The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture


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In commercial and high stocking density culture practices, feeding plays a significant role in fast growth and high yields. Aqua feed contains many ingredients in highly balanced nutritious components for enhancing the digestive mechanisms in fish and shrimp bodies. It leads to better body weights and health, optimum immunity and greater survival rates. Spirulina is a unique high quality natural diet with enriched optimum protein for fish and shrimp which is proven to be a suitable supplementary feed in aquaculture.

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The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y March | April 2013 The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
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  3. 3. FEATUREThe multifunctional dietaryproperties of spirulina andits use in aquacultureby Dr S V Pamulapati, chairman and managing director and Prakash Chandra Behera, technicalmanager (aqua), PVS Group, IndiaI n commercial and high stocking density acids, tocopherols, carotenes and linolenic source of organic phosphorus and inositol. A culture practices, feeding plays a signifi- acids for which represents an important staple high moleculatory weight polysaccharide are cant role in fast growth and high yields. in diets. The essential amino acids are present believed to have effect on DNA repair mecha- Aqua feed contains many ingredients around 47 percent of total protein weight. The nisms, immune-stimulatory and immunoregula-in highly balanced nutritious components spectrum of amino acid represent that the bio- tory properties.for enhancing the digestive mechanisms in logical value of proteins in spirulina is very high. Nucleic acids: Spirulina contains 2.2-3.5 fish and shrimp bodies. It leads to better Amino acid and biological function of fish percent of RNA and 0.6-1 percent and DNA, body weights and health, optimum immunity and shrimp which represents less than 5 percent of these and greater survival rates. Spirulina is a • Isoleucine: Required for optimal growth, acids based on dry weight.unique high quality natural diet with enriched nitrogen equilibrium in the body. Used Essential fatty acids: Spirulina has a high optimum protein for fish and shrimp which is to synthesize other non-essential amino amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proven to be a suitable supplementary feed acids. and 1.5–2.0 percent of total lipid. Spirulina in aquaculture. • Leucine: Increases muscular energy levels. is rich in γ-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid • Lysine: Building block of blood antibod- (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic Spirulina is a blue green algae like a spiral ies strengthens circulatory system and acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and of long thin threads under genus Arthrospira, maintains normal growth of cells. arachidonic acid (AA).the phylum Oscillatoriaceae. Spirulina is called • Methionine: Vital lipotropic (fat and lipid β-carotene and vitamins: Spirulina con-blue green algae (cynobacteria) because of metabolizing) amino acid that maintains tains vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), presence of both green (chlorophyll) and blue liver health. An anti-stress factor. B3 (nicotinamide), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic (phycocyanin) pigments in its cellular structure. • Phenylalanine: Stimulates metabolic rate. acid), B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin C, vitamin The two species which are most important for • Threonine: Improves intestinal compe- D and vitamin E. The β-carotene, B-group their nutritious values are Spirulina maxima and tence and digestive assimilation. vitamin, vitamin E, iron, potassium and chlo-Spirulina plantensis. • Tryptophane: Increases utilization of B rophyll available in the spirulina can promote the metabolism of carbohydrate, Nutritional food value Table 1: fats, protein, alcohol, and the The use of spirulina as com- Physical properties General analysis reproduction of skin, muscle and plementary feed in various sec- mucosa. Spirulina contains large tors of aquaculture can result Composition 100% Protein 60-70% amounts of natural β-carotene in fast growth factors, enhanced and this β-carotene is converted appearance Fine powder Carbohydrate 15-25%pigmentation and better immune into vitamin It is considered as an Colour Dark blue green Fats (lipids) 06-08% Minerals: Spirulina is a rich excellent food, lacking toxicity odour & taste Mild like weed Minerals (ash) 07-13% source of potassium, and also and having corrective properties Digestibility 83-84% Moisture 03-17% contains calcium, chromium, against the pathogenic micro- Particle size 64 mesh through Fibre 08-10% copper, iron, magnesium, man-organisms. It lacks cellulose cell ganese, phosphorus, selenium, walls and therefore does not requires chemicals vitamins, improves nerve health. sodium, zinc, molybdenum, chloride, germa-or processing in order to become digestible. • Valine: Stimulates muscle coordination. nium and boron. The digestibility is 83 – 84 percent. Spirulina is Carbohydrates: Spirulina contains about Photosynthetic pigments: Spirulina contains regarded as a rich source of protein, vitamins, 15-21 percent carbohydrates in the form of many pigments including chlorophyll a, xantho-essential mineral, amino acids, EFFA like gamma glucose, fructose, sucrose, rhamnose, mannose, phyll, betacarotene, echinenone, myxoxantho-LNA and antioxidant pigments like carotenoids. xylose and galactose. It provides the appro- phyll, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, diatoxanthin, priate and important foodstuffs for aquatic 3-hydroxyechinenone, beta-cryptoxanthin, Biochemical composition culture animals with poor intestinal absorption. oscillaxanthin, plus the phycobiliproteins, c-phy- Protein and amino acids: Spirulina contains Carbohydrates occur in sufficient quantities of coc yanin and allophycocyanin. 60-70 percent protein along with phenolic mesoinositol phosphate which is an excellent Natural pigment enhancers: Phycocyanin 34 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
  4. 4. FEATURE survival rate. from mast cells with mediated allergic reactions. Table 2: Fast growth It shows antioxidative and free radical scaveng- amino acid Per 10 gm % of total amino acid Per 10 gm % of total occurs when ing properties. Spirulina exposure enhances the fed a diet phagocytic functions of macrophages in aquatic Isoleucine 350mg 5.6 Cystine 60mg 1.0 containing culture animals. leucine 540mg 8.7 arginine 430mg 6.9 spirulina meal It also has antiviral and anti-carcinogenic (Britz, 1996). properties. It improves the bacterial gut tract lycine 290mg 4.7 Histidine 100mg 1.6 Chelating clearance potential of fish/shrimp and spirulina Phenylalanine 280mg 4.6 threonine 320mg 5.2 of toxic min- supplements develops the phagocytic cell. tyrosine 300mg 4.8 Proline 270mg 4.3 erals (neutrali- Spirulina is a safe diet to use in terms of Methionine 140mg 2.3 Valine 400mg 6.5 sation of toxic improved immune competence without com- Glutamic acid 910mg 14.6 alanine 470mg 7.6 minerals) promising the performing behaviors of aquatic Spirulina culture animals. A novel sulphate polysac- aspartic acid 610mg 9.8 Glycine 320mg 5.2 has a unique charide of spirulina inhibits the replication of tryptophan 90mg 1.5 Serine 320mg 5.2 quality to several enveloped viruses. detoxify (neu- The nutrients of spirulina help to fight free (blue): 14 percent, chlorophyll (green): 1 per- tralise) or to chelate toxic minerals, and this radicals, cell-damaging molecules absorbed by cent, carotenoids (orange/red): 47 percent. characteristic is not yet noticed in any other the body through pollution, poor diet, injury, microalgae (Maeda and Sakaguchi, 1990; or stress. By removing free radicals, the nutri-Nutritional supplementary Okamura and Aoyama, 1994). Spirulina can be ents help the immune system fight cancer and properties used to detoxify arsenic from water and food. cellular degeneration. Spirulina is a powerful Spirulina can be used as a partial supple- It also may be used to chelatize or detoxify or tonic for the immune system. This enzyme is ment or complete replacement for protein neutralize the poisonous effect of heavy metals a major source of super oxide in an animal’s in aqua feeds. Spirulina is a feed supplement (minerals) from water, food and environment. body, and is involved in dozens of degenerative for the all fishes, giant freshwater prawns and Spirulina provides phycocyanin, a source of processes involved in disease resistance, aging marine water shrimps and significantly improve- biliverdin, which is among the most potent of and similar processes in fish, shrimp and other ment occurs on growth, survival, immunity, all intra-cellular antioxidants. aquatic animals. viability and feed utilization. It is a cheaper feed ingredient with higher protein levels than other Immunomodulatory properties Spirulina in building redingredinets of animal origin. Spirulina is an effective immune modula- blood cells and stem cells Feeding on spirulina helps to improve dis- tor. It exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, in Spirulina is rich in a brilliant blue polypep-ease resistance and an improvement in their particular by inhibiting the release of histamine tide called Phycocyanin. Phycocyanin nutriad HEALTH program The 100% natural way to reduce the impact of diseases and parasites! Bad bugs control! We have developed an innovative range of natural feed additives to effectively reduce ® APEX AQUA H e a l t h & We l l -‐ b e i n g Bio-‐active herbal extracts ® Natural growth promotors based on SANACORE GM H e a l t h & We l l -‐ b e i n g ® AQUASTIM H e a l t h & We l l -‐ b e i n g March-April 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 35
  5. 5. FEATURE References: Banerjee, M. & Deb, M. 1996. Potential of fly ash and Spirulina combination as a slow release fertilizer for rice field. Cientifica Jaboticabal, 24: 55–62. Borowitzka, M.A. 1988. Vitamins and fine chemicals from micro-algae. In M.A. Borowitzka & L Borowitzka, eds. Micro-algal Biotechnology, pp. 153–196. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. of Malaya. Britz, P.J. 1996. The suitability of selected protein sources for inclusion in formulated diets for the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. Aquaculture, 140: 63–73. Gautham kolluri & R Asha Rajani,Feeding of spirilina- A Boost to the Poultry Production, Poultry affects the stem cells that make up the Enhancing reproduction magazine, Oct-12 Page no 31-33cellular immune system and red blood Research has shown that fresh and saltwa-cells that oxygenate the body. Phycocyanin ter fish and shrimp exhibit superior growth, Lu, J. & Takeuchi, T. 2004. Spawning and egg quality stimulating hematopoiesis, (the creation maturity, energetic behavior, and more elegant of the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fed solely on of blood), emulating the affect of the hor- coloring when fed spirulina. It is also well raw Spirulina platensis throughout three generations. mone erythropoetin, (EPO). Phycocyanin documented that spirulina improves spawning, Aquaculture, 234: 625–640.also regulates production of white blood fecundity, fertility and hatching rates. It stimu- Maeda, S. & Sakaguchi, T. 1990. Accumulation and cells, even when bone marrow stem cells lates the reproductive processes, increases detoxification of toxic metal elements by algae. are damaged by toxic chemicals or radia- survival rates of younger fish, post larvae and Introduction to Appl. Phycol., 109–136.tion. promotes the appetite of fish or prawn to Nakagawa, H., Gomez-Diaz, G. 1975. Usefulness attain full maturity. of Spirulina sp. meal as feed additive for giant Spirulina anti-viral and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. anti-cancer abilities Spirulina as a colourant Suisanzoshuku, 43: 521–526 Calcium-Spirulan is a unique polymer- The colour appearance is the most impor-ized sugar molecule extract of spirulina and tant characteristic in shrimp and fish for Okamura, H. & Aoyama, I. 1994. Interactive toxic effect and distribution of heavy metals in containing both sulphur and calcium. The choice and demand in the food market. A phytoplankton. Toxicol. & Water Quality, 9: 7–15.treatment of this water-soluble extract has diet containing spirulina promotes the physi-better recovery rates when infected with a ological activities for generating colour pig- Paoletti, C., Pushparaj, B. & Tomaselli, L.F. 1975. lethal Herpes virus. This mechanism occurs mentations and glazing appearance in various Ricerche sulla nutrizione minerale di Spirulina because Calcium-Spirulan does not allow the parts of body. Carotenoids are responsible platensis. Atti XVII Congr. Naz Microbiol., 2: 833–839.virus to penetrate the cell membrane to infect for the development of various colours of Ruan, J.S., Long, C.S. & Guo, B.J. 1988. Spirulina the cell. The virus is stuck, unable to replicate. crustaceans (Britton et al., 1981). Astaxanthin prevented damage induced by radiation. J. Genetics, It is eventually eliminated by the bodys natu- has been shown to be the predominant caro- 10: 27–30. (In Chinese).ral defenses. Spirulina can prevent or inhibit tenoid associated with the red body colour Shabir Ahmad, M.ashraf Khan, Najar A.M & Mansoor cancers in aquatic animals, and fishes. The of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon Ahmed Spirulina-Nutritional research,Aqua unique polysaccharides of spirulina enhance (Howell and Matthews, 1991). Spirulina plat- International ,Feb-10,page 22-27cell nucleus enzyme activity and DNA repair ensis and pacifica stain contains the highest Stott, A.E., Takeuchi, T. & Koike, Y. 2004. Performance synthesis. levels of β-carotene and zeaxanthin of any of a new artificial abalone hatchery culture system natural source. They both are converted to in terms of settlement of larvae and growth and Antimicrobial properties astaxanthin through an oxidative process for survival of post-larvae Haliotis discuss (Reeve). Fish. Spirulina excretes variable quantities of the desire red pigment. A marked increase in Sci., 70: 1070–1081.products from its metabolism such as organic carotenoid content of the carapace of black Tompkins, J., DeVille, M.M., Day, J.G. & Turner, M.F. acid, vitamins and phytohormones. Cell extract tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) occurred 1995. Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa. of spirulina has shown antimicrobial activities when spirulina-supplemented diets are given. Catalogue of Strains. Natural Environment Research against pathogenic bacteria as like Bacillus sps, A practical strategy for the improved pig- Council. Kendal, UK, Titu Wilson and Sons Ltd.Streptococcus sps, Saccharomyces sps etc. mentation of cultured P. monodon is the incorporation of spirulina diet for one month Venkataraman, L.V., Somasekaran, T. & Becker, E.W. Bio-mineralisation activities before harvest. 1994. Replacement value of blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) for fishmeal and a vitamin-mineral premix Spirulina thrives in high alkaline waters for broiler chicks. British Poultry Sci.,3: 373–381. and it incorporates and synthesizes many Conclusionsminerals and derivative compounds into Spirulina appears to have considerable Vonshak, A. & Richmond, A. 1988. Mass production its cell structure. Transformed into natural potential for development, especially as a small- of the blue-green alga Spirulina: an overview. organic forms by spirulina, minerals become scale crop for nutritional enhancement, livelihood Biomass, 15: 233–247. chelated with amino acids and they are development and environmental mitigation. As more easily assimilated by the body. Along natural feed, spirulina can play an important role This article was originally published on with adequate calcium and magnesium in in aquaculture, especially in aquatic farming and the water (especially for marine organisms), hatcheries where the results are quite significant. Spirulina helps insure proper electrolyte If spirulina feeds further improve, its effects will function, calcium levels over calcium and be more obvious and the prospects of spirulina other mineral. will be very bright. ■ 36 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
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