Public speaking

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Public speaking

  1. 1. Pertemuan-6 Public SpeakingAdapted from materials provided by Allyn and Bacon
  2. 2. TUGAS Melakukan Public Speaking dalam melakukan PR Campaign Presentasi / Praktik Public Speaking Pendalaman Materi mengenai praktik Public Speaking
  3. 3. Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most PeoplePeople’s Biggest Fears3. Death2. Snakes1. Public Speaking
  4. 4. Overcoming Speech Anxiety Acknowledge Your Fear Act Confident Channel Nervous Energy
  5. 5. Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t) Practice, Practice, Practice Simulate Setting at Home Ask Friends to Be Practice Audience
  6. 6. Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t) Visualize Your Success Use Deep-breathing Techniques Focus on Message, not Fear Give Yourself a Mental Pep Talk
  7. 7. Understand Audience and Listening People Think Faster Than Hear Have Short Attention Span Jump to Conclusions Easily Distracted
  8. 8. Listening Remedies Keep Speech Focused Divide Speech into Compact Segments Analyze Audience Carefully Adapt to Situation
  9. 9. Understand Audience Memory +Amount of Speech Remembered - + Time
  10. 10. Understand The Speech Context Audience Setting
  11. 11. Context –
  12. 12. The Audience Size Demographics Beliefs and Values Receptive/Antagonistic
  13. 13. Context - The Setting Indoor/Outdoor Size and Shape of Room Arrangement of Seating Equipment Available Lighting Acoustics
  14. 14. Understand & Define Your Purpose Inform Inspire / Persuade Entertain Introduce Accept Pay Tribute
  15. 15. Understand the Speech Making Process Choosing/Narrowing a Topic Researching Topic Organizing Your Speech Developing an Outline Rehearsing Speech Delivering Speech
  16. 16. Choosing an Appropriate Topic Is It Important to You? Is It Important to Your Audience? Will It Hold Audience’s Attention? Is It Manageable in the Time Available? Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation? Is It Clear?
  17. 17. Develop Central IdeaWrite a one sentence Georgia 4-H provides us with the skills we need tosummary of speech. be successful in life.
  18. 18. Generate Main Idea Does It Have Logical Divisions? A... Are There Reasons Why It Is True? B... C... Because... Can You Support It?
  19. 19. Narrowing a Topic - Example Protecting the Environment Water Quality in My State Well Water ProblemsUtilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk
  20. 20. Getting Topic Feedback From Members of Potential Audience From Friends From Family From 4-H’ers
  21. 21. Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material Types of Supporting Material Tests of Supporting Material
  22. 22. Sources of Supporting Material Libraries – Books – Periodicals – Newspapers – Reference Materials – CD-ROM Data Bases – Government Documents
  23. 23. Sources of Supporting Material (con’t) The Internet/World Wide Web – Search Engines  Infoseek  Yahoo  Lycos  HotBot  Google, etc. – Online Libraries
  24. 24. Types of Supporting Material Common Knowledge Direct Observation Examples & Illustrations Explanations & Descriptions Documents
  25. 25. Tests of Supporting Material Is Information Specific? Is Source an Expert? Is Source Unbiased? Is Information Timely?
  26. 26. Tests of Supporting Material (con’t) Is Information Relevant to Point Made? Does Information Support the Point? Is Information Timely?
  27. 27. Special Considerations for Online Information In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by Experts – Journals - Peer Review – Periodicals - Editors – Published Texts - Editors, Librarians Online, Must Do Own Quality Control – Beware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True
  28. 28. Organizing Your Speech Chronological Topical Spatial Cause-Effect Problem-Solution Comparison- Contrast
  29. 29. Types of Outlines Preliminary Outline Preparation Outline (Rough-Draft) Title & Topic – Main points to research Purpose Introduction Main and Sub-Points Transitions Conclusion Support/Evidence
  30. 30. Types of Outlines Speaker’s Outline – Introduction – Main Point – Support – Transitions – Conclusion
  31. 31. Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching Take Accurate Notes When Researching Record Complete Source Citations Credit Source of Ideas When in Doubt, Cite Source
  32. 32. Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech!
  33. 33. Introductions Types Functions
  34. 34. Types of Introductions Identification with Audience Reference to Situation Statement of Purpose Statement of Importance of Topic Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic
  35. 35. Types of Introductions (con’t) Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor “So there I was at the summit of Mt. Killimanjaro, and I turned to the guide and said…”
  36. 36. Functions of Introductions Get Attention Introduce Topic Provide Motivation Establish Credibility Preview Speech
  37. 37. Conclusions Types Functions
  38. 38. Types of Conclusions Summary Quotation Personal Reference Challenge to Audience Offer Vision of the Future
  39. 39. Types of Conclusions Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Things are more like they are now, than they have ever been before.”
  40. 40. Functions of Conclusions Summarize Speech Reemphasize Main Idea Motivate Response Provide Closure
  41. 41. Methods of Delivery Manuscript Reading Memorized Impromptu Extemporaneous
  42. 42. Delivering Speech - Beginning Walk Calmly with Confidence to Front Establish Eye Contact Smile Naturally Deliver Introduction
  43. 43. Delivering Speech - During Use Effective Eye Contact Use Effective Language Use Effective Gestures Be Enthusiastic Use Conversational Style Use Notes As Needed
  44. 44. Delivering Speech - Ending “Frame” the Speech Pause before Returning to Seat – But Don’t Ask for Questions Accept Applause Graciously
  45. 45. Elements of Vocal Delivery Speech Rate and Pauses Volume Inflection and Pitch Quality of Voice Pronunciation and Articulation
  46. 46. Elements of PhysicalDelivery or Body Language Appearance Posture Facial Expression Eye Contact Movement Gestures
  47. 47. Rehearsing Speech Recreate Setting Practice Without Memorizing Time Speech
  48. 48. Rehearsing Speech Practice Out Loud Practice Standing Up Watch Yourself
  49. 49. Rehearsing Speech Practice Gestures Practice Eye Contact Practice Volume
  50. 50. Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, PresentThe better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it.Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.
  51. 51. REMEMBER!!!! The 4-H Motto is “To Make the Best Better” and the 4-H Way is “Learn by Doing”! Keep these in mind as you prepare your speeches!
  52. 52. Practice takes you from this..
  53. 53. To this….

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