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Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos

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Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid supplementation to broodstock of a select aquaculture species is well documented. At the present levels of feeding, dietary means of vitamin C does not meet the …

Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid supplementation to broodstock of a select aquaculture species is well documented. At the present levels of feeding, dietary means of vitamin C does not meet the requirements for maturation, reproduction and needs of early life stages of larvae.

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  • 1. May | June 2012Feature title: Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  • 2. FEATUREVitamin C Transferingfrom fish to embryos by Nagaraj G. Chatakondi PhD, National Warmwater Aquaculture Center, USA B eneficial effects of ascorbic acid conventional methods, hence innovative ductive performance, and may subsequently supplementation to broodstock of approaches are needed. Mass transfer of improve ontogeny performance. a select aquaculture species is well nutrients via injection into broodstock is a However, the effect of vitamin C dimin- documented. At the present levels novel method. ished with age and also in more natural condi- of feeding, dietary means of vitamin C does Two routes of maternal transfer of vitamin tions. Our goal was to achieve predictable not meet the requirements for maturation, C in mature channel catfish (Ictalurus punc- fish production of robust quality for healthy, reproduction and needs of early life stages tatus) prior to hormone-induced spawning efficient, higher surviving and able to adapt to of larvae. were explored as a strategy to incorporate common stressors and pathogens. Improvements can be made Table 1: Mass transfer of Vitamin C from broodfish to eggs/embryos in this area by new knowledge- based advances in nutrient deliv- Mass trasfer Species strategy Dose Reference ery systems that may create large improvements in terms of produc- tion, feed conversion and survival Rainbow trout Diet 1000 mg/Kg Sandness et al. (1984) in aquaculture production. Oncorhynchus mykiss Tilapia Diet 1250 mg/Kg Soliman et al. (1986) Importance of vitamin C Oreochromis mossambicus Ascorbic acid is an essential micronutrient in the diet of teleost Atlantic Cod Diet 500 mg/Kg Mangor-Jensen et al. (1994) fish, which do not have gulonol- Gadus morhua actone oxidase activity. Vitamin Rainbow trout Diet 500 mg/Kg Blom and Dabrowski (1995) C is needed for post-translato- Oncorhynchus mykiss ry hydroxylation of proline and Channel catfish Diet 500 mg/Kg Zuberi et al. (2011) lysine moieties in collagen, min- eral metabolism to improve stress Ictalurus punctatus response and immunity, detoxifica- Rainbow trout Immersion 1000 mg/L Falhatkar et al. (2006) tion reactions, steroid synthesis and Oncorhynchus mykiss vitellogenesis. Rainbow trout Immersion and Diet 1000 and 500 mg/Kg Falhatkar el.al. (2011) Egg ascorbic acid deposition Oncorhynchus mykiss levels may easily be tailored by Japanese eel Injecting broodfish 50 mg/Kg Yoshikawa, 1998 feeding broodfish with elevated levels of ascorbic acid before and Anguilla japonica after vitellogenesis. The accumula- Japanese eel Injecting broodfish 1mL* /Kg Furuita et al. 2009 tion of essential nutrients in eggs Anguilla japonica is dependent on the nutrient Channel catfish Injecting broodfish 1 mL*/Kg Chatakondi et al. 2010 reserves in the female fish and Ictalurus punctatus therefore on the dietary intake of broodfish in the period preceeding *Vitamin emulsion was prepared by dissolving Sodium Ascorbate in 0.9% NaCl Solution and during gametogenesis. Hence, broodfish nutrition consisting of In addition, this nutrient is water soluble the vitamin and to determine its effect on essential nutrients is important. and readily gets accumulated by other reproduction and progeny performance. The earliest steps in embryonic develop- organs before reaching the ovary. For The results of this study suggest injecting ment are dependent on and driven by mater- practical reasons, it is not possible to vitamin C prior to hormone-induce spawning, nal factors deposited in the oocyte during attain the desired level of a nutrient by invokes transfer to eggs, improves repro- oogenesis. Maternal factors are stored in the 8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  • 3. FEATUREform of specific mRNAs, proteins, hormones The fry produced from par-and other biomolecules. At egg activation and ents fed with elevated levelsfertilization, these factors become available of vitamin C tend to havefor embryogenesis, sometimes after a process higher growth performanceof activation involving translation or protein as compared with controlmodification. groups. Thus, there is a It has been documented that vitamin C or need in enhance ascorbicascorbic acid deficiency in larval fish has been acid in the broodfish. Aassociated with hyperplasia of collagen and diet with vitamin C contentcartilage, scoliosis, lordosis, internal hemor- adequate for normal growthrhages, resorbed opercules and abnormal may not be sufficient for "Based on 2011 data, approximately 335support cartilage in gills, spine and fins with broodfish when the goal isdeformities of the jaw and snout. to transfer ascorbic acids to million pounds of catfish were processed, Based on recent research, vitamin C needs embryos. a reduction of over 50 percent comparedfor reproduction and early life stages of fishare 10 times the recommended dose for rais- Reproduction and to the best production in 2003ing young adult fish. These high levels cannot arval performancebe met by dietary administration to broodfish Broodfish diet has abecause the nutrient is water soluble and major influence on fecundityreadily absorbed / utilized by other organs and egg quality. It has also been demonstrat- ferred to oocytes through uptake of extra-during oocyte development. ed that the nutritional status of broodfish can ovarian substances from the maternal blood. It has been demonstrated in several species affect offspring quality. The accumulation of Immersion enrichment of eggs is anotherthat nutrients in broodfish diet are transferred essential nutrients in eggs is dependent on 1) approach to introduce compounds and nutri-to oocytes through uptake of extra-ovarian the nutrient reserves in the female fish and 2) ents into eggs. Immersion enrichment fol-substances from the maternal blood. Also, the dietary intake preceding gonadogenesis. lowed by feeding fry with vitamin C enhancedthere was up to a 82.4 percent loss of ascor- Vitamin C is needed for maturation, repro- feed was also found to be an effectivebic acid of the prepared commercial diet. A duction and larval metamorphosis. Beneficial method.3.8 – 8.3-fold increase of vitamin C in the diet effects include increased fertility, fecundity Injecting vitamin C in to broodfish duringgenerally results in 56 to 71.9 percent increase and egg quality. artificial- induced maturation improved repro-of total ascorbic acid in the eggs respectively. Nutrients in broodfish diet are trans- duction and progeny performance. Efforts are Providing proficient tools to achieve cost-effective and sustainable aquaculture practices EDICION LANGUAGE ESPANOLA ECOBIOL Aqua EDITION SPANISH a highly effective single strain probiotic GUSTOR Aqua a natural growth promoter BIOMET Aqua an organic mineral source rl Natuna trition u NOREL,S.A. • Jesús Aprendiz, 19, 1º A y B • 28007 Madrid (SPAIN) Tel. +34 91 501 40 41 • Fax +34 91 501 46 44 • www.norel.es http://www.aquafeed.co.uk/edicion-espanola May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9 AN. REV. 90X132.indd 1 02/08/11 13:13
  • 4. WHO CARES... …If profits in the aquaculture industry are as appetising as a sea bass dinner? As feed prices soar and formulation moves towards sustainability, aquaculture producers must maximise feed efficiency to stay on the menu. In all phases of the fish’s life, proper nutrition will improve health. With decades of dedicated research, the “Alltech Aqua Advantage” programme responds to the challenges of today’s aquaculture producers through nutritional innovation, addressing issues such as growth and performance, feed efficiency, flesh quality and immunity. So, when asked who cares about your profitability? Remember DOES! Silver Sponsor of XV International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding Molde, Norway • 4-7 June 2012alltech.com | facebook.com/AlltechNaturally | @Alltech
  • 5. Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com Volume 15 / Issue 3 / May-June 2012 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reservedBühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.comInnovations for a better world.
  • 6. FEATURE "A decade ago, producing commercial quantities of hybrid catfish was believed to be unattainable. - Presently, a third of catfish farmers raise hybrid catfish in production ponds and hybrid catfish account for approximately 25% of all the total catfish processed in 2011" underway to develop procedures to effec- furcatus male), hybridisation can be used made in this area by new knowledge-based to improve productivity immediately by tively and stably accumulate vitamin C in eggs by advances in live food production or nutri- broodstock injections (Table 1). producing fish that exhibit hybrid vigor. ent delivery systems that may create large Based on numerous laboratory and field improvements in terms of production, survival Vitamin C needs of trials, hybrid catfish are superior in growth and processing yield. channel catfish rate, feed conversion, survival, seinability and Channel catfish is the single largest processing traits compared to commonly Preliminary findings aquaculture fish species cultured in the raised channel catfish. Broodstock preparation is the primary A decade ago, produc- requisite for hormone-induced spawning of ing commercial quanti- channel catfish in the production of channel x ties of hybrid catfish was blue hybrid catfish. Hence, broodfish manage- believed to be unattain- ment techniques must be geared towards able. Natural hybridisation attaining maximum production of high-quality is rare and artificial spawn- eggs and larvae because variable egg quality ing of channel catfish has is one of the limiting factors in fish hatcher- been historically low and ies. Broodstock diet has been considered with no effective ovulating as one of the factors affecting fecundity, egg, agents available. and larval quality in fish. The accumulation However, in the last of essential nutrients in eggs are dependent 10 years, consistent and on the nutrient reserves in the female fish, marked improvements and consequently on the dietary nutrient were made in all the input of broodstock in the period preceding phases of artificial spawn- gonadogenesis. When eggs absorb water, it"It appears that mass transfer of vitamin C ing and the hatchery pro- is possible to introduce compounds such as duction of hybrid catfish vitamins and minerals into the eggs with theto eggs is attained by injecting broodfish embryos. Improved pro- water solution before water hardening. duction and consistent It was hypothesised that injecting femaleprior to hormone-induced spawning superior performance of broodfish prior to hormone-induced spawn-to improve progeny performance" hybrid catfish in commer- ing would result in mass transfer of nutrients cial earthen production to improve maturation, ovulation, and subse- ponds has rejuvenated quent progeny performance. Preliminary stud- United States. Based on 2011 data, the industry with unprecedented optimism. ies confirmed accumulation of vitamin C in approximately 335 million pounds of cat- Presently, a third of catfish farmers raise hybrid ovarian tissue and invoked a positive response fish were processed, a reduction of over catfish in production ponds and hybrid catfish to ovulation, fecundity and egg quality. Mass 50 percent compared to the best produc- account for approximately 25 percent of all transfer of vitamin C to the eggs improved tion in 2003 (2012 USDA NASS). The the total catfish processed in 2011. growth and reduced mortalities following industry is currently struggling to keep Our goal is to achieve predictable fish Edwardseilla ictaluri disease challenge. pace with the increasing cost of feed, fuel, production of robust quality for healthy, It appears that mass transfer of vitamin production inefficiencies, foreign imports fast growing, survival and adapt to common C to eggs is attained by injecting broodfish and economy. Adopting hybrid catfish stressors and pathogens and to varying envi- prior to hormone-induced spawning to (channel catfish female x blue catfish, I. ronmental conditions. Improvements can be improve progeny performance. ■ 10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
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  • 8. This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 3 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos Oxygenation technology – poised to transform aquaculture worldwide • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria Brewers’ yeast as a • Subscribe to International Aquafeed supplement in aquaculture THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.03.indd 1 14/05/2012 18:05To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk