Towards aquafeeds with increased food security


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From both nutritionist and aquaculturist points of view, our aim is to sustainably produce aquatic food with superior sensory properties and high cardioprotective properties. The reason is that although preventable, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the top global cause of death and stroke. The prevention of atherosclerosis is, therefore, a major objective of modern medical and biochemical investigations into the mechanism of atherosclerosis and how the structure of food components determines their role in the mechanism(s) involved. The composition of aquafeeds and their impact on the nutritional value of aquatic food is a focal point of today’s research and development both in academia and industry.

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Towards aquafeeds with increased food security

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y March | April 2013 Towards aquafeeds with increased food security International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. Copyright,  ©,  2013,  Alltech.  All  rights  reserved
  3. 3. FEATURETowards aquafeeds withincreased food securityby Ioannis Zabetakis, assistant professor of food chemistry, University of Athens, GreeceF rom both nutritionist and aqua- postulated mechanism in preventing athero- constituents can practically inhibit the onset culturist points of view, our aim sclerosis could be through lowering the lev- of atherosclerosis and the development of is to sustainably produce aquatic els of triacylglycerol, preventing arrhythmias, CVDs (Zabetakis et al., 2013). Such lipids have food with superior sensory proper- decreasing platelet aggregation or lowering been found in a wide range of food such as ties and high cardioprotective properties. blood pressure (Saravanan et al., 2010). red and white wine, yoghurt, fish, olive oil and The reason is that although preventable, On the other hand, the association of olive pomace. Further in vivo (using rabbits) cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the omega-3 PUFAs and CVDs has been revised studies of olive oil, olive pomace and aqua-top global cause of death and stroke. The recently by evaluating all randomized trials on cultured fish (Nasopoulou et al., 2010) have prevention of atherosclerosis is, therefore, a the supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs to re-confirmed that it is the polar lipid fraction major objective of modern medical and bio- adults (Rizos et al., 2012). In this review, the of these food sources that can reduce the chemical investigations into the mechanism results of 20 studies on 68,680 patients were thickness of atherosclerotic lesions in hyperc-of atherosclerosis and how the structure evaluated and omega-3 PUFAs were not holesterolaemic rabbits (Figure 2).of food components determines their role found to be statistically significantly associated In a further mechanistic study, our group in the mechanism(s) involved. The composi- with CVDs in various patient populations. In has recently demonstrated that the polar tion of aquafeeds and their impact on the the light of this study, we may need to re- lipids of sea bream have down-regulated PAF nutritional value of aquatic food is a focal focus our research quests towards feed and biosynthesis and up-regulated PAF catabolism; point of today’s research and development food components with proved cardioprotec- practically the polar lipids of fish can inhibit both in academia and industry. tive activities. atherosclerosis related enzymatic activities (Nasopoulou et al., 2011b). Figure 1: Rate of mortality due Heavy dependency on fish oils to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) The steadily increasing population on per quartile of serum cholesterol Earth makes the sustainable production of in pooled cohorts of the Seven food one of the major nutritional problems Countries Study (adopted from de for mankind to address. In terms of food Lorgeril M et al. Cardiovasc Res 2002;54:503-515) security in aquaculture, we need to face successfully a ‘paradox’ on the sustainable production of fish feed: today, high amounts of fish oil (FO) are required to produce fish feed. Currently, 40 percent and 60 percent of the global production of fishmeal and fish oil, respectively, are used in aquaculture. Salmonid diets alone consumed over 55 Since the study of the seven countries Polar lipids of fish percent of the fish oil used by the aquacul-(Keys et al., 1984), some unanswered ques- Lipid microconstituents of specific food ture sector in 2006. About 50 percent of tions still remain as to why cohorts in Greece that constitute important ingredients of the world marine fish stocks have recently been and Italy had coronary heart disease (CHD) Mediterranean Diet have been found that estimated as fully exploited, 32 percent as at low frequencies but high levels of serum they have in vitro (in the test tube) important overexploited and only 15 percent as under-cholesterol (Figure 1). cardioprotective properties (by inhibiting the exploited. These exploitation data suggest There is compelling literature on the ben- actions of the so called Platelet Activating that the diminishing levels of available wild eficial role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty Factor, PAF). PAF is the most potent inflam- fish worldwide combined with the fact that acids (omega-3 PUFAs) and there is a core matory lipid mediator, a well-recognized ago- aquacultured carnivorous species require large belief that fish is good for our heart because nist of platelet aggregation that plays a crucial amounts of wild fish in their feed create an of these PUFAs. Mechanistically, though, it is role in atherosclerosis, i.e. the development emerging necessity to improve our resource not clear how omega-3 PUFAs work. Their of cardiovascular diseases. These lipid micro- management practices. 22 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
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  5. 5. FEATURE FEATURE Need for novel a partial dietary substitute for fish oil within ies have been recently reviewed (Nasopoulou sources compound feeds. The same is true of linseed and Zabetakis, 2012). In order to reduce oil and rapeseed oil, although to a lesser New, alternative and in a way ‘non- dependence on fish oil, sig- extent. orthodox’, sources of lipids need to be nificant breakthroughs have Furthermore, the use of palm oil in diets of identified and valorised in order to achieve occurred over the past few Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout has given sustainable production of fish feeds and thus years in replacing it with plant oils. By substituting feeds with B) plant oils, it also serves to reduce costs due to the fact that vegeta- ble oils have steadily increasing produc- tion, high availability and better economic value. Several studies have been carried out to investigate certain vegetable oils as pos- sible sustainable partial substitutes for fish oils in compounded fish feeds. The most common vegetable oils used for fish feed pro- duction have been soybean, linseed, rapeseed, Figure 2: Representative optic micrographs x 100 of aortic wall sections stained with sunflower, palm oil and olive oil. haematoxylin and eosin from the two experimental groups, where atherosclerotic Soybean and rapeseed oil are considered lesions appear as foam cells (↑). (A) Group A (atherogenic diet); (B) Group B possible alternative lipid sources for salmo- (atherogenic diet enriched with sea bream polar lipids) (adopted from Nasopoulou et nids, freshwater and marine fish since they al., 2010). Copyright, “Food Chemistry” Elsevier are rich in PUFAs, especially linoleic (18:2 et and can ω−6) and oleic acid (18:1 ω−9), but devoid growth and feed utilization efficiency compa- enabling the further development of aquacul- purchase nets and does not always carry the greatest force. We of is by no means have some examples rable to fish fed with equivalent levels of fish ture applications. Such promising lipid sources s separately. It n-3 PUFA. However, in found cases, fish where a low-crested at the net chosen will suit the 60 wave exerts much greater force on a facility also be used as a partial are vegetable oils (VO). The use of VO based oil substitution by percent rapeseed oil oil. Olive oil could ng collar when assembled. We decrease steep wave. Twice the force is dietary fish oil in European aquafeeds has some strong advantages. Olive has been found to than a European sea substitute for not a more integrated approach to labrax) growth. Soybean sea bass culture, during growth out phase, pomace (OP) and olive pomace oil (OPO) bass (Dicentrarchus unusual, and this should obviously be incorpo- fish-farming systems to ensure better plant lipid source Atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow are natural by-products of olive oil produc- oil appears to be a rated into the specifications for the design and nts are compatible,” explains Dr dimensions of aurata) trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with data showing tion, which contain micro constituents with regarding gilthead sea bream (Sparus a production facility,” Jensen growth while considerable savings in feed similar growth rates to the ones when fish was atheroprotective (substances) activity such as believes the introduction of facil- concludes. costs could be achieved if it could be used as fed on 100 percent fish oil diet. All these stud- PAF-inhibitors and phenolic/polyphenolic mol-n is a step in the right direction. More information: www.forskningsradet.nos ary 2013/14 sh-cili-way er- ing Print.y is ble 4th BioMarine Business Convention Halifax World Trade and Convention Centre Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada ect ed of Digital. Are you a decision-maker looking for business opportunities in one of the many biomarine industries? Are you a biomarine Mobile. to company looking for a research partner or financing? of Join us at BioMarine 2013 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada on hat September 9-12, 2013. Meet CEOs, R&D partners and discuss the rm latest advances in: for  Aquaculture and Aquafeed ca-  Marine BioTechs for Health & Environmentong  Algae and Seaweeds Marine Ingredients & Nutraceuticals gs. The comprehensive information   Bioprocessingeen out source for the biomarine industry  Biorefinery & Biofuels m- For more information about the program and to register:ave Visit www.biomarine.orgave or contact us at Biomarine2013@nrc-cnrc.gc.caon-The The fourth edition of the BioMarine International Business Convention is co-organized with the National Research Council of Canada.ave http://www.biomarine-resources.com3 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 27 March-April 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 23
  6. 6. FEATURE Negative environmental impact of olive pomaceecules with antioxidant and other pleiotropic approaches need to be carefully considered. CA, Zabetakis I. 2010. In vivo anti-atherogenic properties of cultured gilthead sea bream actions. Extensive research has been carried Scientifically, we need to assess any related (Sparus aurata) polar lipid extracts in by our team on olive oil by-products and environmental impact when GM plants are hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Food Chem fish with regard to their capacity to prevent cultivated and commercially, we need to 120:831-6.atherogenesis. address the public concerns and need of the Recently, the possibility of partially replac- consumers (at least in EU) for ‘GMO free’ Nasopoulou C, Stamatakis G, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2011a. Effects of olive pomace and ing fish oil in gilthead sea bream and sea bass food. olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid grow-out diet by lipids obtained from OP and composition and cardio protective properties of olive pomace oil (OPO) has been reported. Food for thought / future actions gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass In actual fact, the feeding of OP to fish results In today’s rapidly changing world, we (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chem an improvement in its ability to prevent are asked to face conflicting problems and atherosclerosis and therefore cardiovascular issues such as the overproduction and Nasopoulou C, Tsoupras AB, Karantonis HC, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2011b. Fish polar diseases (Nasopoulou et al., 2011a). waste of food, obesity, CVDs and diabetes lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down- in the developed countries, famine and regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF GM plants malnutrition in the developing countries, catabolism. Lipids Health Dis 10:213. There have been numerous studies on climate change, scarcity of water, rational genetically modifying the plant oil profile so use of cultivated land and sustainable use of Nasopoulou C, Zabetakis I. 2012. Benefits of the plants increase the biosynthesis of either resources and energy. In this complex and fish oil replacement by plant originated oils in compounded fish feeds. A review. LWT Food Sci. the precursors of omega-3 and omega-6 swiftly changing environment, the issue of Technol. 47:217-224. fatty acids or these fatty acids themselves. food security and on how we can secure These modifications have focused on C 18 nutrition for the entire human population Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E. Kostapanos MS, Elisaf Δ6-desaturated fatty acids (such as γ-linolenic becomes a top priority for all of us in MS. 2012. Association between omega-3 fatty acid and stearidonic acid), omega-6- long-chain the feed and food arena. The sustainable supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and meta-PUFAs (such as arachidonic acid) and omega- production of food is a complex challenge. analysis. JAMA 308:1024-33.3-long-chain PUFAS (often referred to as Some insights in approaching this challenge ‘fish oils’) (such as EPA and DHA) and they have been highlighted with this article. ■ Saravanan P, Davidson NC, Schmidt EB, Calder PC. have been recently revised (Haslam et al., 2010. Cardiovascular effects of marine omega-3 2012). The research approach is based on References fatty acids. Lancet 376(9740): 540-50.the assumption that omega-3 and omega-6 Haslam RP Ruiz-Lopez N, Eastmond P Moloney M, , , Zabetakis I, Antonopoulou S, Demopoulos CA. PUFAs have considerable nutritional value Sayanova O, Napier JA. 2012. The modification of plant 2013. The Prevention of Atherosclerosis by Food and thus efforts have focused in enhancing oil composition via metabolic engineering - better Components: Polar Lipids versus Omega-3 PUFAs. the bioformation of these molecules in the nutrition by design. Plant Biotech Journal 2012:1-12. Commentary on published on ‘designer’ oils (after genetic modification). 22.1.2013 ( Keys A, Menotti A, Aravanis C, et al. 1984. The However, under the light of recent evi- comm1119.asp). Seven Countries Study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. dence that omega PUFAs have less nutri- Prev Med 13(2): 141-54.tional value that previously considered (Rizos More InforMatIon: Nasopoulou C, Karantonis HC, Perrea DN, et al., 2012), these genetically engineering Email: Theocharis SE, Iliopoulos DG, Demopoulos 24 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
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  8. 8. This digital re-print is part of the March | April 2013 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y • See the full issue Transforming aquaculture production using • Visit the International Aquafeed website oxygenation systems • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Nutritional benefits of processed animal proteins – in European aquafeeds Bioenergetics – application in aquaculture nutrition Towards aquafeeds with increased food security • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 2 2 0 1 3 - mARCH | APRIlTo purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE