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Tenses
 

Tenses

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made by Mrs.Honest

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    Tenses Tenses Presentation Transcript

    • SESSION I INTRODUCTION
    • SUBYEK • Subyek adalah pelaku dalam kalimat yang diikuti oleh kata kerja. • Bentuk Subyek yang umum dipakai adalah • Noun (kata benda) : Cars • Noun phrase (frasa benda) : The bank..... • Pseudo Subject : There / It
    • Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh Subyek Noun Your lateness Pronoun It makes the teacher upset. Gerund Your coming late Infinitive To come late Noun Clause That you came late makes the teacher upset.
    • VERB • Verb adalah kata kerja yang melakukan tindakan dalam kalimat. • Bentuk Kata kerja yang umum dipakai adalah: • - Single word (satu kata) : walks • - Verb phrase (frasa kata kerja) : is walking
    • COMPLEMENT Complement adalah kata yang melengkap kalimat. Bentuknya mirip dengan Subyek yaitu berbentuk Noun atau noun phrase. Tidak semua kalimat memiliki complement dan biasanya hanya ada di kalimat transitive.
    • I met SUBJECT John VERB Noun Cars.. Pronoun COMPLEM ENT Single Word walks Noun John He… Noun Gerund Verb Phrase Is walking Infinitive To swim … N. Clause To That all students went out … Pseudo Subject MODIFIER Time Yesterday Place Swimming… Noun Phrase yesterday Noun Phrase John’s sister At home Manner Very fast Prep. Phrase In the morning on the table Adv. Phrase Last night
    • Phoneme : - the smallest unit of language - has NO meaning - only sounds Phoneme + phoneme = morpheme Morpheme : - has meaning - bound : preffix, suffix - free : word (root) morpheme + morpheme = word
    • Prefixes Meaning Words Meanings anti- against antitoxin against toxin bi- two, twice bilingual two language en- cause to be encourage mal- wrong malfunction wrong function/failure pre- before prevent come before/keep from happening sub- under subway under way/underground railway Etc. cause to have courage/ give courage
    • Negative Prefixes disinimirmisnonun- Words disloyal incapable impatient irregular misplace nonresident unable Meaning not loyal not capable not patient not regular not placed correctly not a resident not able
    • Suffixes Forms -able adjective Examples Understandable, lovable -al -ance -en -ly -ion -ish National, burial Attendance, Darken, strengthen Quickly, clearly Decision, action Childish, girlish adjective noun verb adverb noun adjective
    • SESSION II WORDS
    • Adverb and Adjective Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing Adjectives can modify nouns or pronouns.
    • Examples: • • • • Mandy is a careful girl. Mandy drives carefully. Mandy is very careful. Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the adjective. • Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the adverb.
    • Types of adverbs 1) Adverbs of manner quickly kindly 2) Adverbs of degree very rather 3) Adverbs of frequency often sometimes 4) Adverbs of time now today 5) Adverbs of place here nowhere
    • The position of adverbs in sentences • We can put adverbs in different positions in sentences. There are three main positions but also a lot of exceptions. • In English we never put an adverb between the verb and the object. We often play handball. - CORRECT We play often handball. - WRONG
    • The three main positions of adverbs in English sentences 1) Adverb at the beginning of a sentence Unfortunately, we could not see Mount Snowdon. 2) Adverb in the middle of a sentence The children often ride their bikes. 3) Adverb at the end of a sentence Andy reads a comic every afternoon.
    • • If there are more adverbs at the end of a sentence, the word order is normally: • Manner - Place - Time Peter sang the song happily in the bathroom yesterday evening.
    • Word : - has meaning - has components : preffix, root, suffix - classified as : noun, verb, adjective, adverb Examples of NOUN : mother competitor endeavor inferiority achievement father moviegoer behavior identity development theorist teenager producer capacity eminence attention situation difficulty ability intelligence Quiz : “Can you count how many morphemes there are in each word?” Hints : Morphemes (preffix or suffix) to form nouns are : --y, --tion, --er/--or, --ity, --ment, --ance/--ence, --ist, --ess, etc.
    • Examples of VERB optimize enlarge redden modify delimit analyze enrich blacken glorify demoralize summarize entrust widen identify deconstruct hypothesize ensure lengthen beautify etc. Note: preffix/suffix to form a verb are such as : --ize, en--, --en, --fy, de--, etc. Quiz: Count the number of morphemes of the words above! Other forms of verb: V.o : She will go..., The tool is to open... (verb) V.1 : She goes..., He works..., (verb) V.2 : She went..., John took... (verb) V.3 : She has gone... (verb), The child is pampered. (adjective) V.ing : She is going...(verb), Watching football is...(noun)
    • EXERCISE : Name the forms of the underlined verbs below! 1. 2. 3. 4. The first child begins life as an only child. Alfred Adler is the first theorist to include ..... The child may battle for the lost position. Birth order is understood in the context of individual’s special circumstances. 5. They dreamed of constant running without getting anywhere. 6. Even if the weather cooperates..... 7. The origin of the term has been traced ..... 8. They are usually afraid of having a ...... 9. Couples started their new life living together ..... 10. Phobias stem from an unconscious ......
    • SESSION III PHRASE
    • Phrase : -- has meaning -- has roles as noun (noun phrase) and as verb (verb phrase) -- has components : head and Modifier NOUN Phrase : 1. Noun + Noun (head) ex: birth order children problem anxiety care nerve system family man identity formation 2. Adjective + Noun (head) ex: early influence strong reaction flexible character special personality sensitive response etc. 3. V.ing + Noun (head) ex: abusing parents growing moments living quarters 4. V.3 + Noun (head) ex: pampered child developed process hidden character
    • Continued: 5. Noun (head) + preposition + Noun Ex: risk of sickness children with autism children from preschool needs for dependency 6. Noun (head) + V.o + Noun Ex: attempts to explain motives ability to fing balance teraphy to treat patients with insomnia 7. Noun (head) + V.3 + Noun Ex: types categorized by action skill resulted by special methods test known as intelligence quotient 8. Noun (head) + V.ing + Noun Ex: programs resulting in creative skills tendency having a negative persistence
    • VERB Phrase The forms of verb in English:  Infinitive (V.o) : (to) go, (to) have, (to) be, (to) study, (to) understand, etc.  Present (V.1) / (V.1 + s/es) : goes, has, studies, understands, cries, treats, etc.  Past (V.2) : went, had, studied, understood, did, treated, etc.  Past Participle (V.3) : gone, had, been, understood, studied, done, etc.  Present Participle (V.ing) : going, having, understanding, studying, treating, etc.
    • Usually, the Infinitive form (V.o) is preceded by the words of: Noun Verb : ability, attempt, change, desire, need, opportunity, readiness, willingness, way, etc. : afford, agree, appear, ask, attempt, choose, arrange, decide, demand, forget, etc. Whereas, the Present Participle (V.ing) is preceded by the words : Admit, appreciate, celebrate,avoid, consider, deny, delay, dislike, enjoy, explain finish, go, imagine, keep, mention, mind, miss, practice, recall, report, resist, risk, stop, suggest.
    • Basic construction of Verb Phrase 1) Modals (can, may, must, shall, will) + V.o It has meaning as: dapat, kemungkinan, keharusan, nasehat, spekulasi, waktu yang akan datang, etc. Example: They will notice the children’s attitude. 2) To have (have, has, had) +V.3 It has meaning as : sudah / belum Example: She has treated the pasient with the therapy. 3). To be (is, am, are, was, were) + V.ing It has meaning as: sedang (berlangsung) Example: The psychologist is watching the changing..... 4). To be (is, am,are,was, were) + V.3 It has meaning as : di--- / ter---- (passive) Example: Rudi was interviewed in the test.
    • The basic constructions can be developed into combinations of :  (1) + (2) = modals + V.o/have + V.3  (1) + (3) = modals + V.o + to be + V.ing  (1) + (4) = modals + V.o + to be + V.3  (2) + (3) = have + V.3 / to be + V.ing  (2) + (4) = have + V.3/to be + V.3  (3) + (4) = to be + V.ing + to be + V.3  (1) + (2) + (3)  (1) + (2) + (4)  (2) + (3) + (4)  (1) + (2) + (3) + (4)
    • SESSION IV CLAUSES
    • CLAUSE ~ a group of words forming part of a sentence but has a Subject and a Predicate. ~ can occupy the position as a Noun, Adjective, or Adverb Noun Position: Do you notice the beauty? (noun) Do you notice the beauty of the scenery? (noun phrase) Do you notice that it is a beautiful scenery? (noun clause) Adverb Position: He speaks English well. (adverb) He speaks English pretty well. (adjective phrase) He speaks English so well that I can understand his speech. (adjective clause) Adjective Position: It is a beautiful thing. (adjective) It is a thing of a great beauty. (adjective phrase) It is a thing that is full of beauty. (adjective clause)
    • NOUN CLAUSE ~ a clause as a noun in a sentence ( Subject or Object) SUBJECT It was interesting. (noun/pronoun) His story was interesting. (noun phrase) What he said was interesting. (noun clause) OBJECT I heard that. (noun/pronoun) I heard their story. (non phrase) I heard what they said yesterday. (noun clause) Words to begin a noun clause are: ~ question words ( when, what, where, why, who, which, etc.) ~ whether / if ~ that Mind this !! The clauses from questions (both “yes-no” and “wh-question”) change the sentence arrangement into “Subject + Predicate”
    • NOUN CLAUSE SESSION V
    • Examples with Question Words: What did she say? What she said surprised me. Who is the girl? Please tell me who the girl is. Where does Amir live? The teacher asks me where Amir lives. What can I do for you? He asked what he could do for me. Which one is Ben’s house? We don’t know which one is Ben’s house. Examples with “whether/if”: Will she attend the party? She doesn’t tell whether she will attend the party. Did you have a good time? He asked me if I had a good time. Are you hungry? They are not sure if I am hungry. Does Mary teach English? John is curious whether Mary teaches English. Examples with “that” My father is a good doctor. The world is round. Romeo loves Julie. He thinks that his father is a good doctor. That the world is round is a fact. It is a fact that the worls is round. Everybody knows that Romeo loves Julie.
    • Exercises : Change the questions and statements below into noun clause of your own sentences! 1. Where is the library? 2. Did he borrow your dictionary? 3. Is Drew having a big problem now? 4. Who is doing the temporary job? 5. How far is Tenggarong from Balikpapan? 6. Should we wait for the boys? 7. Are there any hotels in the town? 8. Jack was late to class. 9. It is about 60km away from Yogya to Solo. 10.Mary lives with her grandmother in that small house. 11.Drugs can damage one’s health. 12.Irene failed her final exam. 13.Everybody must speak English in the class. 14.When will the show be started? 15.Whose shoes are left on the stairs last niight?
    • ADJECTIVE CLAUSE SESSION VI
    • ADJECTIVE CLAUSE ~ a clause to modify a noun (describes, identifies, or gives further information about the noun.) It is also called : “Relative Clause”. Words to begin adjective clause are : that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when The book is mine.It is on the table The book which is on the table is mine. The book that is on the table is mine. I thanked the woman. She helped me. I thanked the woman who helped me. I thanked the woman that helped me. The movie was good. We saw it last night. The movie which we saw last night was good. The movie that we saw last night was good. The man was Mr. Jones. I met him in the meeting. The man whom I met in the meeting was Mr.Jones. The man that I met in the meeting wasMr.Jones.
    • EXERCISES Combine the sentence-pairs below! 1. The girl is happy. She won the competition. 6. January is the first month. I was born then 2. We are studying sentences. They contain adjective clauses. 7. The building is very hot. They have to stay there for two months. 3. The man called the police. His wallet has lost. 8. People in Solo are nice. Visitors like them very much. 4. Boyolali is a small town. Joko grew up there. 9. I know the woman. Her daughter has just killed in the robbery. 5. I’ll never forget the day. I met you for the fisrt time then. 10.The picture was beautiful. Enny painted it in her teenage.
    • SESSION VII ADVERB CLAUSE
    • ADVERB CLAUSE ~ functions as an adverb of a sentence: modifying the predicate or the sentence. ~ can be placed in the front, middle, or at the end of the sentence. Words to begin adverb clause are devided into: Time: Cause/Effect: Opposition: Condition: After Before When While As Since Until As soon as Once Whenever because since now that as inasmuch as so....that in order that eventhough although though whereas while if unless only if even if
    • EXAMPLES When we were in New York, we saw many plays. We saw many plays when we were in new York. Because Adam was sleepy, he went to bed soon. Adam went to bed soon because he was sleepy. If it rains now, I will take umbrella. I will take umbrella if it rains now. Some people are fat, whereas others are thin. Whereas some people are fat, others are thin. As long as they’re not busy, they can help me with this work. They can help me with this work as long as they’re not busy.
    • SESSION VIII SENTENCE
    • SENTENCE >> is a construction consisting of at least a subject and a predicate. Elements of a sentence:  Subject : Noun, Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund, Noun Phrase, Noun Clause  Predicate : Verb, To be, Auxiliary, Modal, Verb Phrase.  Complement : Noun, Adjective, Adverb, Pronoun, Prepositional Phrase  Object : Noun, Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund, Phrase, Caluse Basic sentence arrangements:  Subject + Predicate Babies cry. The clients have waited.  Subject + Predicate + Complement She talks very slowly. The patients with cancer are treated in a special room.  Subject + Predicate + Object Mary likes poems. The white skinned girl didn’t understand the clear instructions.
    •  Subject + Predicate + Indirect Object + Direct Object Adam gives me red roses. The lecturer introduces the students new theory. She bought her children many electrical toys.  Subject + Predicate + Direct Object + Preposition + Indirect Object My friends tag some photos to me. The faculty provides new computer for each lecturer. Mr.Jones shares his brilliant ideas to his followers.  Subject + Predicate + Object + Complement People votes Obama the next president. They didn’t consider her their step-sister. The sweet Italian ice cream makes me fat.
    • TYPES of SENTENCE 1) Simple Sentence contains one full subject and predicate. Such as: - statement : He lives in New York. - question : How old are you? - request : Please close the door. - exclamation : What a terrible temper he has! 2) Compound Sentence contains two or more sentences joined into one by : - punctuation : The weather was bad; all classes were canceled. - punctuation and conjunctive adverb : The weather was bad; therefore all classes were canceled. - and, or, so, but, yet, for: The weather was bad, so all classes were canceled.
    • 3) Complex Sentence contains one or more dependent clause, such as: - adverb clause : All classes were canceled because the weather was bad. - adjective clause: Children who are under 12 years must be accompanied by parents. - noun clause : I can’t understand why you did such a thing. 4) Compound Complex Sentence contains two or more independent clause and one or more dependent clause. All classes were canceled because the weather was bad, and students were told to stand by with their email to find out when classes would begin again.
    • SESSION IX CAUSATIVE AND CONDITONAL
    • CAUSATIVE VERBS : EXAMPLES
    • PENJELASAN CHART: CAUSATIVE VERBS
    • CONDITIONALS
    • FACTUAL CONDITIONAL & FIRST CONDITIONAL
    • SECOND CONDITIONAL & THIRD CONDITIONAL
    • SESSION X MODAL
    • CAN Ex: I can swim TO BE (IS, AM, ARE) I’d like to be able to swim COULD I could swim when I was 6 years old TO BE (WAS, WERE, ABLE TO) Even though I’d hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat. (I managed to swim back to the boat) PRESENT MODAL: ABILITY PAST
    • Can I smoke here? CAN (informal) Asking for permission COULD Could I smoke here? (polite) May I smoke here? MAY (formal) MAY MODAL: PERMISSION CAN You can’t smoke here BE ALLOWED TO Refusing permission You may not smoke You are not allowed to smoke here A: Giving permission CAN/MAY Can/Could/May I Borrow your laptop? B: Of course you can/may
    • COULD It could be a pen MIGHT It might be a pen MAY It may be a pen MUST It must be a lipstick CAN’T It can’t be a lipstick POSSIBILITY It’s possible < 50% certain MODAL: POSSIBILITY PROBABILITY It’s probable 90% certain
    • SHOULD/OUGHT TO MODAL: ADVISABILITY You should / ought to stop making HAD BETTER + Vo You’d better stop smoking Put that cigarette out!! TO BE SUPPOSED TO You’re not supposed to smoke here
    • I must leave for school at 6:15. + (I think it is necessary) I have to start teaching at 8:00. (it’s my teaching schedule) MODAL: OBLIGATION MUST NOT DON’T HAVE TO I must leave for school at 6:15. (I think it is necessary) She doesn’t have to get up early today. (It is not necessary to get up early today)
    • I must leave for school at 6:15. MUST MODAL: HABIT (I think it is necessary) + HAVE TO I have to start teaching at 8:00. (It’s my teaching schedule)
    • MUST + I must leave for school at 6:15 I have to start teaching at 8:00 MODAL: OBLIGATION MUST NOT I must leave for school at 6:15 ( I think it is necessary _ She doesn’t have to get up early today DON’T HAVE TO (it is necessary to get up early today (it is necessary to get up early today)
    • Ann loves painting. WILL She will paint for hours. (typical behavior) WOULD When we were children we would play soccer together (typical behavior in the past MODAL: HABIT USED TO + VO TO BE + USED TO + V-ING He used to smoke.(but he doesn’t now) he is used to smoking (he is accustomed to smoking)
    • SESSION XI TENSES
    • TENSES times PAST PRESENT FUTURE Forms: Simple Studied study/studies Continuous Was/were studying is/am/are studying will be studying Perfect Had studied Perfect Continuous Had been studying have/has been studying have/has studied will study will have studied will have been studying
    • PAST TENSES Started and finished in the past ---- She typed a letter last night. Something happened after another ---- Simple Past Interrupted past When I came, she typed the letter. ---- When I came, she was typing a letter. Continuous Past 2 actions in progress at the same time in the past ---- When I was swimming, she was typing a letter.
    • An event happened Earlier than a past event Perfect Past Ex: When I came, she had typed a letter. Perfect Continuous Past Recently stopped before a past event Ex: She had been typing for two hours when I came
    • PRESENT TENSES Habit Ex: She types letter. (She may not typing now) Simple Present Fact Temporary Ex: Water boils at 100 degrees. Ex: He is typing letters this week because the secretary is on leave. Continuous Present In progress Ex: The water is boiling. Can you turn the stove off?
    • Perfect Present Result Ex: He has typed 3 letters this morning. In progress Perfect Continuous Present Ex: She has been typing letters all morning. Recently stopped Ex: He has been typing letters all morning. (so he is very tired now)
    • FUTURE TENSES Prediction/Plan : Spontaneity : A: The phone rings! B: I’ll get it. Evidence : Simple Future It will rain tomorrow. I will meet John next week. It is going to rain. (because it’s cloudy now) Decision :He is going to paint his house. (because he’s bringing a can of paint) Definite Arrangement : A: What are you doing here? B: I’m meeting John. (in a waiting room) Fixed schedule/ Program :The plane leaves at 10:00 tomorrow
    • Continuous Future Action in progress at a time in the future I will be studying at 7:00 tonight. Perfect Future Action completed by a certain time in the future I’ll have studied for three hours by 8:00 tonight. Perfect Continuous Future Action completed by a certain time in the future and stays in progress I’ll have been studying in UMS in 2012.
    • SESSION XII PASSIVE VOICE
    • PASSIVE VOICE John writes the report. ACTIVE Subject PASSIVE Subject The report Verb (depends on tenses) Verb (To be + Past Participle) is written Object Object (by agent) by John.
    • Examples John wrote the report. John is writing the report. The report was written by John. The report is being written by John. John was writing the report. The report was being written by John. John has written the report. The report has been written by John. John has been writing the report. Not Logical John had written the report. The report had been written by John. John had been writing the report. Not Logical
    • SOURCES 1) English Sentence Structure Robert Krohn. University of Michigan 1971 2) A Practical English Grammar A.J. Thomson & A.V. Martinet. Oxford Univ. Press. 1986 3) Modern English, A Practical Reference Guide Marcella Frank. Prentice –Hall Inc. 1972 4) Modern English Part II, Sentences and Complex Structures Marcella Frank. Prentice-Hall Inc. 1984 5) English Grammar In Use Murphy Brown. Cambridge Univ. Press 1992 6) Understanding and Using English Grammar Betty S. Azar. Prentice-Hall Inc. 1989