Production of farmed turbot and Senegalese sole in Portugal


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At present, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus / Psetta maxima) is one of the marine fish species experiencing the highest levels of aquaculture production growth in Europe. Turbot is produced in Europe in the Channel Islands, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal, with a total production estimated at 75,598 tonnes in 2011 (FAO, 2013). Turbot production in Portugal began during the 1990s and has increased steadily ever since.

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Production of farmed turbot and Senegalese sole in Portugal

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y January | February 2014 Production of farmed turbot and Senegalese sole in Portugal International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. Olmix group innovates and proposes new ranges of products dedicated to AQUACULTURE efits of Algae Ben une system tion of the imm • Stimula rvival rate • Increased su rformance ved growth pe • Impro • Weight gain ion Ratio r Feed Convers • Bette
  3. 3. FEATURE Production of farmed turbot and Senegalese sole in Portugal by António Gouveia, associate professor, Department of Biology, University of Porto and CIIMAR – Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Portugal Figure 4 A t present, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus / Psetta maxima) is one of the marine fish species experiencing the highest levels of aquaculture production growth in Europe. Turbot is produced in Europe in the Channel Islands, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal, with a total production estimated at 75,598 tonnes in 2011 (FAO, 2013). Turbot production in Portugal began during the 1990s and has increased steadily ever since. Located at the tip of the Iberian Peninsula and bordered by the North Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, Portugal is the most western country in Europe. The Algarve region on the southeast coast also exhibits a strong influence from the Mediterranean Ocean. Portugal has a milder climate compared to the same latitudes of the American Atlantic coast, owing to the ameliorating effect of the Gulf Stream current. On the north coast of Spain the current bends towards the south, giving rise to the Portuguese Current, ‘a broad, slow, generally southward-flowing current that extends from about 10 degrees west to about 24 degrees west’ longitude (Bischof et al., 2003). Although Portugal is a small country with only 88,700km2 area, its mainland stretches along 780 km of the Atlantic coastline (JNICT, 1990). In spite of its small area it has two major climate systems. The north side of Portugal is a colder, mountainous region comprising most of the country’s rivers and reservoirs more suitable for the production of cold water species such as rainbow trout and flatfish (turbot and Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis). The centre and especially the south of the country (the Alentejo and Algarve regions) contain a drier, warmer plain, more suitable for production of warmer water species due to the influence of the Mediterranean Ocean. These include European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax), Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), Meagre (Argyrosomus regius), Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) and White sea bream (Diplodus sagrus). Nowadays, the Algarve is the most important Portuguese marine aquaculture region, comprising 45 percent of national production (INE, 2011). Besides the Portuguese mainland, Portugal also includes the Azores archipelago (2,344 km2) and the island of Madeira (796 km2), both located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 km and 660 km from the West African coast, respectively (JNICT, 1990). Madeira has a significant on-growing marine fish production industry, mainly farming Gilthead sea bream. 24 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2014 Figure 1 Aquaculture expansion Until 2009, turbot was produced in three medium-sized intensive aquaculture units located in the north and centre of Portugal (see Figure 1) due to the region’s cold water temperature throughout the year. In 2009 this changed for the better, as a Spanish fishing company Pescanova began operations in Mira in northern Portugal, with a 150 million Euro investment in a state-of-the-art turbot farm, the world’s biggest. The facility produced 4,000 tonnes in 2012, but when full production capacity is reached this turbot
  4. 4. FEATURE Figure 2 farm is bound to produce 7,000 tonnes utilising an area of 57 hectares (see Figure 2). Nevertheless, recent production problems that have arisen have unfortunately compromised this turbot farm to attain full capacity production already this year. The Acuinova layout is a double row of eight production units. Each production unit has one juvenile pavilion and eight growth pavilions. In the overhead shot of Figure 2, the juvenile pavilions are coloured darker than the growth pavilions. Each juvenile pavilion (see Figure 3) has 30 40 m2 tanks for 10-100 g turbot, making a total of 480 juvenile tanks, and each growth pavilion in turn has 20 113 m2 growth tanks for fish from 100 gr. to commercial size in a total of 1,248 growth tanks (see Figure 4). At full capacity it will create more than 200 direct and 600 indirect jobs. Ten-gram juvenile turbot are brought weekly from one of the Spanish company’s turbot hatcheries to Acuinova Mira. Fish are automatically and manually fed, up to twelve times daily with juveniles and up to four times daily in the grow-out phase, until they reach the commercial size of 1-1.5 kg which may last between 600 and 750 days. Acuinova has two pumping stations, the water intake is located 2.4 km offshore, each one equipped with nine 250 kW pumps providing a 10.8 m3 per second water flow, enough to provide a daily water supply for a city the size of Madrid. Another Portuguese turbot farm, Piscicultura do Rio Alto, located in Estela in northern Portugal (see Figure 5), produced turbot from 1993 to 2011, when it was decided to abandon turbot production and farm Senegalese sole instead. At present, this aquaculture unit is undergoing major modifications after being bought this year by a Spanish company (Sea8 Porto) to be converted into a hatchery for Senegalese sole, which will be grown in another unit in Portugal recently acquired for the purpose. Beginning production in 1997, the Aquacria Piscícolas facility was the third flatfish unit constructed in Portugal. This hightech flatfish farm is located in Torreira in the north of Portugal, and is the only aquaculture facility in the country operating with shallow raceway system technology in conjunction with a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) for the growth out phase of Senegalese sole production, allowing the fish farm to substantially reduce its environmental impact (see Figures 6, 7). In 2011, during the management of its previous owners, the flatfish farm began its expansion policy, which was already concluded. Therefore, production of Senegalese sole will be substantially increased, with an output of 350-400 tonnes estimated for ADDITIVES FOR AQUACULTURE SOLUTIONS NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals C/ San Romualdo 12-14 • 28037 Madrid (Spain) +34 902 15 77 11 • +34 91 725 08 00 • Figure 3 January-February 2014 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 25
  5. 5. FEATURE Figure 5 the following year. The recirculation unit has 60 shallow raceways displayed in six double rows of five store shallow raceways. Nowadays, there is still a second turbot farm in Portugal, the Stolt Sea Farm operated by Piscicultura SA. Located in Praia da Tocha, central Portugal and belonging to the Norwegian shipping and seafood company Stolt-Nielsen, it began production in 1992 and exports all its turbot output within Europe. The farm has in total 113 circular tanks: six measuring 15 m2, 36 at 20 m2, 10 at 23 m2, 21 at 78 m2 and 40 circular tanks measuring at 144 m2. Ten Figure 7 26 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2014 Figure 6 gramme juvenile turbot imported from Spain reaches its commercial size of 1.5 kg in around two years. Turbot production in Portugal has been steadily increasing year-on-year since 1994 (FAO, 2013), and in 2012 4,351 tonnes were produced (turbot farmer’s personal communication). Portuguese turbot production is expected to rise even further this year when Acuinova will reach its full production capacity of 7,000 tonnes per year. In recent years another flatfish species, Senegalese sole, has become popular among Portugal’s aquaculture producers. Along with White sea bream and Meagre, it is one of the most recent marine fish species to be introduced into the Portuguese fish farming sector. Besides Portugal, Senegalese sole is mainly produced in France and Spain with a production of around 235 tonnes declared in 2011 (FAO, 2013). This flatfish species began to be produced in Portugal in 1997 by Aquaria Piscícolas, followed by Piscicultura do Rio Alto in 2002 with great success, especially for the former. As previously said, with both flatfish farms having recently changed ownership, the latter is currently engaged in major adaptations to be converted into a Senegalese sole hatchery, and the former is expanding its production capacity for this species. For these reasons, Senegalese sole production is expected to increase to around 350400 tonnes next year. Although some biological and technological constraints must obviously be overcome, especially with Senegalese sole, high-quality turbot and Senegalese sole production are expected to significantly increase in Portugal in the near future with a small number of recently-renovated, hightechnology aquaculture units.
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  7. 7. LINKS This digital re-print is part of the January | February 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y Successful moisture control in aquatic feeds Current challenges and opportunities in amino acid nutrition of salmonids • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Whisky by-products: – a sustainable protein source for aquaculture Closing the food waste loop: – a new angle for insect-based feeds Vo l u m e 1 7 I s s u e 1 2 0 1 4 - JA N uA RY | F e B R uA RY To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE