Intel - Challenges and Opportunities in Cloud-Based Genomics Analytics

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  • 1. Challenges & Opportunities: Cloud-Based Genomics AnalyticsKristina KermanshahcheChief Architect, HealthcareIntel Corporationkristina.m.kermanshahche@intel.com
  • 2. Challenges & Opportunities2
  • 3. Moore’s Law and Arrival at the $1,000 Genome 3
  • 4. The Rise of Healthcare “Big Data” • Diagnostic Imaging – Average hospital requires 175TB for images & clinical records. Consumes additional 15 TB annually1. Data archive for 20+ years. – In 2006, primary copy storage for all U.S. imaging = 24 Petabytes (assumes no duplication for RAID, archive, disaster recovery)2 – By 2014, US primary copy storage expected to reach 100 Petabytes2 • Genomic Data – The Human Genome consists of 3 billion base pairs, unannotated, requires 3 Gb of storage uncompressed3 – In 2007, Baylor College of Medicine required 125 TB, with projected 25-fold increase in storage over the following two year period4 – Digital data projected to reach 35 Zettabytes by 2020, a 44-fold increase from 20095 41John Halamka, CIO, Beth Israel Deaconess, http://geekdoctor.blogspot.com/. 2 “Prepare for Disasters and Tackle Terrabytes When Evaluating Medical ImagingArchiving,” ©2008 Frost & Sullivan. 3 Human Genome Project FAQs, http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/faq/faqs1.shtml. 4 Baylor College ofMedicine, Human Genome Sequencing Center, http://www.cwhonors.org/viewCaseStudy.asp?NominationID=340. 5 IDC Digital Universe Study, sponsored byEMC, May 2010
  • 5. NGS Shift Toward Downstream AnalyticsSource: Sboner et. all. "The Cost of Sequencing: Higher Than You Think!" Genome Biology 2011, 12:125 5
  • 6. Multifactorial Compute Implications to Epigenomic AnalysisSource: Kohane IS, Kho AT, Butte AJ. Microarrays for anIntegrative Genomics. (The MIT Press; Cambridge, MA;2003), p. 11. 6
  • 7. Data intensive Genome Analytics Collecting and integrating large‐scale, diverse data types Transforming Genomic data into biological information to enable inference and network logic analysis7
  • 8. Spectrum of Computational Biology(emphasis shift from right to left) 8
  • 9. Knowledge Network: 1. Enables Discovery 2. Improve Clinical Care 3. Inform Taxonomy Source: “Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease”, ©2011 The National Academies of Sciences, accessed at http://dels.nas.edu/bls9
  • 10. Enabling Technologies10
  • 11. Architecture for Discovery • Seamlessly solve your most important problems of any scale Intel® Xeon® processor • Ground-breaking real-world application performance • Industry-leading energy efficiency • Meet HPC challenges and scale for growth Intel® Xeon Phi™ product family • Based on Intel® Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture • Leading performance for highly parallel workloads • Common Intel Xeon programming model • Seamlessly increases developer productivity11
  • 12. The Foundation of High-performance Computing Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 Family Up to 73% performance boost vs. prior gen1 on HPC suite applications Over 2X improvement on key industry benchmarks Up to 4 channels DDR3 1600 memory Significantly reduce compute time on large, Up to 8 cores complex data sets with Intel® Up to 20 MB cache Advanced Vector Extensions Integrated PCI Express* Integrated I/O cuts latency while adding capacity & bandwidth1 Over previous generation Intel® processors. Intel internal estimate. For more legal information on performance forecasts go to http://www.intel.com/performance 12
  • 13. Delivers on Today’s HPC Challenges Intel Xeon processor E5-4600 product family Most FLOPS per server - up to 1.7x compared to Intel Xeon processor E5- 2600 product family1 Excellent 4-socket performance per watt Up to 70% better density at rack level1,2 More compute capacity with up to 1.5TB memory & 160 lanes PCIe* 3.0Results that have been estimated based on internal Intel analysis and are provided for informational purposes only. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance.Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computersystems, components, software, operations and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating yourcontemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. Configuration Details: Please reference back up slides. For more information go to http://www.intel.com/performance 1 Intel internal assessment compared to Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 product family; see backup for configuration details 2 Assumed max density for 2S platforms achieved in 1U form factor; max density for 4S platforms achieved in 2U form factor 13 * Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others
  • 14. Intel’s Many Core and Multi-core Engines Intel® Xeon® processor: • Intel’s Foundation of HPC Performance • Suited for full scope of workloads • Industry leading performance/watt for serial & highly parallel workloads. Multi-core Intel® Xeon® processor at 2.0-3.5 GHz Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessor: • Optimized for highly parallelized compute intensive workloads • Common programming model & S/W tools with Xeon processors, enabling efficient app readiness and performance tuning • Launching on 22nm with >50 cores and Many Core Intel® Xeon® Phi™ coprocessor at 1-1.5 GHz required b/w to provide outstanding performance for highly parallel HPC uses • Die Size not to scale14 Copyright Intel Corporation 2011-12
  • 15. Broad Ecosystem Support Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners.15 Copyright Intel Corporation 2011-12
  • 16. Intel Development Tools extend to Intel® Xeon Phi™ Coprocessors Leading developer tools for performance on nodes and clusters Advanced Performance Distributed Performance C++ and Fortran Compilers, MKL/IPP MPI Cluster Tools with C++ and Fortran Libraries & Analysis Tools for Windows*, Compiler, MKL Libraries and Analysis Tools for Linux* developers on Windows*, Linux* developers on IA based multi-core node IA based clusters16 Copyright Intel Corporation 2011-12
  • 17. Architecting Scaling Programmability One Programming Model …Avoids Costly Detours17 Copyright Intel Corporation 2011-12
  • 18. Intel in the Datacenter Intel®: Helping Simplify and Save in the Datacenter Building blocks that scale + a commitment to help Server Cloud Deploying the latest generation of Get help implementing a flexible Intel® Xeon® servers can reduce your and scalable cloud infrastructure total cost of ownership by up to 66%1 IT Center: Data Center Cloud Design Intelligent Storage Big Data Use Intel® Xeon®-based storage to Learn about new solutions that help reduce storage footprints up to 50%2 turn big data into intelligence Intel IT Center: Big Data Analytics Network Replace older 1GbE with Intel® 10GbE Manufacturing Leadership An increasing advantage delivering to reduce power cost 45% and cabling the benefits of Moore’s Law to IT 80% while doubling the bandwidth3 Intel Manufacturing Innovation Security Ecosystem Choice Create a hardened foundation for The broadest range of solutions computing with Intel® and McAfee from the widest choice of vendors security technologies Orchestration Intel(R) Learn More for exclusive, real- Your main source Manage server power usage and see IT world tested information and advice power savings up to 30%4 Center from Intel® and Industry experts 1. Over older generation Intel® processors. See TCO backup foil for details. For more legal info. on performance forecasts go to http://www.intel.com/performance 2. Source for savings claims: IT@Intel Whitepaper “Solving Intel IT’s Data Storage Challenges”. December 2011 3. Intel 10GbE ROI Calculator. http://www.event-management-online.de/LAD/calculator.aspx. See back up foil “IT Savings with Unified Network“ for more details.18 4. 30% savings: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/data-center-efficiency/data-center-efficiency-xeon-oracle-changing-the-game-study.html
  • 19. Intel in the Datacenter Intelligent Scale-out Storage Simplifies and Saves Intel® Xeon® powers today’s compute intensive storage strategies2 Many organizations have data Allocated& Unused Available growth of 40%-100% per year— Data Storage mostly unstructured data Allocated& Data Unused Data Data Scale-out systems required Data Deduplication accommodate this growth by Thin Provisioning more simply adding more capacity and compute as needed Flash/SSDs FC Drives Reduce total storage footprint by >50% with storage refresh SATADrives Storage Virtualization Storage Tiering Reduce storage device capacity growth by 25% via thin provisioning Improve storage efficiency by up to 25% with data de-duplication Intel® High Performance SSDs3 Encryption Large scale analytics Increased Performance Datacenter Endurance New Safety Features up to 2X TCO Savings4 1. Source for savings claims: IT@Intel Whitepaper “Solving Intel IT’s Data Storage Challenges”. December 2011 2. Intel Xeon is the storage industry’s processor of choice--Xeon MSS is 80% (2011); Source: : IDC Quarterly Storage Tracker Q4’11. Intel(R) SSD Datacenter Total 3. Intel enterprise SSDs. Intel® 710 series SSD—SATA; Intel® 910 series SSD--PCIe19 4. SSD TCO generated from SNIA* (Storage Networking Industry Association). TCO model for Solid-State Storage. Calculations Cost of Ownership calculator based on 4K random, 65/35 read writes. 3.5” SAS 15K HDD 48 drives, 73GB RAID 5. TCO model can be found at: www.snia.org.
  • 20. Intel in the Datacenter Simplify with Intel® 10GbE The #1 Selling Ethernet Adapter1 Simplify2 Fibre Channel Over Ethernet Unify Unify your storage 10X 1GbE Server Connections 2X 10GbE Server Connections up to 20% and data networks Lower Total Infrastructure costs3 >50% of IT shops have >2 storage networks4 27% have over five4 Better 45% 80% 15% 2x Reduction in Power per Rack Reduction in Cables and Reduction in Infra-structure Improved Bandwidth Intel® Ethernet X540 Server 10GbE Adapter Together Switch ports Costs per Server Intel® Xeon® E5 2600 brings up to 3X more I/O bandwidth vs.. prior gen.5 Intel® Xeon® E5 2600 Unleash the full I/O Utilize Intel Advanced I/O Technologies: SR-IOV, VMDq, and Integrated I/O and Intel capabilities of Xeon® E5 Data Direct I/O Intelligent Data Path offload architecture with Intel® 10GbE 1. Intel® 82599 10 Gigabit Controller and Intel® Ethernet X520 Server Adapter; Intel® 10GbE Adapter: #1 MSS per Dell’Oro Group Q1’12 Ethernet Report 2. Intel 10GbE ROI Calculator. http://www.event-management-online.de/LAD/calculator.aspx. See back up foil “IT Savings with Unified Network“ for more details. 3. Intel IT Proof of Concept with 10GbE and FCoE. See back up foil “IT Savings with Unified Network“ for more details.20 4. Storage Magazine Survey published Dec ’11 Link to Storage Magazine article 5. Max. I/O R/W bandwidth Intel® Xeon® E5-2680 vs.. Intel® Xeon® X5670. See backup slide “Xeon® Processor Performance Leadership Claims” for details
  • 21. Isolate Enforce Encrypt Server Security Technologies Intel® Technologies: Server Security Establishing the Foundation for More Secure Computing Isolate Enforce Encrypt Intel® VT and Intel® TXT Intel® AES-NI Intel® TXT Delivers built-in Protects VM isolation and Establishes “trusted” status encryption acceleration provides a more secure foundation for security policy- for better data platform launch based workload control protection Mf. VM1 VM2 Policy VM2 VM3 VM1 VMM VMM VMM21
  • 22. Server Security Technologies Intel® Cloud Builder Security Reference Architectures Provide the “How To” Support and/ Support and/or or Reference Accelerate your ability to Implementatio Architectures deploy key technologies that n White Papers Featuring: enhance cloud security Featuring: For the latest Intel® Cloud Builder Security Reference Architectures, go to: Cloud Builder: Enhance Cloud Security † Not all features and capabilities will be supported by all listed providers *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others22
  • 23. Connect and enrich the lives of every person on earth through seamless and pervasive computing Intel in the Datacenter Intel’s datacenter vision Intel®: Helping Simplify and Save in the Datacenter More than just a data center technology supplier Technology that Scales Solutions and Insights Standards that Ensure that Accelerate Adoption Choice and Flexibility Server Networking Y Data Cloud Big Scale-out Storage Storage Unified Network Mission Reference arch. Datacenter Critical & POCs ROI/Refresh As the leading supplier of industry Modernization calculators building blocks Solution briefs Expert and IT Intel plays a key role in industry Software IT@Intel insights peer discussions standards bodies Whitepapers Podcasts Including developing open standards for the cloud Devices Intel® IT Center The Data Stack Online community of Intel experts and IT practitioners. IT@Intel Insights from Intel’s own IT department Intel(R) Cloud Builders Proven guidance to build and optimize cloud infrastructure Other useful links Intel(R) Server Refresh Estimator Estimate your possible Xeon-based server refresh savings with this online estimator23 Intel IT Center--Big Data Analytics information Learn how big data analytics delivers fresh insights www.mcafee.com/datacenter Optimizing security in the next-generation data center
  • 24. Next-Gen Sequencing Big Data Analytics Personalized Medicine Cloud-Based Analytics & Precision Medicine24
  • 25. 2525
  • 26. Big Data In Context Intel Value in Solution Provisioning For Insight Rich and deep visualizationDecision Support Application Layer for applications – Connect & Interact with your data Efficiency, Trust, Secure Efficient Capturing and Ordering Data Delivery Storage of Data Governance, Tools Data Integration, Performance Algorithms for Data Management Analysis, Processing and Transformation Transformation Xeon enabled in-Infrastructure & Compute, storage and IO architecture memory & storage Services that balances performance and capacity EcoSystem26
  • 27. Big Data In Context Intel and Big Data Methods Performance and Scale Efficiencies Data Delivery Data Usage Data Management Business Intelligence Decision Support – Business Strategy CRM- ETL ERP,OLTP, KPI’s Batch Data LOB Reporting Marts SOURCE – ETL Big Data Intel® Identity In-Memory Protection Reliability, Availability & Power Management & Security Rich Visualization Serviceability (RAS)27
  • 28. Big Data In Context Managing the Data and Driving Insight Life Sciences Database and compute infrastructure Analytics engines Workloads & Solutions Relational VOLTDB EXALYTICS Nonrelational Open Source: BLAST, FASTA, ClustalW, HMMER, Darwin, etc.Orchestration of DB Variants – Modernization on Xeon Architecture28
  • 29. Working with the Life Sciences Ecosystem29
  • 30. Use Case: NEXTBIO Patient Correlation Data Novel Discoveries Biomarkers Disease Mechanism Drug Indications Clinical trial parameters Patient Care options Large content repository of public and private genomic data combined with proprietary and patented correlation engine30
  • 31. Use Case: NEXTBIO Nextbio & Intel Partnership31
  • 32. Clinical Decision Support requiresextensive Medical Knowledge Graph Existing Public Documents Knowledge Graph Ontologies (e.g. ICD9, RxNorm, Diabetes Type SNOMED) Retinal Eye ICD 250.xx Glucose Exam Echo A1c 1 Diabetes Type 1 Dictionary Extraction Diabetes Type & Association Discovery 2 Glucose Hemoglobin A1c Retinal Eye Exam Clinical Echo Documents9/6/2012 32 www.apixio.com
  • 33. High Performance Analytics for Scalability & Real-Time Results Queries Job Queue Results Patient Data Store Patient Data Store Patient Data Store Analytics Engine Analytics Engine Analytics Engine Patient Objects Patient Objects Patient Objects Hadoop & Cassandra9/6/2012 33 www.apixio.com
  • 34. Working with You the Experts34
  • 35. Where would you like to be in two years? • your codes optimized for our architecture – which ones?? • commercial tools, open-source, Hadoop, visualization tools, sw optimization tools, federated query/analytics? • community-identified bioinformatics workloads, algorithms, frameworks and tools? • alignment on informatics standards supporting clinical care/research interoperability requisite for personalized medicine? • data management, data lifecycle for life sciences? • infrastructure & solutions optimized for your changing workloads?35
  • 36. You are the Experts… Tell us what you need to – • Accelerate results • Identify gaps in the industry, and • Ensure our architecture is optimized for your workloads36
  • 37. Additional Information: • Intel Software Optimization Tools – www.software.intel.com • Intel® Cloud Builders • Open Data Center Alliance (ODCA) • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) • European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) • Healthcare Blogs – Intel® Healthcare IT Professionals • Whitepapers – CARESTREAM* Increasing the Scalability of Medical Imaging Solutions – Secure Healthcare Cloud (TXT whitepaper) – VMware* and Intel® 10GbE Best Practices – Securing the Enterprise with Intel® AES-NI – Enhanced Cloud Security with HyTrust* & VMware* – Taking Control of the Cloud for your Enterprise – Unified Networking with Cisco* Virtualized Multi-Tenant Data Center* • Videos – Cloud Security: Built from the Ground Up – Trusted Execution Technology – Virtualization Demo/Animation37
  • 38. Big Data/Analytics References Intel® Big Data and Analytics Blogs – Intel® Healthcare IT Professionals Big Data and Hadoop • http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-benchmark- install-and-test-tool-intel-bitt-tools/ • http://www.scribd.com/doc/43871872/Intel-White-Paper- Optimizing-Hadoop-Deployments • http://www.cloudera.com/videos/hw10_video_optimizing_h adoop_workloads • http://hadoop.apache.org/ Intel Hadoop Reference Architectures • http://www.intelcloudbuilders.com/docs/Intel_Cloud_Builde rs_Hadoop.pdf38
  • 39. Intel Technologies • Intel® Scale-out Storage – Tackle your data center’s challenges with enterprise storage solutions powered by the world’s most advanced multi-core architecture • Intel® Solid State Drives – High performance, Self-Encrypting Solid State Drives for protecting sensitive data at rest • Intel Unified Networking – Unified Networking enables cost-effective connectivity to the LAN and the SAN on the same Ethernet fabric • Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT) – Provides flexibility and maximum system utilization by consolidating multiple environments into a single server, workstation, or PC • Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT) – Protect confidentiality and integrity of business data against software-based attacks. • Intel® AES New Instructions (Intel® AES-NI) – The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is now widely used across the software ecosystem to protect network traffic, personal data, and corporate IT infrastructures • Intel® Cloud Access 360 – Protection Enterprise Access to Cloud and Protecting Enterprise Applications in the Cloud • Intel® Expressway Service Gateway – High performance security, xml acceleration and routing. Cross-domain service mediation, threat prevention, policy enforcement. Interoperable ESB gateway • McAfee Cloud Security Platform* – Consistent security policies, reporting, and threat intelligence across all cloud traffic—now available from a single platform39
  • 40. Legal Disclaimer• INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL® PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. INTEL PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN MEDICAL, LIFE SAVING, OR LIFE SUSTAINING APPLICATIONS.• Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice.• All products, dates, and figures specified are preliminary based on current expectations, and are subject to change without notice.• Intel, processors, chipsets, and desktop boards may contain design defects or errors known as errata, which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Any code names featured are used internally within Intel to identify products that are in development and not yet publicly announced for release. Customers, licensees and other third parties are not authorized by Intel to use code names in advertising, promotion or marketing of any product or services and any such use of Intels internal code names is at the sole risk of the user.• Φ Intel® Turbo Boost Technology requires a PC with a processor with Intel Turbo Boost Technology capability. Intel Turbo Boost Technology performance varies depending on hardware, software, and overall system configuration. Check with your PC manufacturer on whether your system delivers Intel Turbo Boost Technology. See www.intel.com/technology/turboboost for more information.• Ψ Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology requires a computer system with a processor supporting HT Technology and an HT Technology-enabled chipset, BIOS, and operating system. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use. For more information including details on which processors support HT Technology, see www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading• Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products.• For more information go to http://www.intel.com/performance• Intel, Intel Inside, the Intel logo, Centrino, Centrino Inside, Intel Core, Intel Atom, Pentium, Intel Xeon, and Intel Core microarchitecture are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries.• 64-bit computing on Intel architecture requires a computer system with a processor, chipset, BIOS, operating system, device drivers and applications enabled for Intel® 64 architecture. Performance will vary depending on your hardware and software configurations. Consult with your system vendor for more information.• Lead-free: 45nm product is manufactured on a lead-free process. Lead is below 1000 PPM per EU RoHS directive (2002/95/EC, Annex A). Some EU RoHS exemptions for lead may apply to other components used in the product package.• Halogen-free: Applies only to halogenated flame retardants and PVC in components. Halogens are below 900 PPM bromine and 900 PPM chlorine.• Material in this presentation is intended as product positioning and not approved end user messaging.• *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.• Copyright © 2012 Intel Corporation.40
  • 41. Risk FactorsThe above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the first quarter, the year and thefuture are forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,”“intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “should” and their variations identify forward-looking statements.Statements that refer to or are based on projections, uncertain events or assumptions also identify forward-looking statements.Many factors could affect Intel’s actual results, and variances from Intel’s current expectations regarding such factors could causeactual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. Intel presently considers the followingto be the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the company’s expectations. Demand could bedifferent from Intels expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions, including supplyconstraints and other disruptions affecting customers; customer acceptance of Intel’s and competitors’ products; changes incustomer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Uncertainty in globaleconomic and financial conditions poses a risk that consumers and businesses may defer purchases in response to negativefinancial events, which could negatively affect product demand and other related matters. Intel operates in intensely competitiveindustries that are characterized by a high percentage of costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term and productdemand that is highly variable and difficult to forecast. Revenue and the gross margin percentage are affected by the timing of Intelproduct introductions and the demand for and market acceptance of Intels products; actions taken by Intels competitors, includingproduct offerings and introductions, marketing programs and pricing pressures and Intel’s response to such actions; and Intel’sability to respond quickly to technological developments and to incorporate new features into its products. Intel is in the process oftransitioning to its next generation of products on 22nm process technology, and there could be execution and timing issuesassociated with these changes, including products defects and errata and lower than anticipated manufacturing yields. The grossmargin percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on capacity utilization; variations in inventory valuation,including variations related to the timing of qualifying products for sale; changes in revenue levels; product mix and pricing; thetiming and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated costs; start-up costs; excess or obsolete inventory; changes in unitcosts; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; product manufacturing quality/yields; and impairments of long-lived assets, including manufacturing, assembly/test and intangible assets. The majority of Intel’s non-marketable equityinvestment portfolio balance is concentrated in companies in the flash memory market segment, and declines in this marketsegment or changes in management’s plans with respect to Intel’s investments in this market segment could result in significantimpairment charges, impacting restructuring charges as well as gains/losses on equity investments and interest and other. Intelsresults could be affected by adverse economic, social, political and physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where Intel, itscustomers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural disasters, infrastructure disruptions,health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Expenses, particularly certain marketing and compensation expenses,as well as restructuring and asset impairment charges, vary depending on the level of demand for Intels products and the level ofrevenue and profits. Intel’s results could be affected by the timing of closing of acquisitions and divestitures. Intels results could beaffected by adverse effects associated with product defects and errata (deviations from published specifications), and by litigation orregulatory matters involving intellectual property, stockholder, consumer, antitrust and other issues, such as the litigation andregulatory matters described in Intels SEC reports. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or an injunctionprohibiting us from manufacturing or selling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, impacting Intel’s abilityto design its products, or requiring other remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. A detailed discussion ofthese and other factors that could affect Intel’s results is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the report on Form 10-Q for thequarter ended Oct. 1, 2011.Rev. 1/19/1241
  • 42. Notice and Disclaimers • Notice: This document contains information on products in the design phase of development. The information here is subject to change without notice. Do not finalize a design with this information. Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specification before placing your product order. • INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTELS TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS, INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications. Intel may make changes to specifications, product descriptions, and plans at any time, without notice. • All products, dates, and figures are preliminary for planning purposes and are subject to change without notice. • Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked "reserved" or "undefined.“ Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. •Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. • The Intel products discussed herein may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. • Knights Corner, Knights Ferry, Aubrey Isle and other code names featured are used internally within Intel to identify products that are in development and not yet publicly announced for release. Customers, licensees and other third parties are not authorized by Intel to use code names in advertising, promotion or marketing of any product or services and any such use of Intels internal code names is at the sole risk of the user. • Copies of documents which have an order number and are referenced in this document, or other Intel literature, may be obtained by calling 1- 800-548-4725, or by visiting Intels website at http://www.intel.com. • Intel®, Itanium®, Xeon®, Pentium®, and the Intel logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. • Copyright © 2011-12, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. • *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.42
  • 43. © 2012, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the US and/or other countries. Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.43