for on and offline viewing.• Multimedia enhancements are only supported on somedevices: •iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch with iBooks •Nook Color and Nook Tablet •Kindle App for iOS •Vook Web Reader•Kindles and desktop readers cannot support multimediaenhancements•When does video enhancement work best? • Health and fitness ebooks • Business and inspirational ebooks • Instructional and how-to guides • Cooking and mixology ebooks • Audio-centric topics, such as music • Educational ebooks • Sales numbers consolidated from the over 500 video enhanced ebooks Vook has produced.
E-readers vs. tabletsE-readers are devices used solely to consume ebooks. Examples includeAmazon’s basic Kindle or Barnes & Noble’s Nook Simple Touch.Tablets are devices with e-reading capabilities in addition to several others (suchas video steaming and online browsing). Examples include the iPad, the KindleFire, and the Color Nook. As tablets gain popularity, ebooks are increasingly being consumed ontablets over e-readers. • By the end of 2013, e-reader sales are expected to have decreased 36% from 2011’s sales, to 14.9 million. • There were around 126 million tablets sold in 2012. • Tablet sales are predicted to top 145 million in 2013. This will likely drive up the demand for rich reading experiences in 2013.
Amazon KindleKindle Kindle for iOS (Apple app) Kindle Paperwhite Kindle Keyboard • Kindles use mobi files; Fires use K8 files. • Different Kindle devices support different styling elements. • None of the Kindles will play videos embedded in ebooks. • To solve this, authors often include hyperlinks to view the videos on YouTube. • The Kindle app for iOS will play video contentFire Fire HD 8.9 • KDP will not accept video-enhanced content
Barnes & Noble Nook• All Nooks use epub files• The Simple Touch doesnot support videos• The Nook HD and HD+support audio/video Nook Simple Touch Nook HD Nook HD+ • B&N will not accept multimedia-enhanced ebooks from authors through its self-publishing service, PubIt!. • All multimedia-enhanced ebooks for Nooks must be distributed through a company with a vendor-of-service contract.
Apple iPads / iPhone / iPod Touch iPad iPad Mini iPhone iPod Touch• All of these Apple devices support epub files (or .iba files when produced with iBooks Author) with theiBooks app.• Epub ebooks purchased from Barnes & Noble can be consumed via the Nook app for iOS.• All devices support audio/video.• Apple devices support the widest range of styling features (see next slide).
Designing ebooks for devicesNot every e-reading device supports all styling elements:
Ebook size limitationsEach retailer has its own file size limitations: • Amazon via Kindle Direct Publishing — 50 MB • Amazon via distribution service — 650 MB • Barnes & Noble via PubIt! — 20 MB • Barnes & Noble via distribution service — 600 MB • Apple’s iBookstore — 2 GB • Kobo — 200MB, <100MB preferred • Google Play — 250MB
Overview Goals of Social Reading and Discovery Enhancements: 1. Connect readers 2. Recommend correctly 3. Break away from etailer recommendations 4. Inspire discovery 5. Sell more books!Statistics to follow via The Codex Group 23
Discovery StatisticsPhysical book stores still key to discovery: “Find readers• 31% discovery in bookstores• Recommendations 14% (friends, word of mouth) where they are• Digital discovery is 11%• Social networks is less than 2% reading, helpIn store discovery declined from 32% in June them tell their2010 to 20% December 2012 friends, andOnline seller recommendation is up .4% to 6.6—but notcovering the physical drop off make theOnly 1/3 of past book buyers DO NOT own a digital device process easy.”Online = 61% of sales; 7% of discovery Digital media has the highest reach: 72% for ofPersonal recommendation works: book buyers looked on• 11% of past buyers = 46% of recommendations Google, Amazon 66%, then• 81% face to face social. Amazon drives the• 94% for books in backlist most new discovery at 6.6% 24
Kobo Social ReadingIn app and in device socialfunctionality• Tracks your own user behaviour• Allows you to share passages on social networks• Most innovative sharing from a digital retailer• No special requirement to enable functionality from publisher/content holder
Democrasoft: In Book Chat Hyperlinkinside ebook
Read Social ReadSocial AddsParagraph-level Conversations Inside Content PUBLISHERS ADDING READSOCIAL CAN OFFER SHARED Readers can attach COMMENTS images, text or links (or respond to others) GROUPS Publishers can recommend groups or users can create them
LeanPubEbook production, storefrontand widget creationtechnology• Allows you to share passages on social networks• Storefront allows for bundles sales, unique in ebook marketplace• Widget allows for sales from author’s webbpage
GoodreadsCommunity for readers toreview, rate, recommend andshare ebooks• 28 million visitors a month• 12 million strong registered community• 55% US, 15—20% other English speaking countries Slammed Case Study• Free giveaway program shows • Book launched and no 50% of people given a book traction write a review on it • Free giveaway got 800-• Targeted advertising programs 825 readers engaged (think Google SEM) • Word of mouth led to recommendation engine • Published by S&S
WattPadCommunity for writers toshare works in progress andfinished books• 3 million stories total with 250,000 added a month• 1.3 million registered users• 7 million visits a month• 1 comment per second• Popular titles can have more than 10 million reads and 10,00 comments
Branding1) Build ebook with customized CSS that includes brand style guidelines1) Display logo prominently on cover2) Link to website from inside ebook
Cover designYour eBook needs to stand out in a crowded space and be readable across alldevices. Design your cover for the amount of screen real-estate you get in thedigital stores, not for print. Making your cover legible in any situation gives you the competitive advantage.
Creating a compelling storefront1) Create a branded storefront2) Drive traffic to this landing page from socialmedia, ads, newsletters, etc.3) Link to all retailers